Laboratory Manual Organismal Biology




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Title: ___________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________


Author’s Name: ___________________________________________________
Biology Department, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032

INTRODUCTION


This section is to be prepared and submitted with the remainder of the lab handout at the next lab meeting.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Specimens were organized by the classification scheme presented above, and they were observed for similarities and differences. Scientific name(s) for groups as well as common names were recorded and learned. In addition, terminology unique to specific groups was noted and defined. Characteristics commented on included the following: branching pattern, use of spores or seeds for reproduction, presence of fruits, veination pattern, number of floral parts, and number of cotyledons. Some groups of organisms were only available as slides, so these organisms were examined under the microscope. Sketches were made of representatives of each group examined.
RESULTS
The Division ________________________ contains organisms commonly known as horsetails. This group consists of a single extant genus, Equisetum. ____________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 1A).

Specialized terminology for this group: silica and “scouring rushes.”
The Division Lycophyta contains plants known as club mosses. ___________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 1B).


Whisk ferns are in the Division ____________________. ________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 1C).

Specialized terminology for this group: dichotomous branching.
The Division _________________________ contains the true ferns. ________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Specialized terminology for this group: fronds, rhizomes, vegetative leaves, reproductive leaves, sporangia, and sori.
The Divisions Equisetophyta, Lycophyta, Psilotophyta, and Polypodiophyta share certain characteristics. ____________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The term Gymnosperm is applied to the following groups of plants: conifers, cycads, and ginkgos. This term refers to features that these plants share, such as: ______________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Specialized terminology for this group: monoecious and dioecious.

The Division Pinophyta contains the ___________________. _____________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 2).

Specialized terminology for this group: cuticle, needles, and evergreen.

Cycads are classified within the Division _______________________. ______________

______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 3).
The Division Ginkgophyta contains the ginkgos. There is only one living genus within this division, the Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo biloba). ____________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 4).

The “vessel-seeded” plants or _____________________________ include two major groups known as the monocots and dicots. All of these plants share certain characteristics. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The Division Magnoliophyta contains all of the flowering plants. Within this Division, the dicots are classified within the Class _________________________, and the Class Liliopsida contains the monocots. These two groups of plants differ in a number of ways, which include: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Specialized termilogy for the Division Magnoliophyta: pistil (composed of stigma, style, and ovary), stamen (composed of anther and filament, sepals, calyx, petals, corolla, receptacle, complete flower, incomplete flower, cotyledons, and secondary growth.

Many families are found within the Class Magnoliopsida. The following is a list of families and their important characteristics. Sketches of representatives of each family are also included.
The Family Juglandaceae contains the walnuts, hickories, and pecans. ____________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 5).

Specialized terminology for this group: compound leaves.
Beeches and oaks are within the Family Fagaceae. _____________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 6).

Specialized terminology for this group: simple and alternate leaves, and acorn.

The Family Ulmaceae is made up of the elms and hackberries. __________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 7).

Specialized terminology for this group: leaves with tooth or double-toothed margins, and samara (winged achenes).


Magnolias are contained within the Family Magnoliaceae. _______________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 8).

The Family Fabaceae is made up of the peas and beans, which are also known as legumes. _____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 9).

Specialized terminology for this group: pods (legumes).

The Family Aceraceae contains the maples. ___________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 10).

Specialized terminology for this group: palmately lobed leaves, palmate veination, and samara.


Cacti are found within the Family Cactaceae. _________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 11).


The last dicot family I examined was the Family Asteraceae, commonly known as the composites or sunflowers. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 12).

Specialized terminology for this group: inflorescence (head).

The other class found within the Division Magnoliophyta is the Class Liliopsida, or the monocots. The characteristics that define this group of plants include: ____________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The Family Palmaceae contains the monocots commonly known as palms. __________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 13).


Agaves and yuccas are found within the Family Agavaceae. ______________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 14).


The pineapple is considered a bromeliad and is classified within the Family Bromeliaceae. ________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 15).
The Family Orchidaceae contains the plants known as orchids. ___________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 16).

Specialized terminology for this group: epiphytic and aerial roots.


The last monocot family that I observed was the Family Poaceae, which contains the grasses. ______________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Fig. 17)

Specialized terminology for the group: wind pollinated, meristem, and grain.

DISCUSSION



This section is to be omitted for this lab. You are encouraged to compile summary statements comparing the various groups - both among groups and within groups.
LITERATURE CITED

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