Lab 6—Suborder Fissipedia




Дата канвертавання21.04.2016
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Lab 6—Suborder Fissipedia

Canis latrans—skin or skull

C. lupus—skin or skull

Vulpes vulpes—skin or skull

Lynx rufus—skin or skull

L. canadensis—skin or skull

Puma concolor—skin or skull

Mephitis mephitis—skin or skull

Spilogale gracilis—skin or skull

Enhydra lutris—skin or skull

Gulo gulo—skin or skull

Lontra canadensis—skin or skull

Martes americana—skin or skull

M. pennanti—skin or skull

Mustela erminea—skin only, need supplementary information with skull

M. frenata—skin only, need supplementary information with skull

M. nivalis—skin or skull

Neovison vison—skin or skull

Taxidea taxus—skin or skull

Procyon lotor—skin or skull

Ursus americanus—skin or skull

U. arctos—skin or skull
Suborder Carnivora

Family: Canidae (dogs)

Skin: 1) long, narrow rostrum

2) digitigrade

3) non-retractile claws

Skull: 1) long rostrum

2) 3 lower molars (except Speothos, Cuon, and Otocyon; bush dog, dhole, and bat-eared fox)

3) crushing (bunodont) molars
Canis latrans (coyote)

Skin: 1) pelage variable, but usually somewhat grizzled with black-tipped tail

2) relatively thin, slender snout and long ears

3) postorbital processes thick and convex

Skull: 1) rostrum thin and narrow

2) diameter of upper canine <12 mm


C. lupus (gray wolf)

Skin: 1) broad snout

2) relatively short ears

Skull: 1) rostrum thick and powerfully built

2) diameter of upper canine >12 mm

3) postorbital processes thick and convex


Vulpes vulpes (red fox)

Skin: 1) pelage variable, but usually with black feet

2) thick, bushy tail with a light tip

Skull: 1) sagittal crest not as well-developed as in Canis



2) postorbital processes thin and concave

3) temporal ridges form a thin “V”, and meet beyond fronto-parietal suture


Family: Felidae (cats)

Skin: 1) short rostrum

2) digitigrade

3) retractile claws (except Acinonyx—cheetah)

Skull: 1) short rostrum

2) 1-2 lower molars

3) shearing molars

4) well-developed carnassials


Lynx rufus (bobcat)

Skin: 1) tail <50% of body length

2) only dorsal side of tail tipped with black

3) short, black tufts on ears

4) spotted dorsal pelage

Skull: 1) 2 upper premolars

2) presphenoid with straight sides
L. canadensis (Canadian lynx)

Skin: 1) tail <50% of body length

2) dorsal and ventral sides of tail tipped with black

3) long, black tufts on ears

4) large paws and long legs

5) not as conspicuously spotted as L. rufus

Skull: 1) 2 upper premolars

2) presphenoid heart-shaped or winged


Puma (Felis) concolor (puma)

Skin: 1) tail >50% of body length

2) uniformly light or tawny brown

Skull: 1) 3 upper premolars


Family: Mephitidae (skunks and stink badgers)

Skin: 1) generally black, with contrasting white stripes or spots

2) bushy tails
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)

Skin: 1) dorsal pelage with unbroken white stripes, or all black except for top of head

2) large bushy tail, usually entirely white or entirely black

Skull: 1) palate does not extend appreciably beyond molars

2) 1st upper molar squarish

3) cranium appears convex in profile


Spilogale gracilis (western spotted skunk)

Skin: 1) dorsal pelage with 3-4 white blotches or stripes

2) bushy tail, but smaller and more sparsely haired than M. mephitis

3) white spot on forehead and in front of each ear

Skull: 1) palate does not extend appreciably beyond molars

2) 1st upper molar squarish

3) cranium appears straight in profile


Family: Mustelidae (mustelids)

Skin: 1) lithe, cylindrical body (except Taxidea and Gulo)

2) short legs

Skull: 1) shearing molars (less so in Enhydra and Lontra)

2) dumbbell-shaped upper molar

3) well-developed carnassials


Enhydra lutris (sea otter)

Skin: 1) thick gray or dark gray pelage, often with lighter head

2) hind feet webbed and flipper-like

3) ears greatly reduced

Skull: 1) 3 upper premolars

2) rostrum even more reduced than Lontra

3) no carnassial pair

4) large braincase


Gulo gulo (wolverine)

Skin: 1) long, dark brown pelage, usually with a broad, lighter stripe along the sides

2) resembles a larger, more powerfully built marten

Skull: 1) sagittal crest more developed than Martes

2) auditory bullae not elongated

3) four upper premolars


Lontra (Lutra) canadensis (river otter)

Skin: 1) thick brown fur with rudder-like tail

2) webbed feet

3) tail thick at base, appears to fuse with body

4) ears greatly reduced

Skull: 1) 4 upper premolars

2) rostrum much reduced

3) skull flattened dorsally

4) large braincase
Martes americana (American marten)

Skin: 1) thick brown pelage, with a yellowish patch on chest—contrast with mink

Skull: 1) 4 upper premolars

2) auditory bullae elongated, but not twice as long as wide


M. pennanti (fisher)

Skin: 1) thick brown pelage, often with grizzled head and neck—contrast with wolverine

2) black feet

Skull: 1) 4 upper premolars

2) auditory bullae elongated, but not twice as long as wide

3) sagittal crest well-developed, particularly in males


Mustela erminea (short-tailed weasel)

Skin: 1) summer dorsal pelage variable, but usually brown with white ventral pelage

2) tail ~30% of total length

3) tail with conspicuous black tip

Skull: 1) 3 upper premolars

2) auditory bullae nearly twice as long as wide

3) posterior edges of palatines usually form a point
M. frenata (long-tailed weasel)

Skin: 1) summer dorsal pelage variable, but usually brown with yellow ventral pelage

2) tail ~50% of total length

3) tail lacking black tip

Skull: 1) 3 upper premolars

2) auditory bullae nearly twice as long as wide

3) posterior edges of palatines usually form a point
M. nivalis (least weasel)

1) summer dorsal pelage variable, but usually brown with white ventral pelage

2) tail <25% of total length

3) noticeably smaller than erminea or frenata

Skull: 1) 3 upper premolars

2) auditory bullae nearly twice as long as wide

3) cranium <35 mm
Neovison (Mustela) vison (American mink)

Skin: 1) thick, dark brown fur, often with white patches on chest and neck

2) feet partially webbed

Skull: 1) 1st molar nearly twice as wide as long

2) auditory bullae nearly twice as long as wide

3) posterior edges of palatines usually rounded—contrast with both skunks

4) cranium >54 mm
Taxidea taxus (American badger)

Skin: 1) pelage gray or grizzled, with white stripes and patches on face

2) small ears

3) powerful front limbs with long claws

Skull: 1) braincase triangular, and broadest occipit

2) 3 upper premolars

3) 1st upper molar a rounded triangle (other North American mustelids dumbbell-shaped)
Family: Procyonidae (raccoons and allies)

Procyon lotor (raccoon)

Skin: 1) pelage consists of long guard-hairs and dense, soft underfur

2) ringed tail

3) dark brown or black mask on face

Skull: 1) carnassials poorly developed and not used for slicing

2) cheek teeth built for crushing

3) rounded braincase
Family: Ursidae (bears)

Skin: 1) conspicuous claws

2) rostrum massive

Skull: 1) rostrum massive

2) carnassials poorly developed

3) cheek teeth built for crushing


Ursus americanus (American black bear)

Skin: 1) pelage variable

2) convex or straight rostrum in profile

3) stocky, well-built hindquarters

4) claws on forelegs roughly the same length as claws on hindlegs

Skull: 1) prominent sagittal crest, but less so than U. arctos



2) 2nd molar broadest near middle

3) rostrum convex or straight


U. arctos (brown bear)

Skin: 1) pelage variable

2) concave or dish-shaped rostrum in profile

3) conspicuous hump between shoulders

4) claws on forelegs twice the length of claws on hindlegs

Skull: 1) prominent sagittal crest

2) 2nd molar broadest near anterior end

3) rostrum conspicuously concave


Checklist and Supplementary Key to Glass and Thies

for Skulls of Mammalian Species of British Columbia

from Hall 1981, Nagorsen 2005, Nagorsen and Brigham 1993, and Shackleton 1999
Suborder: Fissipedia

Family Canidae



Canis

1a thin rostrum, premolars narrow, diameter of upper canine <11 mm....…Canis latrans

1b thick rostrum and postorbital processes, diameter of upper canine >11 mm…C. lupus

Vulpes

Family Felidae

Lynx

1a presphenoid with straight sides…………………………………………….Lynx rufus

1b presphenoid with wings…………………………………………………L. canadensis

Puma (Felis)

Family Mephitidae (Mustelidae)



Mephitis

Spilogale

Family Mustelidae

Enhydra

Gulo

Lontra (Lutra)

Martes

1a sagittal crest low and inconspicuous………...……………………..Martes americana

1b sagittal crest high and conspicuous……………………………...……….M. pennanti

Mustela

1a cranium >54 mm……………………………………...……Mustela (Neovison) vison

1b cranium <54 mm………...………………………………………………………….2a

2a cranium <33 mm………………………………………………….…M. nivalis

2b cranium 34-53 mm………………………………………………………….3a

3a tail lacking conspicuous black tip……………………........M. erminea

3b tail lacking conspicuous black tip……………………….…M. frenata

Taxidea

Family Ursidae

1a rostrum flat or convex……………………………………...………Ursus americanus

1b rostrum conspicuously concave…………………………...…………………U. arctos


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