Kingdom plantae




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KINGDOM PLANTAE

Outdoor Lecture

 


  1. EVOLUTION

    1. Archaebacteria -----> Protista (green algae)-----> Plantae

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTAE

    1. Eukaryotic

    2. Nonmotile

    3. Alternation of generation

    4. Chlorophyll a & b (most)

    5. Multicellular (all)

    6. Rigid cellulose cell walls

    7. Store reserve food as starch

    8. Terrestrial (most)

    9. Sexual reproduction: protected gametes

    10. Protected developing embryo

  1. EVOLUTION within PLANTAE (See handout)

    1. Paleozoic Era (570-225 million yrs ago)

      1. Cambrian - 570-500 million yrs ago

        1. No plants

        2. Algae / Age of invertebrates (aquatic)


OUTSIDE . . .


      1. Ordovician Period - 500-430 million years ago

Bryophytes / First fishes appear; Invertebrates dominate the sea

        1. Nonvascular

        2. Gametophyte dominant

        3. Life cycle - Gametes need water

        4. Ex:

          • Mosses

          • Liverworts

        5. Sensitive to air pollution

      1. Silurian -----> Permian (End of Paleozoic Era)

Seedless vascular plants dominate

        1. Silurian Period - 430-395 million years ago
          Seedless vascular plants appear on land / Age of Fishes

          • Sporophyte dominant

          • Life cycle - Gametes need water

          • Ex:

            • Whisk ferns (today only one genus, Psilotum, exists)

            • Club mosses (today only one genus, Lycopodium exists)

            • Ferns

            • Horsetails (Equisetum only)

        2. Devonian Period - 395-345 million yrs ago
          Expansion of primitive vascular plants; Swamp forests form / First land animals: Arthropods followed by amphibians

        3.  Carboniferous Period - 345-280 million yrs ago
          Age of great coal-forming forests (seedless vascular plants); Age of amphibians; Arthropods share dominance of land

        4.   Permian Period - 280-225 million yrs ago
          Seedless vascular forests begin decline as gymnosperms appear / Amphibians decline as reptiles appear; Arthropods remain abundant

    1. Mesozoic Era (Age of Gymnosperms / Age of Dinosaurs / Age of Reptiles)

225-65 million yrs ago

Triassic Period - 225-193 million yrs ago


Dominance of land by gymnosperms, ginkgo & ferns. First dinosaurs appear.

        1. Ferns: seedless vascular plants

        2. Gymnosperms (Naked seeds)

First plants with seeds & pollen

            • Cycads

            • Ginkgo (today only one species exists; no wild specimens)

            • Gnetophytes

            • Conifers

Sporophyte dominant / gametophyte dependant on sporophyte

            • Pollen grain (produced by male cones = male gametophyte

            • megaspore (located in female cone) = female gametophyte

            • fertilized megaspore = seed

Life cycle - Gametes do NOT need water

Jurassic Period - 193-136 million yrs ago


First angiosperms appear / First birds & mammals appear
Gymnosperm forests & Dinosaurs dominate

Angiosperms:



        1. Seed-bearing (protected seed)
          Insulated from weather
          Provides initial nutrients

        2. Flowering
          Some develop sophisticated forms of pollination
          Symbiotic relationship: nectar / pollination with insects

        3. Sporophyte dominant / gametophyte completely dependant on sporophyte

pollen = male gametophyte

ovary (megaspore) = female gametophyte


ovary (fertilized = seed)
seed swells = fruit

Life cycle - Gametes do NOT need water

Cretaceous Period - 136-65 million yrs ago
Angiosperms spread / Dinosaurs become extinct


    1. Cenozoic Era (Age of Mammals / Age of Angiosperms)
      65 million yrs ago to present

      1. Tertiary Period
        Dominance of land by angiosperms

      2. Quaternary
        Increase in # of species of herbaceous plants

      3. Present
        Decline in # of species of plants & animals



INDOORS FOR REVIEW

HOMEWORK (see outline of homework for details).

Optional Extra Credit:  See Outline of Homework for due date and details:




Study for EXAM III







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