IV. Environment and Conflict in History The database of conflict and environment cases shows a broad variety if issues but at a high level of inspection




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Water, War and Peace in the Middle East”, Environment.

213 Peter Gleick, The World’s Water: Information on the World’s Freshwater Resources, “Water Conflict Chronology”, Pacific Institute, Updated August 18, 2003. http://www.worldwater.org/conflict.htm, accessed September 4, 2004.

214 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004. http://www.wateryear2003.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=4682&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

215 Robert Ballard and Malcom McConnell. “Adventures in Ocean Exploration: From the Discovery of the Titanic to the Search for Noah's Flood”, National Geographic Society, 2001. See also Ryan, William and Walter Pitman. Noah’s Flood, New York: Touchstone. 1998.

216 Gleick, et al, Water, war and peace in the Middle East”, Environment.

217 Gleick, et al, Water, war and peace in the Middle East”, Environment.

218 Chronicles 32:3

219 Gleick, et al, Water, war and peace in the Middle East”, Environment.

220 Gleick, et al, Water, war and peace in the Middle East”, Environment.

221 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004. http://www.wateryear2003.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=4682&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

222 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004.

223 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004.

224 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004.

225 UNESCO, 2003, accessed September 4, 2004.

226 See Robert D. Cohen, “Marsh Arabs”, TED Case Studies, January 1995, Number 189, http://www.american.edu/TED/marsh.htm.

227 Parts of this section were researched and written by Melissa Brockly.

228 Cunningham, Sharon. “Yellow house Canyon fight: Buffalo Hunters vs. Plains Indians.” Wild West. Leesburg: Jun 2003. Vol. 16, Issue 1, p. 46.

229 DeLoria, Vine Jr. Red Earth White Lies: Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1997, p. 150.

230 Dina Lehman, “The Buffalo Harvest”, ICE Case Studies, ICE Case Studies, January 1998, Number 47, http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/buffalo.htm.

231 Choate, Jerry R. and Eugene D Fleharty. “Decimation of a Dominant Herbivore.” Ecology. Brooklyn: December 2000. Volume 81, Issue 12; pp 3550-51.

232 Schweikart, Larry. “Buffaloed: The Myth and Reality of Bison in America.” Ideas on Liberty. Irvington-on-Hudson: Dec 2002. Volume 52, Issue 12; p 8-11.

233 Robbins, Jim. “Historians Revisit Slaughter on the Plains.” New York Times. (Late Edition (East Coast). New York, N.Y.: Nov 16, 1999. p. F3.

234 The Military and United States Indian Policy, p. 171.

235 The Military and United States Indian Policy, p. 171.

236 The Military and United States Indian Policy, p. 172.

237 Buffalo Days, p. 80.

238 Mitchell, John G. “Change of Heartland.” National Geographic; May 2004, Volume 205 Issue 5, p. 2. Another view is that “One bill made it unlawful for non-Indians to kill buffalo, in an effort to restore buffalo hunting to the Indians. Other federal policies, though, already viewed elimination of the bison as a key element in removing the food source for the Plains Indians, much the way Sharman sacked Georgia. Ranchers were already claiming that cattle made more efficient use of the plains than did buffalo. Where the Indians thought the supply of buffalo was endless, white’s recognized it was finite and intended to eliminate it as a means to eliminate the Indians. Schweikart, Larry. “Buffaloed: The Myth and Reality of Bison in America.” Ideas on Liberty. Irvington-on-Hudson: December 2002. Volume. 52, Issue 12, p. 4 and p. 8.

239 Patton, Allyson. “Skull Mountain.” American History. Harrisburg: April 2001. Volume 36, Issue 1; p. 72.

240 “The Great Sioux Nation of the 19th Century.” History Channel Exhibits. Available [online] http://www.historychannel.com/exhibits/sioux/chrono.html, December 2, 2004.

241 My Life on the Plains, General Custer, p. 111.

242 General Pope and U.S. Indian Policy, p. 179.

243 Melissa Krupa, May, 1997, “Environmental and Economic Repercussions of the Persian Gulf War on Kuwait”, ICE Case Number: 9. http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/kuwait.htm

244 Husain, 1995.

245 Husain, Tahir. Kuwait Oil Fires: Regional Environmental Perspectives. Exeter: BPC Wheatons Ltd. 1995, p. 26.

246 Michael McKinnon and Peter Vine, Tides of War, London: Immel publishing Ltd., 1992, p. 94.

247 Michael McKinnon and Peter Vine, Tides of War, London: Immel publishing Ltd., 1992, p. 95.

248 Modified from: 1991 “Kuwait Oil Wells Blow-out” in El-Baz, Farouk. The Gulf War and the Environment. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. 1994. p. 86.

249 Sadiq and McCain 1993.

250 Sadiq and McCain, 1993. p.2.

251 McKinnon and Vine, Tides of War ,1992, p. 99-100.

252 Zimmer, 1992.

253 Zimmer, 1992.

254 McKinnon and Vine, Tides of War, p. 97.

255 Zimmer, 1992.

256 Zimmer 1992

257 Sadiq and McCain 1993.

258 Sadiq and McCain 1993.

259 Al-Khodairy, Fahad and Ahmed Al-Dakan, Mahmood Akel, and Mohammed A. Hannan, “A comparative analysis of mutagenic activities of air samples collected from Riyadh before, during and after the Gulf War”, International Journal of Environmental Health Research 8, pp. 15-22 (1998), Carfax Publishing Ltd.

260 Al-Khodairy, et al, “A Comparative Analysis”.

261 Alsdirawi, Fozia. “The Impact of the Gulf War on the Desert Ecosystem.” Farouk El-Baz, ed. The Gulf War and the Environment, Lausanne, Switzerland: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1994.

262 McKinnon and Vine, Tides of War ,1992, p. 157-8.

263 McKinnon and Vine, Tides of War ,1992, p. 158-9.

264Dellapenna, Joseph W. “The Two Rivers and the Lands Between: Mesopotamia and the International Law of Transboundary waters”, BYU Journal of Public Law, 1996, Volume 10, Issue 2, p. 213.

265 David Key, PBS, notes that the Krakatoa eruption in 535 led to climate disruptions for 10-20 years. Impacts included the (1) end of Byzantine Empire, (3) the bubonic plague, (2) the decline of Teotihuacan Empire in Central America, and (4) the onset of Dark Ages.


266 Damian Zimmerman, “The Great Wall”, ICE Case Studies, Number 38, December 1997, www.american.edu/TED/ice/wall.htm.

267 Stewart Perowne, Hadrian, London: Croom Helm, 1960.

268 Bedoyere, p.12.

269 Bedoyere, p.12

270 Bedoyere, p. 25.

271 Guy de la Bedoyere, Hadrian’s Wall: History and Guide, Tempus Publishing, Stroud Publishing, United Kingdom, 1998.

272 Bedoyere, p.14

273 Bedoyere, p.14

274 Anthony R. Briley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor, New York and London: Routledge, 1997, p. 1.

275 Anthony R. Briley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor, New York and London: Routledge, 1997, pp. 86-7.

276 Jan Wesner Childs, Stars and Stripes, August 18, 2001, accessed October 8, 2004, http://ww2.pstripes.osd.mil/01/aug01/ed081801c.html.

277 Operation Paul Bunyan “Tree / Hatchet Incident” 18 August 1976, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/paul_bunyan.htm, accessed October 8, 2004.

278 Jan Wesner Childs, Stars and Stripes, August 18, 2001, accessed October 8, 2004, http://ww2.pstripes.osd.mil/01/aug01/ed081801c.html.

279 Operation Paul Bunyan “Tree / Hatchet Incident” 18 August 1976, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/paul_bunyan.htm, accessed October 8, 2004.

280 Operation Paul Bunyan “Tree / Hatchet Incident” 18 August 1976, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/paul_bunyan.htm, accessed October 8, 2004.

281 Ann Nichole Neufeld, “Korean Demilitarized Zone as a Bioreserve”, ICE Case Studies, Number 52. http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/dmz.htm

282 "Demilitarized," 1997, p. 1.

283 World Resources: 1998-99, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, Table 14.1, Biodiversity Tables, p. 322.

284 Jordan, 1997, p. 1.

285 Drohan, 1996, p. 1.

286 Myers, 1997, p. 2.

287 Frank Langfitt, Sun Foreign Staff, “The Demilitarized Zone”, Korea, Baltimore Sun http://www.baltimoresun.com.

288 Lee et al, 1994. Bio-diversity Korea 2000, Seoul: Minumsa, Digital Chosun.

289 K. C. Kim, Professor, Director Penn State Center for BioDiversity Research; Chair, The DMZ Forum. Digital Chosun Online Newspaper, March 27, 2000, Volume 18, Number 49, Chosunilbo (English Edition) Daily News.

290 Brown, 1996, p. 2. Dr. K. C. Kim, director of the Center for Biodiversity Research, has written and published Biodiversity Korea 2000: “A Strategy to Save, Study and Sustainably Use Korea's Biotic Resources, a "blueprint" for biodiversity conservation for South Korea”.

291 Drohan, 1996, p. 1.

292 Donald Smith, “Peace Prospects Imperil Korea’s Wildlife Paradise”, National Geographic News, June 23, 2000 (online).

293 From DMZ Forum: http://www.dmzforum.org.

294 “War zone to wildlands: the campaign to restore Korea”, K. C. Kim, quoted in June 19, 2000, Margot Higgins, Environmental Network News, http://www.enn.com.

295 Donald Smith, “Peace Prospects Imperil Korea’s Wildlife Paradise”, National Geographic News, June 23, 2000 (online).

296 Donald Smith, “Peace Prospects Imperil Korea’s Wildlife Paradise”, National Geographic News, June 23, 2000 (online).

297 Drohan, 1996, p. 1.

298"Forests, Pastoralists and Agrarian Society in Mughal India", by Chetan Singh, 21-48, Nature, Culture and Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia, David Arnold and Ramacharda Guha, eds, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 23-5.

299"Whose Trees: Forest Practices and Local Communities in Andhra, 1600-1922," Neelardri Bhattacacharya, Nature, Culture and Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia, David Arnold and Ramacharda Guha, eds., Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 88-89.

300"Whose Trees," Neelardri Bhattacacharya, p. 119.

301"Small Dam Systems of the Sahyadris," David Hardiamn, Nature, Culture and Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia, David Arnold and Ramacharda Guha, eds., Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, 185-209.

302"Inland Waters and Freshwater Fisheries: Issues of Control, Access and Conservation in Colonial India", Peter Reeves, Nature, Culture and Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia, David Arnold and Ramacharda Guha, eds, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 260-292. The role of environment in national policy decision-making is not new. Air pollution problems in South Asia, for example, have been an issue of policy concerns for a long time. "However, a much longer history of air pollution is apparent from earlier accounts. By the eighteenth century, smoke was cited, along with heat, dust, humidity, and noisome smells, as one of the attendant hardships and health hazards for Europeans in Calcutta." Calcutta adopted smoke nuisance legislation in 1963, one of the first cities in the world to do so. London was the first in 1853, well ahead of most other cities.” From "The Conquest of Smoke: Legislation and Pollution in Colonial Calcutta," M.R. Anderson, 293-335, Nature, Culture and Imperialism: Essays on the Environmental History of South Asia, David Arnold and Ramacharda Guha, editors, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 294.

303Marvin Harris, Cannibals and Kings, New York, Vintage Books Edition: 1991 (first edition, Random House, 1977), p. 69. Social concerns became a source of conflict. In the Americas, the Yanomamo of the Amazon met those needs but also came into conflict with other tribes in disputes mostly over women




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