IV. Environment and Conflict in History The database of conflict and environment cases shows a broad variety if issues but at a high level of inspection




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muhtarifa." The jalkar, a tax on income for "the use of the produce of water" was only one of several ways that fishermen's income were taxed and regulated in the 18th-19th centuries.302

The range of environment and conflict issues in historic South Asia demonstrate several types of environments there and the types of social systems that evolved over time.303 The following six cases also follow the form and order of the ancient cases noted above and proceeds along a historic path. The discussion of the ancient and middle cases suggests a continuum of development in the types of environment problems. Such a comparison does not mean to imply any sort of trend, since the possession of two cases over two periods is clearly an insufficient base from which to judge. They do however point to manifestations in the relation between conflict and environment that seem-longstanding in nature.

The span of when conflicts begin and end spans over 1,800 years. Conflict durations are generally long, but appear to be decreasing in span over time. North American cases account for two-thirds with the rest being European cases. Western North American cases are the most common and most habitats are temperate in nature. The cases suggest a shift to the New World from the Old World, but also a focus on new, emerging problem types (see Table IV-8).

Table IV-8

Coding of Base Indicators from the Middle Case Studies



Middle Cases

HADRIAN
Boundaries

MAYA
Arable Land

VINELAND
Climate Change

ANASAZI
Water

ROBIN
Forests

BUFFALO
Weapons

Begin Conflict

80

250

1000

1100

1450

1870

End Conflict

450

850

1500

1600

1600

1889

Conflict Duration (years)

370

600

500

500

150

19

Continent

Europe

North America

North America

North America

Europe

North America

Region

Western Europe

Southern North America

Northern North America

Western North America

Western Europe

Western North America

Country

Rome

Guatemala (current)

Canada (now)

USA

UK

USA

Actors

Rome, Scots, Picts

Babylonians, Phoenicians

Vikings and Native Americans

Various tribes

UK and Merry Men

USA, Native Americans

Habitat Type

Temperate

Temperate (then)

Cool

Dry

Temperate

Temperate

3. Modern Case Patterns


Modern cases reflect both the same issues as those earlier in history and the long-term trends and issues described earlier. While many issues remain concurrent, the pace at which they change is new and how they manifest themselves in particular situations depends on a larger context.

These modern cases are presented chronologically, but since these conflict outbursts are symptoms of much longer-term problems, the order is somewhat arbitrary. With a general shorter time period of focus, compared to the ancient and middle cases, there is more of a chance of overlap in the duration of the cases. With differing durations, discerning order based on conflict time periods becomes more problematic.

The compression of time related to conflicts of environment is partially a simple matter of available historical record, but also an acceleration of these conflicts due to more people, resources demands and the nation-state system that embodies those interests. As before, the cases draw from the six general issue areas.

A comparative matrix shows the six modern cases and their distribution across a number of event-data driven criteria. Some conflicts have an extremely short time span (one year) and medium term (eight years). Two conflicts were outliers at 38 and 52 years of duration respectively. The continents are equally split between Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. One-half of the cases are in dry habitats and one-third in tropical ones.

By this modern era the differing types of conflicts often relate and overlap, which was not the case earlier in history. The reason is globalization and the growth in the size and reach of nations. The conflicts in Jordan and Kuwait were definitely linked at the time and the role of natural and human impacts are evident in the Sahel and Rwanda cases (see Table IV-10).

Table IV-9


Coding of Base Indicators from the Middle Case Studies

Modern Cases

DMZ
Boundaries

JORDAN
Water

KUWAIT
Weapons

KHMER
Forests

RWANDA
Arable Land

SAHEL
Climate Change

Begin Conflict

1953

1967

1991

1992

1994

1997

End Conflict

2005

2005

1991

2000

1994

2005

Conflict Duration (years)

52

38

1

8

1

8

Continent

Asia

Mideast

Mideast

Asia

Africa

Africa

Region

East Asia

AsiaMid

AsiaMid

East Asia

East Africa

West Africa

Country

North Korea South Korea

Jordan

Jordan

USA

Rwanda

Niger

Actors

North Korea South Korea

Jordan, Israel

UN Allies, Iraq, Kuwait

Khmer Rouge, Vietnam, Cambodia

Rwanda, Uganda, Congo, Burundi

Niger, Chad Nigeria

Habitat Type

Temperate

Dry

Dry

Tropical

Tropical

Dry



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58 Gottfried.

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93 “Lake sediment tells of Maya droughts”, Science News, January 6, 2001, Vol. 159 Issue 1, p. 15.

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95 Culbert.

96 John W. G. Lowe, The Dynamics of Apocalypse: A Systems Simulation of the Classic Maya Collapse, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985, p. 46.

97 John W. G. Lowe, The Dynamics of Apocalypse, 1985, p. 46.

98 Colin Woodard, “Unraveling the lost world of the Maya”, Christian Science Monitor, October 26, 2000, Vol. 92 Issue 234, p. 13.

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100 Drennan, 1984, p. 107.

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102 T. Patrick Culbert (ed.), The Classic Maya Collapse, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1973, pp. 318-19.

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105 See Tara Mitchell,” Rwanda and Conflict”, ICE Case Studies, Spring 1997, http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/rwanda.htm. Accessed January 6, 2006.

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108 Hawkes, 1973, p. 267. See on the web also Economics of the Indus Valley Civilization, by Chad Greenwood.

109 Hawkes, 1973, p. 268.

110 Colin Woodard, “Unraveling the lost world of the Maya”, The Christian Science Monitor, October 26, 2000, Vol. 92 Issue 234, p. 13.

111 Guy Gugliotta, “No Cataclysm Brought Down Mayans”, Washington Post, March 14, 2003, p. A13.

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113 See Lee for citation and source.

114 See Ben Kasoff, TED Case Studies, http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/cedars.htm.

115 Gardner and Maier, Gilgamesh, p. 146. This particular quotation comes from a Hittite account and contained in E.A. Speiser and A. K. Grayson, in ed. James B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Text Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 76-83 and pp. 503-507.

116 Nina Jidejian, “Cedars of Lebanon, September 28, 2004.

117 As quoted in Marvin W. Mikesell, "The Deforestation of Mount Lebanon," The Geographical Review, Volume LIX, Number 1 (January, 1969), p. 13.

118 The name "Sherwood" derives from the term "shire wood", meaning the forest local to a shire or region. As such, it is a generic term. Rather than being a single physical place,

Sherwood is more likely an abstraction, representing "the wilderness" as a whole.



119 Jeffrey L. Singman, Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend, Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 1998, p. 5.

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122 Jeffrey L. Singman, Robin Hood: The Shaping of the Legend, p. 44.

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124 Jeffrey L. Singman, Robin Hood, p. 39.

125 Stephen Knight, Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw, Oxford and Cambridge: Blackwell, 1998, p. 142.

126 The conflict involves four factions Front Uni National pour un Cambodge Independent, Neutre, Pacifique et Coop ratif (FUNCINPEC), Khmer People's National liberation Front (KPNLF), the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (DK or so-called Khmer Rouge), and the State of Cambodia (SOC).

127 "Two die as northwest area is hit by severe flooding," The Cambodia Times, October 22-28, 1995.

128 "Paddy fields damaged, eight killed in severe flooding," The Cambodia Times, October 29 - November 4, 1995.

129 "Paddy fields damaged, eight killed in severe flooding," The Cambodia Times, 29 October 29 - November 4, 1995.

130 Katherine Knight, “War, Politics and the Environment”, Conservation Law Foundation, www.clf.org/pubs/war.htm.

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147 Nina Jidejian, “Cedars of Lebanon”.

148 Katherine Knight, “War, Politics and the Environment”, Conservation Law Foundation,

http://www.clf.org/pubs/war.htm.



149 Collins, 3-4.

150 Adv, p. 1.

151 Collins, p. 4-8.

152 Ody, p. 1.

153 Jacques Kinnaer, The Ancient Egypt Site, “First Intermediate Period (2150-2040 bc)”. “The decline of the Old Kingdom is often said to have been caused by the long reign of Pepi II, during which the king supposedly lost more and more power to the central administration and the provincial governors.” September 3, 2004, http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/07_11/.

154 “Water, war and peace in the Middle East - conflict over water rights”, Environment, April, 1994  by Peter H. Gleick,  Peter Yolles, and Haleh Hatami. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1076/is_n3_v36/ai_15419877/pg_3,

(from Looksmart web directory). Accessed on September 3, 2004.



155 Pearce, pp. 28-29.

156 Pearce, p. 31.

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158 El-Kohdary, p. 1-3.

159 Collins, pp. 67-100.

160 Glassman, p. 150.

161 Peter H. Gleick, “Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security”, International Security, Vol. 18, No. 1, Summer 1993, p. 86.

162 Christopher L. and David A. Deese,” At the Water’s Edge: Regional Conflict and Cooperation over Fresh Water”, UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, Vol. 21, 1996, p. 43.

163 Christopher L. Kukk and David A. Deese,” At the Water’s Edge: Regional Conflict and Cooperation over Fresh Water”, UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, Vol. 21, 1996, p. 44.

164 Kukk and Deese, p. 46.

165 Wenger, Gilbert R. 1980, Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Available online at http://www.mesaverde.org/smvf/p1.htm, and in print, p. 28

166 Bretemitz and Smith, 1975, p. 36.

167 Desert USA, http://www.desertusa.com/.

168 Allen, Michael G.; Steven, Robert L., "People and their environment: Searching the historical record", Social Studies, Jul/Aug 1996, Vol. 87 Issue 4, p. 156.

169 "Researchers Find Evidence on Movement Of Ancient Farming Group in

Southwest", Wall Street Journal, New York, N.Y., Oct 30, 2000.



170 Desert USA, http://www.desertusa.com/.

171“A Case for Cannibalism," Archaeology, January/February 1994.

172 Amelie A. Walker, “Anasazi Cannibalism?”, 1997 by the Archaeological Institute of America, Newsbriefs, Volume 50 Number 5 September/October 1997,

http://www.archaeology.org/9709/newsbriefs/anasazi.html



173 Amelie A. Walker, Volume 50 Number 5 September/October 1997, Anasazi Cannibalism? “A religious leader from a Ute tribe, on whose reservation the remains were found, supervised the archaeological work and will rebury the bones.”

174 George Johnson, “Social Strife May Have Exiled Ancient Indians”, The New York Times, August 20, 1996, p. c-1 (Science Desk).

175 Van West.

176 George Johnson, “Social Strife May Have Exiled Ancient Indians”, The New York Times, August 20, 1996, p. c-1 (Science Desk).

177 Van West.

178 Annenberg/CPB. 2001. "Collapse: Why Do Civilizations Fall? Chaco Canyon." Accessed 07/31/2003. http://www.learner.org/exhibits/collapse/chacocanyon.html

179 Annenberg/CPB. 2001. "Collapse: Why Do Civilizations Fall? Chaco Canyon." Accessed 07/31/2003. http://www.learner.org/exhibits/collapse/chacocanyon.html

180 Romero, Tom I. Spring 2002. Colorado Law Review. "Uncertain Waters And Contested Lands: Excavating The Layers Of Colorado's Legal Past." Supranote 53. John Ragsdale. 1998. “Anasazi Jurisprudence.” American Indian Law Review.

181 Romero.

182 Wegner.

183 Dr. Jonathan Haas of the Field Museum in Chicago in Johnson.

184 George Johnson, Social Strife May Have Exiled Ancient Indians, The New York Times, August 20, 1996, p. c-1 (Science Desk). "Nobody is talking about great droughts anymore," asserts anthropologist Linda Cordell. "The mystery of the Anasazi is an open book again."

185 George Johnson, Social Strife May Have Exiled Ancient Indians, The New York Times, August 20, 1996, p. c-1 (Science Desk).

186 See “Jordan River Dispute”, TED Case Studies, November 1997. http”//www.American.edu/TED/westabnk.htm.

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188 Cooley, p. 9.

189 Aaron T. Wolf, Hydropolitics Along the Jordan River: Scarce Wwater and its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York: United Nations University Press, 1995), p. 50.

190 Sharif S. Elmusa, "The Water Issue and the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict," Information Paper Number 2 (Washington, DC: Center for Policy Analysis on Palestine, 1993), p. 3.

191 See Aaron T. Wolf, Hydropolitics Along the Jordan River: Scarce Water and Its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York: United Nations University Press, 1995) 7 and Xavier Henri Farinelli, "Freshwater Conflicts in the Jordan River Basin," Green Cross International http://www.gci.ch/water/gcwater/study.html, p. 24.

192 Ismail Serageldin, “Water Diplomacy and the 21st Century: From Conflict to Cooperation”, Fifth World Bank Conference, Washington, D.C., October 10, 1997.

193 See Shari Berke, “Dead Sea Canal”, TED Case Studies, No. 429, January 1998, http://www.american.edu/TED/deadsea.htm.

194 The Dead Sea originally consisted of two basins -- a larger, deep northern basin and a shallow southern one -- separated by a peninsula called El Lisan ("the tongue" in Arabic). The southern basin is essentially dry, except for evaporation ponds used for Israeli and Jordanian potash plants.

195 Glace, p. 101.

196 http://www.popular-science.net/history/india_egypt_trade_route.html

, Popular-Science.net, “Archaeologists Uncover Maritime Spice Route between India, Egypt”, September 3, 2004 (same as access date).



197 http://www.popular-science.net/history/india_egypt_trade_route.html, Popular-Science.net, “Archaeologists Uncover Maritime Spice Route between India, Egypt”, September 3, 2004 (same as access date). "The Silk Road gets a lot of attention as a trade route, but we've found a wealth of evidence indicating that sea trade between Egypt and India was also important for transporting exotic cargo, and it may have even served as a link with the Far East." For over eight years, archaeologists have excavated a site at Berenike, an abandoned Egyptian sea port on the Red Sea near the border with Sudan.

198 http://www.popular-science.net/history/india_egypt_trade_route.html, Popular-Science.net, “Archaeologists Uncover Maritime Spice Route between India, Egypt”, September 3, 2004 (same as access date).

199 Donald Jones, Center for Heritage Resource Studies, http://www.heritage.umd.edu/CHRSWeb/World%20Heritage/Heritage%20Spots/Heritage%20Spots%20PH.htm, at the University of Maryland in College Park.

200 McNitt, Frank. Anasazi. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.

201 Haleh Hatami and Peter Gleick. “Conflicts Over Water in the Myths, Legends, and Ancient History of the Middle East.” Environment, April 1994, Vol. 36, Issue 3.

202 Viegas, Jennifer. “Study: Red Sea Parting Possible.” Discover News. December 2, 2004. Available [online] http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20040202/redsea.html, accessed February 2, 2004.

203 Rogers, 1915

204 Drower, 1954.

205 Rogers, 1915.

206 Rogers, 1915

207 Wellard, 1972.

208 Sack, 1991.

209 Sack, 1991.

210 Sack, 1991.

211 Sack, 1991.

212 Gleick, et al,
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