In vitro gas production technique for




Дата канвертавання22.04.2016
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IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR Assessment OF SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas (I) lam) SILAGE USING Fresh FAECAL INOCULUM FROM PIGS

S. Vellaikumar., I. B. Chung., KVSV. Prasad., D. Ravi, A. A. Khan AND M. Blummel




International Livestock Research Institute, Patancheru-502 324, India


ABSTRACT
Vine, tuber and whole plant silages from five cultivars of sweet potato (Hapur local, Indonesia Boger (IB) 97-6/7, IB 12/24, IB 12/7 and CIP SWA-4) were investigated for nitrogen content, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content and rate and extent of in vitro gas production using fresh pig faecal matter as inoculum (1 part faeces: 50 part buffer). Except for nitrogen content, significant cultivars dependent differences were only observed for total plant silages (TPS) but not for vines and tuber silages. In total plant silages nitrogen content, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content ranged from 1.0 to 1.5%, 63.4 to 71.3% and 9.3 to 10.7%, respectively. Highest and lowest extent of in vitro gas production from TPS were 63.8 ml/200 mg DM and 56.3 ml/200 mg DM respectively. No significant differences were observed for rate of in vitro gas production from TPS, however rates of gas production from tubers and vines differed significantly between cultivars.

Key Words: Sweet potato silage, Gas production, Pig faecal inoculum

INTRODUCTION

Sweet potato is widely used as a food - feed crop that supplies food for human consumption and fodder for the livestock. Silages made from vines, tubers and whole plants of improved cultivars contributed substantially to increased productivity in pig systems in Asia (Pezo, 2004; Fuglie et al. 2005). Pigs are monogastric animals and use of sweet potato silage will occur at least partially through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. These microbes are still intact in fresh faecal matter and can potentially be used to inoculate in vitro systems for estimating for example fodder digestibility, metabolizability and rate and extent of fermentation. The objective of the present work was to test an in vitro system inoculated by fresh pig faecal matter using silages prepared from vines, tubers and whole plant of five different cultivars of sweet potato. This in vitro system could then support further improvement of sweet potato for food-feed traits in plant breeding programs.



MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fresh faecal matter was collected from five male crossbred pigs (c. 35 kg live weight) kept on a diet containing sweet potato. The vitro gas production systems of Menke and Steingass (1988) was used for the incubations and also for the calculation of in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content from in vitro gas production. The adoption of this in vitro system to using faecal inoculum instead of rumen fluid has been described by Pandian (2003). In vitro gas production was recorded from 0 to 96h and extent and rate of gas production was described based on the exponential model y = B (1-e-c( t-lag)) where B is the asymptote of gas production, c the rate of gas production and lag a delay in the onset of fermentation.



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Except for nitrogen content and rate of in vitro gas production, silage fodder quality traits did not significantly differ in vines and tubers of the five cultivars (Table 1 and 2). In vitro digestibility, metabolizable energy and in vitro gas production measurements showed higher fodder quality for tubers than for vines, however nitrogen content was higher in the vines than in the tubers. Except for nitrogen content cultivars differences in fodder quality traits was essentially due to differences in vine to tuber proportions.


The observed variation in fodder quality traits was appreciative for whole plant silage and nitrogen content, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content ranged from 1.0 to 1.5%, 63.4 to 71.3% and 9.3 to 10.7%, respectively. Some cautions is advised as in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy estimates were based on equations that uses in vitro gas production in rumen fluid and various chemical constituents such as nitrogen and ash. (Steingass and Menke, 1988). Exact values for digestibility or metabolizable energy content of the silages for pig nutrition will therefore differ from the ones reported in Table 1 and 2, but the ranges reported hold probably true.
Ramakrishna et al. (2006) reported the biomass yield of the silages used for the present work. A comparison of the whole plant biomass dry matter yield with the silage quality data reported in this work (Table 1 and 2) showed that there was no significant relationship between silage quality traits and sweet potato biomass yield. These findings suggest that high biomass yield and high biomass quality are not necessarily exclusive traits. It should therefore be feasible to further improve quantity and quality traits in sweet potato breeding and selection programs. The in vitro technique tested here will be useful in such breeding and selection work.

References

Fuglie, K., Campilan, D. and T.T, Nguyen 2005. Adoption and Impact of Innovations in Smallholder Pig Production in Vietnam. UPWARD Working Paper. International Potato Center, Los Banos, Philippines.

Menke, K.H. and Steingass H., 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained by chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28: 7-51.

Pandian Senthamil C. 2003. Prediction of in vivo digestibility and efficiency of microbial protein production in cattle fed millet stover through in vitro gas production. Master Thesis, Department of Animal Nutrition, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030.

Pezo, D. 2004. Assessing the Impact of the SASA/CASREN Technology Interventions in the Sweet potato-Pig Production Systems in Zitong County (Sichuan, China). International Livestock Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Ramakrishna Reddy Ch., Sreekanth Attaluri, Ilbyung Chung, D. Ravi, A. A. Khan and M. Blümmel. 2006. Variations in vine to tuber ratios and total biomass yield in five cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) (I)lam) grown for silages for pigs. AAAP conference 2006, abstract accepted.


Table 1: Nitrogen content, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content in vines (V), tubers (T) and whole plant (WPL) from five cultivars of sweet potato.


Cultivars

Nitrogen (%)

Digestibility (%)

Metabolizable Energy (MJ/kg)




V

T

WPL

V

T

WPL

V

T

WPL

Ib 97-12/7

2.2

0.6

1.4

53.6

81.2

63.7

7.4

12.6

9.4

Ib 97-12/24

1.7

0.5

1.0

51.7

83.6

70.7

7.1

13.0

10.6

Ib 97 –6/7

2.1

0.7

1.2

60.7

83.5

71.3

8.6

12.9

10.7

CIP swa-4

1.8

0.7

1.5

55.9

79.2

63.4

7.9

12.2

9.3

Hapur local

2.1

0.6

1.2

49.3

80.6

69.3

6.6

12.4

10.3































Mean

2.0

0.6

1.3

54.2

81.6

67.7

7.5

12.6

10.1

LSD

0.1

-

0.2

-

-

4.7

-

-

0.8

P <

0.0002

0.06

0.01

0.22

0.38

0.03

0.19

0.40

0.03

Table 2: Extent, rate and lag phase of in vitro gas production of silages from vines (V), tubers (T) and whole plant (WPL) obtained form five cultivars of sweet potato. Data relate to the incubation of 200 mg of dry silage.

Cultivars


Extent (ml)

Rate (%/h)

Lag (h)




V

T

WPL

V

T

WPL

V

T

WPL

IB 97-12/7

36.2

81.0

53.2

0.102

0.119

0.121

1.5

3.2

2.4

IB 97-12/24

34.7

83.5

62.8

0.099

0.123

0.127

1.3

3.3

2.6

IB 97 –6/7

44.9

82.1

64.2

0.101

0.114

0.110

1.6

3.4

3.0

CIP SWA-4

39.7

77.2

52.1

0.112

0.113

0.107

1.4

3.3

2.5

Hapur Local

30.9

78.5

62.2

0.083

0.129

0.119

1.2

3.0

2.9































Mean

37.3

80.5

58.9

0.099

0.119

0.117

1.4

3.2

2.7

LSD

-

-

6.3

0.015

-

-

-

-

0.368

P <

0.259

0.360

0.015

0.02

0.06

0.109

0.325

0.100

0.043








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