Participants from 68 countries have been participating in the FP7 Energy Theme. The vast majority of participants came however from EU Member States (86% in terms of participants, 89% in terms EU contribution) and countries associated to the FP (9% in terms of participants and EU contribution). Since the level of EU contribution to organisations from a specific country correlates closely with the country's economic performance and overall national research support, countries hosting the highest number of participants are mostly the big Member States. However, taking however into account the number of inhabitants (participants per million inhabitants), smaller countries are heading the list (see graph below).
Participation of organisations from third countries in FP7 projects is one important element of international cooperation. In general, all calls are open to applicants from third countries. Participants from many third countries receive EU support, but participants from industrialised do so only in exceptional circumstances. Other forms of international cooperation are, for example, joint workshops, twinning of projects or coordinated calls. In the latter, the financial support for the EU-funded project is matched by the partner country which supports a similar national project. During the course of FP7, a total of 4 coordinated calls have been organised – with Russia in 2008 (on smart grids and bioenergy), Brazil in 2009 (on bioenergy), India in 2010 (on PV) and Japan in 2011 (PV) – resulting in 8 projects with a total EU contribution of EUR 17.6 million. If these coordinated calls are accounted as contribution to a third country, around 2.3% of the total FP7 Energy budget has been to the benefit of organisation from third countries (1.4% without coordinated calls).