Icl subject Help




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ICL Subject Help


  • Choosing Subject Headings

  • MeSH Headings

  • ChiroSH Headings

  • Chiropractic” as a Heading

  • How Many Headings is Too Many?

  • Proper Punctuation of Headings

  • Proper Order of Headings and Subheadings

  • Personal and Corporate Name Headings

  • Age Groups and Pregnancy Headings

  • Publication Types

  • Publication Types vs. “As Topic” Headings

  • Format Types (videocassette, audiocassette, etc.)

  • You’re just not finding what you need in MeSH or ChiroSH?

  • Useful Resources

Choosing Subject Headings

When adding subject headings to a citation, use only National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) or Chiropractic Subject Headings (ChiroSH).

  • MeSH headings are located online in the MeSH Browser, a searchable database provided by the National Library of Medicine

  • ChiroSH headings are located on the ICL site

Since subject headings periodically change, always consult the MeSH and ChiroSH lists before adding a heading to a citation.

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MeSH Headings

Be aware that each MeSH heading has a prescribed list of subheadings (or “qualifiers”) which may be used in conjunction with it. Read through the MeSH Browser record before adding a subheading to a main heading to make sure it is an accepted combination.

Example: You would like to add Manipulation, Chiropractic as a subject heading and use standards as a subheading. When you read the “Allowable Qualifiers” box of the subject record in the MeSH Browser, you see “ST” in the list. You click on “ST” and discover that it is the abbreviation for standards. Therefore, adding MANIPULATION, CHIROPRACTIC / STANDARDS as a heading to your citation is acceptable.

Example: You are interested in using Education as a subheading for Manipulation, Chiropractic. Because “ED” (education) is not on the list of acceptable qualifiers for Manipulation, Chiropractic you may not use it.

Also, because ICL uses only MeSH and ChiroSH headings, do not include Library of Congress subject headings in a citation, either as main headings or as subheadings. The one exception to this rule is in the assignment of name headings as subjects; for more information on this, see the Personal and Corporate Name Headings section below.

Help! For more information about how to assign MeSH headings, consult NLM’s “Introduction to MeSH” page. This page explains such things as the finer points of using MeSH, provides a guide to MeSH for indexers, and lists new headings.

Since subject headings periodically change, always consult the MeSH and ChiroSH lists before adding a heading to a citation. Do not rely upon ICL’s subject index to provide you with the most current or the correct headings.

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ChiroSH Headings

ChiroSH headings were designed to be applied in conjunction with MeSH headings; rules regarding the proper application of MeSH headings should be followed when building ChiroSH headings.

Unlike MeSH, which has lists of acceptable qualifiers for each heading, ChiroSH does not. Therefore, try to find parallel terminology in MeSH when assigning qualifiers to a ChiroSH heading. When a ChiroSH term states that it was based upon a MeSH term, go to MeSH to see which qualifiers may be applied to that term. Then use that MeSH term as your guide when applying qualifiers to your ChiroSH term.

Example: You want to apply the heading Chiropractic Staff, Hospital to your citation, so you look it up in ChiroSH. Following the scope note for Chiropractic Staff, Hospital [ChiroSH] is the statement: “(Based upon the MeSH definition of Medical Staff, Hospital.) You look up Medical Staff, Hospital in MeSH and find the list of allowable qualifiers in the subject record. You select the appropriate one for your citation, and add it to the end of Chiropractic Staff, Hospital.

Help! Use the MeSH Browser and the MeSH Qualifiers list as references. Also, consult the ChiroSH editors (Ann Kempke and Bethyn Boni) with questions.

Help! A guide to the proper application of ChiroSH headings and their combination with MeSH headings can be found in the “Introduction and Instructions for Use” section of ChiroSH.

Since subject headings periodically change, always consult the MeSH and ChiroSH lists before adding a heading to a citation. Do not rely upon ICL’s subject index to provide you with the most current or the correct headings. [Top]

“Chiropractic” as a Heading

As a general rule, Chiropractic is too broad a heading to be of much use in ICL; prefer more specific headings or use Chiropractic with applicable subheadings instead.

Headings for named techniques are listed in ChiroSH and may come in handy when indexing an article about a specific chiropractic technique.

Help! To determine when to use the various iterations of Chiropractic (Chiropractic; Chiropractic / methods; Manipulation, Chiropractic; etc.), consult the scope note under Chiropractic in ChiroSH.

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How Many Headings is Too Many?

There is no limit to the number of subject headings that may be added to a citation.


Use no more than three topical subheadings with any one main heading, except in very rare circumstances. For any item in which more than three subheadings seem to be needed with a single main heading, apply the Topical Subheading Hierarchies in an attempt to reduce the number of qualifiers required.

Example: An article discusses diagnosis, therapy, epidemiology, and mortality of back pain. The disease heading, Back Pain, is repeated with each of the first three subheadings. The last subheading is not applied because it falls under epidemiology in the subheading hierarchy. You add

BACK PAIN / DIAGNOSIS

BACK PAIN / THERAPY

BACK PAIN / EPIDEMIOLOGY

to your citation.

If an item substantively discusses many aspects of a topic, use the main heading without qualification if the number of topical subheadings cannot be limited to three by applying the subheading hierarchies.

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Proper Punctuation of Headings


Enter subject headings in all capital letters.

When attaching subheadings to main headings, use the forward slash. Include one space before and one space after the forward slash.



Example: CHIROPRACTIC / HISTORY / KANSAS

Do not include a period at the end of a subject heading.



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Proper Order of Headings and Subheadings

Subject headings with subheadings follow a specific order of elements. It is:

Main heading [also called “descriptor”] / topical subheading [also called “qualifier”] / geographic location / language.

Example: CHIROPRACTIC / HISTORY / NEW MEXICO / SPANISH

Example: BACK PAIN / THERAPY

Do not “stack” topical subject headings; that is, use multiple qualifiers with one main heading.

Example: CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS / STANDARDS is an example of too many qualifiers used with one main heading. Instead, use two entries: CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS

CHIROPRACTIC / STANDARDS

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Personal and Corporate Name Headings

Personal and corporate names may be used as subject headings. When using a personal or corporate name as a subject heading, use only a name heading that has been approved for use by the National Library of Medicine or the Library of Congress, if one exists. This helps maintain a clean database, while providing users with optimal search results: all articles written about a specific person or corporate body will be located under one heading, rather than scattered about the database under a variety of headings.

Begin by searching the subject file in ICL. Perhaps another indexer has already used the name in question as a subject. If so, enter the name heading into the “Subject” box of the ICL citation input screen exactly as it was used by previous indexers. If you find that there are several different entries for what appears to be the same person, send a message to the editors of ChiroSH (Ann Kempke, Bethyn Boni, and Janet Tapper) to alert them of this problem. They will clean up the duplicate headings.

To verify the name heading you find in ICL or if you don’t find a heading in ICL, search the name authority files at NLM using LocatorPlus.

  • Go to: http://130.14.16.150/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First

  • (Or, go to http://locatorplus.gov/ and select “LocatorPlus.”)

  • Type a name in the “Search:” box

  • Highlight “Browse MARC Name Authority” in the “As:” box

  • Click on “Search”

  • Click on the “Authorized Heading” tab on the left-hand side of the list if your search retrieves a possible match

  • Continue clicking on hyperlinks until you reach the full name authority record.

Evaluate the record to determine whether your desired personal or corporate name heading matches the one already established in LocatorPlus. If so, type the name heading into the “Subject” box of the ICL citation input screen exactly as it appears in the 100 or 110 field of the MARC record, including punctuation but excluding capitalization. Leave out all subfield delimiters, too. Use all capital letters when entering the heading in ICL.


Example: You would like to add B.J. Palmer as the subject of a citation. You follow the steps listed above and find a LocatorPlus record that includes:

100 1_ |a Palmer, B. J. |q (Bartlett Joshua), |d b. 1881

You enter into your citation:



PALMER, B. J. (BARTLETT JOSHUA), B. 1881

If you have no luck with LocatorPlus, try the Library of Congress name authority file.

  • Go to: http://authorities.loc.gov

  • Click on “Search Authorities”

  • Type a name in the “Search Text” box

  • Select “Name Authority Headings” in the “Search Type” box

  • Click on “Begin Search”

  • Click on the “Authorized Heading” icon

  • Click on subsequent hyperlinks to see the record for a possible match

Again, if you find a heading that is a match, type the name heading into the “Subject” box of the ICL citation input screen exactly as it appears on the screen, including punctuation, but eliminating subfield delimiters (the “|” symbol and letter immediately following it). Include other punctuation but exclude capitalization; enter the name heading in all capital letters, as shown in the example above.

Help! If all searches fail to return results, send your name in question to the editors of ChiroSH (Ann Kempke and Bethyn Boni), and they will create a new heading for you.

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Age Groups and Pregnancy Headings

NLM has ended its practice of using “in …” with age groups (e.g. “in infancy & childhood”) and “in pregnancy” as phrase topical subheadings to qualify main headings. Instead, age groups are broken out into specific headings such as “Infant,” “Child,” and “Aged,” while “in pregnancy” has become simply “Pregnancy.” Many main headings may be applied to a citation while the appropriate age group heading (e.g. “Adolescent”) or “Pregnancy” is added only once per citation.

Do not treat Age Groups or Pregnancy as subheadings, as they have been treated in the past. Instead, use five different editor-approved age group headings and one pregnancy heading as main headings, in addition to separate topical subject headings.

Example: The heading that was formerly CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS / IN INFANCY & CHILDHOOD

has now become three headings:

CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS

INFANT

CHILD

Example: The heading that was formerly CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS / IN PREGNANCY has now become two headings:

CHIROPRACTIC / METHODS

PREGNANCY

If there are multiple headings per citation, enter each heading without the age group or pregnancy subheading. Then enter the age group or pregnancy heading once per citation.

ICL allows indexers to apply five of MeSH’s age group qualifiers, plus Pregnancy, as main headings:

  • Infant, for articles discussing babies 1-23 months old

  • Child, for articles discussing children ages 2-12

  • Adolescent, for articles discussing children ages 13-18

  • Adult, for articles discussing people ages 19-64

  • Aged, for articles discussing all adults 65 and over

  • Pregnancy, for articles discussing mother and/or fetus

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Publication Types

Publication types are used to describe the type of article you’re indexing, not its content. In other words, articles that are a certain type of writing style receive an appropriate publication type; articles that are about a certain type or style of writing do not receive publication types. When adding a publication type to a citation, append it in square brackets after the title of the article. Then select the appropriate publication type from the drop-down menu in the article submission form, if one exists. Only publication types that are included in this drop-down menu are accepted for use in ICL.

See the ICL Help Files for more information on how to use publication types in ICL.

Publication types may not be used as subject headings or subheadings in ICL.

Consult the MeSH publication characteristics (publication types) for definitions of the different publication types.

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Publication Types vs. “As Topic” Headings

Articles that are a certain type of writing style receive appropriate publication type treatment in ICL; articles that are about a certain type or style of writing do not receive publication type treatment. For example, if an article is a literature review on back pain, it is a review article. Review is the proper publication type that would be appended to a title in square brackets and selected from the publication type drop-down menu while indexing. If it is an article that explains how to write a review article, or how to read a review article, or some other such topic regarding review articles, it is about reviews—that is its topic. Review Literature as Topic is the proper stand-alone subject heading to apply to the citation.

Example: You are indexing an article that is an editorial about chiropractic education. You add [Editorial] to the end of the title and you select Editorial from the drop-down menu of publication types in the article submission form.

Example: Your are indexing an article that contains instructions for researchers on how to conduct a controlled clinical trial. You do not add anything to the title of the article, and you select Article from the drop-down menu of publication types in the article submission form. Then you add CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC as a subject heading.

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Format Types

Format type headings (e.g. audiocassette, videocassette) are not acceptable MeSH or ChiroSH headings and therefore should not be included as subject headings or subheadings in ICL.

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You’re Just Not Finding What You Need in MeSH or ChiroSH?

If you are indexing an article for which you can find no applicable MeSH or ChiroSH heading, consider submitting a request to the ChiroSH Committee for the creation of a new heading. Send your suggestion to: Ann Kempke, Bethyn Boni, or Janet Tapper.

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Useful Resources

The following resources may be helpful when selecting subject headings for citations:

  • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

  • Chiropractic Subject Headings (ChiroSH)

  • Use of MeSH in Indexing

  • Introduction to MeSH (a good jumping-off point to learning more about MeSH and how to use it)

  • NLM LocatorPlus (the online catalog of the National Library of Medicine, which includes access to the name authority files and instructions for searching)

  • Library of Congress name authority file

  • PubMed

  • Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL)

And always feel free to contact the ICL and ChiroSH editors for help:

ICL Editors: Phyllis Harvey and Anne Taylor-Vaisey.

ChiroSH Editors: Ann Kempke and Bethyn Boni.

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