I. introduction (pp. 551-552)

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I. INTRODUCTION (pp. 551-552)

Plants are placed into groups based on structural and functional similarities, but all plants share the following


A. Plants are _______________, __________________ organisms with _______________________________

B. All plant cells have _______________________ composed of _______________________.

C. Plants are _____________________, which means they can use energy from the _________ to make ___________ in

_______________________. Photosynthesis takes place in the ________________ of plant cells. The equation for

photosynthesis is ________________________________________________.

D. Plants are ____________________; therefore, special adaptations are required for ____________________.
II. PLANT STRUCTURE & GROWTH (pp. 579 - 597)

A. Plant Transport

Larger plants must have a way to transport __________________ and ___________________. This is carried out by

two types of _____________. Together the vessels (cells working together) make up a ________________ in plants

known as __________________ tissue. Plants are divided into two groups, based on whether or not they have

vascular tissue.

1. Xylem transports _______________ & __________________ from the ____________ to the rest of the plant.

2. Phloem transports _________________ from the _________________ to the rest of the plant.

B. Plant Growth

1. Primary Growth – Lifelong growth occurs at the tips of the ____________ and the end of the ___________ in tissue

called the ____________________.

2. Secondary Growth – Trees and some other plants have a second type of meristem tissue; allows them to grow

in width or girth.

C. Roots

Roots _____________________________________, absorb __________ and _________________ from the soil, and

transport these materials to the stem. Some plants also store food in their roots. Each root has root hairs, tiny

extensions of epidermal cells that increase _______________________________ for _________________.

D. Stems

Stems provide support for the plant. They contain _____________ to transport water & minerals and ____________

to transport nutrients.

E. Seeds

Not all plants produce seeds, but those that do have a tremendous reproductive advantage. A seed consists of an

_______________ surrounded by a tough protective coat.

1. Survival Advantages of Seeds

a. Protection

b. Nourishment - ____________ is stored in the seed for developing __________________

c. Dispersal – Easily spread by ___________________________________; reduces competition for ____________

d. Dormancy – Seeds remain dormant or _________________ until conditions are _____________.

2. Seed Germination

The first visible evidence that a seed is germinating is the emergence of the embryo's ____________,

followed by the growth of an embryonic shoot that develops into the plant's ____________.

E. Leaves

Leaves are the main organ for _______________________. They have a large surface area for maximum

____________________________________. The structures of a leaf include:

A. Cuticle - ___________ covering to prevent ___________________

B. Epidermis – Outermost layer of cells; prevents ________________________________

C. Mesophyll - ______________________________ layer of leaf

1. Palisade layer – Upper portion of mesophyll with closely packed cells; site of most _______________________

2. Spongy layer – Underside of leaf; loosely-packed cells to allow for exchange of _______________________

D. Vein - __________ + ______________

E. Stomata – Opening in underside of leaf that allows ___________ to enter; __________ to exit.

F. Guard Cells – Control size of ___________________. Work to preserve balance between allowing for gas

exchange without losing too much _________________. “Plant sweat” is known as ______________________.


Plants are divided into two basic groups based on whether they contain _________________ tissue:

A. Bryophytes (pp. 556-559)

Bryophytes, or ____________, are the only group of plants that lack vascular tissue. This limits both the __________

and _____________________ of this group of plants. Mosses are ___________ and typically live in _____________

areas. In addition, a moist climate is required because mosses have ___________________ sperm. The sperm must

swim to the _________ cell in order for __________________ to take place.

B. Tracheophytes (pp. 560 - 562)

Tracheophytes are vascular plants which allows them to ________________________________________________

and ________________________________________________. The tracheophytes are further subdivided based

on the presence or absence of pollen, seeds, and fruit:

1. Pterophytes – No pollen, no seeds, no fruits

Pterophytes are commonly called ________________. Although ferns contain vascular tissue, they are still found

predominantly in moist climates because the sperm must __________ to the egg cell.

2. GymnospermsHave pollen and seeds, no fruit

The word, “gymnosperm” means _______________________ because the seed is not protected by a

____________. . A unique characteristic of gymnosperms is the presence of ___________. The largest group is

the _____________ which includes ______________________. Conifers have characteristic leaves called

____________, which are modified to ___________________________ and

________________________________________________. In addition, gymnosperms (and angiosperms)

have “flying sperm” or _________________, so they are no longer tied to _______________ for reproduction.

3. AngiospermsHave pollen, seeds, and fruit

Angiosperms are the most complex and adaptable of all plant groups. They are also the most successful due to two

important modifications:

A. Fruit - A fruit is a mature _____________ that contains one or more seeds. It provides the embryo with greater

____________________ and _______________________ than found in gymnosperm seeds. The fruit also facilitates

seed dispersal because fruits are eaten by _____________, seeds pass through ____________________________

and are _______________________. Some fruits are not intended to be _________________.

B. Flower - The flower is the reproductive system of the angiosperm. It enhances __________________, which occurs

as a first step to fertilization.

1. The male reproductive organ is the _______________, which consists of the _________________ and

_________________. ______________, is produced by the anther and contains the ________________.

2. The female reproductive organ is the _________________, which consists of the ________________________

______________________________. Fertilization of the __________ cell occurs in the _______________.

C. Types of Angiosperms – Angiosperms are further classified into two groups based on the characteristics shown below.

Monocots include plants such as ___________________________________________. Dicots are more abundant

and include plants such as _____________________________________________________________.

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