How to prevent the most serious diseases




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HOW TO PREVENT THE MOST SERIOUS DISEASES

OF BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum L. ) – A CASE STUDY OF VIETNAM
Nguyen tang Ton and Bui Chi Buu

Institute of Agricultural Sciences for Southern Vietnam

ABSTRACT

At present, soil-borne diseases and pests are the main problems confronting the development of pepper production in Vietnam. Results of studies on diseases and pests in black pepper showed that there are five major species of fungi, in which Phytophthora capsici is the most destructive fungus; two species of nematodes and mealy bug are two main pests of black pepper.

Foot rot or quick wilt caused mainly by Phytophthora capsici and slow decline caused by nematodes, mealy bug and other soil-borne fungi fungi are main factors causing the degradation of pepper gardens. In many pepper orchards, these two diseases brought about slow growth and death of pepper vines, in some cases 100% pepper vines died off.

Good drainage in the rainy season, water-saving irrigation including drip irrigation and under-shade sprinkler minimise the spread and contamination of diseases, and significantly reduce the incidence and yield loss of pepper gardens. However, there are no evidence about the effectiveness of the drainage on the population of nematodes in soils and pepper roots.

Liming and treatment of soils before planting with some chemicals, such as Bordeaux mixture, Hexaconazol, Mancozeb, Fosetyl Aluminium, Methidathion, Ethroprophos and Copper Hydroxide, are effective practices for the management of foot rot and slow decline.

Mulching and planting of cover crops, such as Arachid pintoi and Stylosanthes sp., do not reduce the population of destructive micro-organims but these measures help to improve soil nutrients and regulate soil humidity, hence improve plant health.

Timely application of manure and micro-nutrients with micro-organism products, namely Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus sp. help to limit the development of foot rot and slow decline in black pepper.

The integrated crop management of black pepper is considered the best practice in limiting the outbreak of soil-born diseases of black pepper, this procedure help to keep a stable yield of black pepper gardens and contribute to a sustainable development of black pepper.



1. Introduction
With a quick increase of growing areas and the intensive cultivation of black pepper over the past ten years, disease problems would naturally set in and widely disseminate. Depending on the management practices in each region, the disease severity would vary considerably from time to time. Most of the disease problems are quite similar in some black pepper growing areas of the country. This is due to the inherent susceptibility of the cultivars commonly grown in the region to pathogens, and also due to the propagation of infected planting materials, the later often being the case in the spatial spread of the disease within the region.

Within the theme of “Enhancing Production and Productivity of Black Pepper” in the Business Session of IPC Annual Meeting, this article focuses on soil-borne diseases of black pepper in Vietnam and their intensive management.


2. Soil-borne Diseases
In Vietnam, the incidence of diseases and pests on black pepper was recorded in the early half of 20th century (Chevalier, 1925; Biard and Roule, 1942). Pepper growing area in Kien Giang and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces declined from 930 thousand stakes in 1910 to 540 thousand stakes in 1927 due to diseases, in which foot rot was the most destructive disease (Barat, 1952).

Survey and research reports in the past 25 years showed that diseases and pests incidence, especially foot rot disease, is the main problem confronting the sustainable development of black pepper in Vietnam (Nguyen Phi Long, 1987; Pham van Bien, 1989; Nguyen Ngoc Chau, 1995; Nguyen Thi Chat, 2001; Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005; Ngo Vinh Vien, 2007; Plant Protection Department, 2007; Nguyen Tang Ton, 2011). Serious soil-borne diseases and diseases enhancing insect are demonstrated in Table 1.

Table 1. Major diseases and pests on black pepper in Vietnam

Order

Diseases and pests

Causal agents

Infected parts

Level

1

Foot rot

Phytophthora capsici

Collar region, roots

+++

2

Slow decline

M. incognita, R. similis

Roots

+++

3

Stunted

PYMV, CMV, TMV, Badna virus

Leaves, shoots

+

4

Root rot

Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium sp.

Collar

++

5

Leaf spot

Diplodia sp.

Leaves

+

6

Leaf blight

C. gloeosporioides

Leaves

++

7

Algae leaf spot

Cephaleuros virescens

Leaves, branches, fruits

++

8

Mealy bug

Pseudococcus sp.

Leaves, branches, fruit spikes, stem, collar

++

Note: (+++) very popular; (++) popular; (+) rare

Source: Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005


2.1 Foot Rot

Phytophthora foot rot, considered the most devastating disease of black pepper, has been reported to cause an annual crop loss of 5-10% (Kueh, 1990) and up to 95% for individual farmers (Manohara et al. 2004). In Vietnam, the disease occurs with the highest level during the rainy season (May to November). Early infection shows the lesions with minute spots on leaves near the ground, becoming specific fimbriate edge leaf lesions. The disease is usually undetected by farmers and technicians until the upper part of pepper vine shows symptoms of leaf yellowing, wilting and dropping (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005). Once these symptoms are observed, the infection is already at its severe stage with most of the root rotted and the underground stem showing a brownish-black lesion. At this stage, the infected collar is invaded by secondary micro-organisms.

Rotting of collar and roots induces a discontinuation of water and nutrition transport between the underground parts and the upper parts of the plant; this causes symptoms of sudden leaf wilting and dropping. In many cases, leaves turn black but still hang on the dying vines for weeks or months. The disease progresses rapidly, especially during the rainy season and the plant death occurs within 2-3 weeks. In Indonesia, Manohara and Rizal (2002) reported that the surrounding plants adjacent to an infected plant become infected after one or two months, this dissemination is more quickly during the rainy season. Main reasons and causal agents inducing and spread foot rot disease are described in Table 2.

Table 2. Main causes of foot rot of black pepper in major pepper growing areas

of Vietnam

Causes

Evaluation

(%)


Runoff water from infected gardens

96.1

Soils of high humidity

68.6

Phytophthora capsisi




Nematodes

31.3

Unbalance fertilization

27.4

Clean weeding

13.7

Susceptible cultivars

11.7

Mealy bug

5.8

Excessive irrigation

9.8

Inherent fungi

5.8

Bumping crop

3.9

Heavy rain

1.9

Deep planting, no ridging

1.9

Note: compared with normal case

Source: Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005



2.2 Slow Decline

Black pepper plants suppressed by slow decline disease shows the symptoms of slow growth, leaves turn to yellowish green, then pale yellow and gradually drop from the lower to the upper parts of the plant (Phan Quoc Sung, 2000). Slow decline occurs when pepper plants are infested with parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis) and mealy bug (Pseudococcus citri), or infected with soil-borne fungi (Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Pythium sp.) solely or in combination, especially when pepper plants are in nutritional disorder.

Bridge (1978) reported that the reason led to slow decline of black pepper is rather complex, due to not only a species of nematodes or fungi, but an interaction of nematodes and fungi. The author had isolated various causal agents, namely M. incognita, R. similis, F. oxysporum and F. solani in roots of pepper plants suppressed by slow decline.

2. Diseases Management

Since the foot rot and slow decline diseases are soil-borne and the causal agents have a wide range of host plants, especially till now commercial pepper varieties/cultivars resistant to these two diseases are not available. Therefore, successful management of these two biotic stresses needs a holistic approach. However, in setting integrated disease management (IDM), integrated pest management (IPM) and integrated crop management (ICM) strategies for black pepper, there is a need to examine and define effective practices of each component.



2.1 Varieties and planting materials

As mentioned above, there is no pepper variety resistant to foot rot and slow decline. In Vietnam, Lada Belantoeng variety imported from Madagascar in 1947, widely grown during 1960s and 1970s, showed rather high tolerant to foot rot (Phan Huu Trinh et al., 1988). The problem is that this variety was degraded after a longtime of vegetative propagation, resulting in less fruit setting, low yield and small seed.

An Do cultivars (Karimunda and Panniyur 1) imported from India during the early 1990 show promising in the first 3-4 years after planting, less suppressed by foot rot and slow decline, but due to well vegetative growth, their yield and seed quality decline gradually (Ton Nu Tuan Nam, 2005).

Vinh Linh and Tieu Trung varieties, their origin is unknown, perform well in many pepper growing regions with low incidence and yield loss from diseases. Other advantages of these two varieties are early fruit setting and high peppercorn quality. However, sometimes and somewhere there have been outbreaks of diseases, especially foot rot (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005).

In production, black pepper is commercially propagated through cuttings; the propagation through seed is carried out mainly in breeding and screening programs. With vegetative propagation, it is enormous that all cuttings are disease-free and are taken from disease-free gardens. In Vietnam, farmers commonly use their own cuttings or cuttings from neighbors as planting material, this is a problem in the dissemination of latent infected planting material from fields to fields. Agricultural authorities and extension agencies at different levels have encouraged farmers to purchase planting material from registered nurseries.

Grafting work using Phytophthora capsici resistant P. colubrinum as rootstocks and P. nigrum as scions was tested. After five years of planting, no abscission of the scion were recorded, but the grafted pepper showed the symptoms of drought stress during the dry season and had fewer fruit spikes, hence gave lower seed yield (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2010).



2.2 Cultivation Practices

During the past ten years, cultivation practices including soil treatment, support systems, drainage and irrigation, balance fertilization, pruning of pepper and live support, removal of infected plants, cover crops and mulching, intercropping and rotation of old pepper yards were been studied in research stations located in main pepper growing regions. At the same time, research results and constant monitoring were tested in farmer’s fields, appropriate cultivation techniques that farmers adopted were recommended and disseminated to production on a large scale.



2.2.1 Pepper orchard establishment

At present, less than 50% pepper orchards has good drainage systems. Since the rainy season in main pepper growing regions last for 5-6 months and more than 60% of annual rainfall falls down in 1-2 months of mid-rainy season, soils of the orchards are in temporary inundations and/or high moisture capacity, these enhance the dissemination and outbreak of soil-borne fungi, especially Phytophthora.

Demonstration plots with suitable drainage systems revealed that the population of fungi and in the soils around pepper collar and the root zone are less than a half of check plots, while the population of nematodes in soils and infested root remains unchanged in both two plots (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2011).

2.2.2 Soil treatment

In research stations, the utilization of sun-dried soils mixed with Trichoderma treated manure in nursery shows effective against Phytophthora foot rot during the first two years after planting, this helps to lower 22% of infected plants as compared with conventional method of seedling propagation (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005). However, the adoption of farmers is still limited due to permanent shading of nursery and unavailability of effective Trichoderma product in remote areas.

Sun-drying of soils in the pits two month and the treatment of these soils with Bordeaux mixture one week before planting become more common to pepper farmers. Surveys from 220 pepper holders in Daklak, Binh Phuoc and Ba Ria-Vung Tau provinces showed that 78% of these farmers adopted this practice and the incidence of diseases decreased 22.8%.

2.2.3 Support systems, pruning of live support and pepper plant

There are many forms of pepper support. Before the year 2000, farmers living nearby forests, i.e. Central Highlands and Binh Phuoc province used dead wood as supports, but now most pepper farmers in the Southeastern region (SER), Central Highlands (CH) and Quang Tri province prefers live support; in Phu Quoc, concrete pole is still popular.

Live support is used in almost newly established pepper orchards in Binh Phuoc province and in the Central Highlands. There is no significant difference in yields of pepper climbing on wood standard and live support. In general, pepper spacing in the gardens of live support is larger than that of wood standard and concrete pole, two cuttings is planted and four to six pepper stems are kept on a support.

Research results and surveys showed that diseases incidence and percentage of died plant from foot rot were lower in the pepper fields with live support as compared to dead wood standard, concrete and brick tower. There is no difference in slow decline index of pepper climbing on six live supports, namely Cassia siamea, Wrightia annamensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Adenanthera pavonina, Glyricidia sepium and Gmelina arborea (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2005). Therefore, farmers would utilize which species of support that is available in the area.

From 3th year after planting, pruning of live support three times a year, one month after the onset of the rainy season, mid-rainy season and one month before the dry season can limit support shading and provides a good environment for the growth and development of pepper. Three prunings reduce 2.3% died plant from foot rot as compared with two prunings (Nguyen Tang Ton, 2010).

Branches lying on or near the ground level should be pruned so that rain splashes cannot inoculate the pathogen to leaves and spikes.



2.2.4 Balance fertilization

Farm surveys revealed that in most of pepper producing areas, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are overused, because farmers are familiar with the utilization of mixed fertilizers (16-16-8 or 20-20-15 of N-P2O5-K20) with a common rate of 1.5-2.0 kg/support. Besides the above formula, some farmers apply nitrogen fertilizer as dressing at the beginning of the rainy season and potassium fertilizer at the onset of the dry season, when pepper vines are bearing fruits.

Excessive application of inorganic fertilizers, especially N and P, often creates an unbalance status of plant nutrition in soils and distorts the growth and development of normal pepper plants. Appropriate proportions of N:P2O5:K2O are 3:2:3 on Haplic Acrisols and 2:1:2 on Ferralsols.

Farmers in Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Binh Phuoc and DakLak apply low rate of organic fertilizers (5-6/stake) while in Phu Quoc, Gia Lai and Quang Tri pepper are applied with higher rates of organic fertilizers.

Fertilizer trials on black pepper in commercial phase indicated that the application of manure at 10kg/stake annually or 20kg/stake every two years gives a better performance of pepper plants, reduces diseases incidence and results in higher yield than the treatments of less than 5kg/stake/year.

2.2.5 Irrigation and drainage

In Phu Quoc, furrow irrigation is a popular practice and the interval between irrigation is 8-10 days. In other pepper producing areas, confined irrigation is practised with an interval of 5-7days. In Ba Ria-Vung Tau, some farmers practise micro-sprinkler, this is a good practice helping to save irrigation water in the dry season, especially in time when underground water is depleted.

In Phu Quoc, irrigation furrows are also used as drainage systems in the rainy season, therefore all pepper orchards have the drainage systems, whereas in Quang Tri, Southeastern region and Central Highlands this figure is only 45%.

The outbreak of foot rot disease occurs more frequent in the region with flat lands and pepper orchards without drainage systems. In some years, foot rot destroys hundreds hectares of black pepper in one district (Ngo Vinh Vien, 2007).



2.2.6 Weeding

In most of pepper producing areas, farmers used to do clear weeding; this disturbs the ecology in pepper gardens, enhances water flow in the rainy season, and provides the opportunities for pests and diseases outbreaks, especially foot rot and slow decline. Clear weeding also enhances soil erosion and nutrient washout in pepper orchards on slopping lands.



2.2.7 Removal of infected plants

Removal of infected and dead plants and trashes is strongly recommended since these trashes are sources plenty of pathogen. In many pepper orchards, farmers let dead plants on supports and dropped leaves from foot rot scatters everywhere in the orchard. Trials on farmers’ field showed that removal of dead, infected plants and trashes proves a positive effect on the prevention and control of foot rot and slow decline. Percentage of plants infected with foot rot and disease index are equal to 27% and 64%, respectively, to those of check (unremoval).



2.2.8 Cover crops and mulching

Planting of cover crops, namely wild groundnut (Arachis pintoi) Chinese wedelia (Wedelia chinensis) and stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis), and mulching of rice straw and dried weeds do not inhibit the development of destructive micro-organisms and the incidence soil-borne diseases. However, these practices help to keep stable soil moisture in the dry season and reduce water runoff in the rainy season, enrich organic matter in soils, reduce upturning and breaking of soil surface, these lead to an increase of pepper yield 8-12% and seed bulk density 5-7%.



2.2.9 Intercropping and rotation

Pepper is grown either alone or in mixed gardens, e.g. with robusta coffee on farms in Chau Duc district (Ba Ria-Vung Tau). This is one form of diversification which may help to minimize financial risk when prices vary, and biological risk due to pests and diseases in the environment. The advantage of pepper-coffee intercropping is that farmers supply enough water to coffee and a little amount of water to pepper, there is no water logging in the root zone of pepper plants, and proportion of Phytophthora infected plants and slow decline index of pepper plot decreases significantly.

In addition, some forms of ley farming will be necessary to help regenerate soil fertility and to break pests and diseases cycles in monocultural pepper production systems. Without rotation, pepper plants of second generation grown on the same field could not develop normally and give berry, plants die off after 3-4 years of planting.

2.2.10 Frequent

Frequent monitoring of of the field condition and plant performance should be diligent carried out to enable early detection of disease symptoms. Due to the devastating foot rot and costly remedial measures for the control of slow decline, frequent monitoring allows early detection and prompt execution of control and eradication measures.



2.3 Mechanical and Physical measures

Large pepper orchards need to be divided into smaller plots with trenches to collect run-off rain water and restrict the movement of Phytophthora zoospores and other destructive micro-organisms.

The movement of animals into the orchard should be restricted by fencing the area or by restraining the animals. When there is diseases outbreak, visitors of large number also can be restrained.

2.4 Chemical and Biological Methods

In Vietnam, chemical control has been a common practice in the prevention and control of foot rot and slow decline. This is normally carried when diseases outbreak occurs. In the trend of a changing towards IDM,IPM and INM, more safe and environmental friendly methods need to be developed and widely used. In farmers’ field trials and large scale production, phenylamides (metalaxyl) and phosphonate, particularly fosetyl-aluminium and potassium phosphonate are effective against foot rot. Other common agro-chemicals used for foot rot are copper oxychloride, Bordeaux mixture and phosphorous acid.

Common and effective nematicides are sincocin + agrispon, ethoprophos, thiophanate-methyl and Benomyl + Zineb.

Trichoderma products from Cantho University and WASI, and Pseudomonas fluorescens from Hue UAF are effective against foot rot. The utilization of manure treated with Trichoderma can reduce the population of soil-borne fungi and nemafodes and incidence of foot rot and slow decline.
3. Demonstration of ICM

Vinh Linh variety and the combination the above-mentioned management methods was put into six demonstration fields (ICM) in Quang Tri, Daklak and Binh Phuoc, three major pepper growing areas, for 30 months. Results showed that the proportion of foot rot infected plants and slow decline index were 1.82% and 3.02%, while those of farmers’ practice were 3.98% and 8.10% on average.

Seed yield of ICM plots (3.6 t/ha) surpassed that of farmers’ practice plots (3.3 t/ha) significantly. The net income of ICM plots was higher than that of farmers’ practice 36% (USD 2,500/ha)

Principal component analysis shows the effectiveness of each method in ICM as compared with that in farmers’ practice (Table 3).

Table 3. Prevention and control measures for foot rot and slow decline

Prevention and control measures

Effectiveness

(%)


Good drainage systems

94.1

Plant health maintenance

58.8

Organic fertilizer application

49.8

Balanced inorganic fertilizer application

48.3

Agro-chemicals and bio-fungicide application

47.6

Cover crops, mulching

39.8

Liming

33.3

Foliar fertilizer application

1.9

Limited upturning soil

1.9

Ridging, shallow planting

1.9

Note: compared with farmers’ practice

Source: Nguyen Tang Ton, 2011


4. Concluding Remarks
Foot rot or quick wilt caused mainly by Phytophthora capsici and slow decline caused by nematodes, mealy bug and other soil-borne fungi fungi are main factors causing the degradation of pepper gardens. In many pepper orchards, these two diseases brought about slow growth and death of pepper vines, in some cases 100% pepper vines died off.

Varietal resistance does not successfully affect. Good drainage in the rainy season, water-saving irrigation including drip irrigation and under-shade sprinkler minimise the spread and contamination of diseases, and significantly reduce the incidence and yield loss of pepper gardens.

Mulching and planting of cover crops, such as Arachid pintoi and Stylosanthes sp., do not reduce the population of destructive micro-organims but these measures help to improve soil nutrients and regulate soil humidity, hence improve plant health.

The integrated crop management of black pepper is considered the best practice in limiting the outbreak of soil-born diseases of black pepper, this procedure help to keep a stable yield of black pepper gardens and contribute to a sustainable development of black pepper.



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