Hossack et al. Montana Branchiopoda 4/24/2016




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Hossack et al. Montana Branchiopoda 4/24/2016

Blake R. Hossack1, U.S. Geological Survey, 790 E. Beckwith Ave., Missoula, MT 59801

and


Robert L. Newell 2Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana, 32125 Bio Station Lane, Polson, MT 59860

and


D. Christopher Rogers, EcoAnalysts, Inc. 166 Buckeye Street, Woodland, CA 95695
Large Branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca) from Glacier National Park and Wildlife Refuges in Western Montana, with Additional County-level Records
1 table, 1 figure.
Running footer: Montana Branchiopoda
1Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: blake_hossack@usgs.gov

Introduction

Fairy shrimp (order Anostraca) and tadpole shrimp (order Notostraca), members of the crustacean class Branchiopoda, are important components of many freshwater and saline wetlands (Dodson and Frey 2001, Brendonk et al. 2008). These animals are especially common in seasonal wetlands, where populations are maintained by banks of resting eggs that may remain dormant for decades or longer (Brendonck 1996). Both orders are distributed worldwide (Brendonk et al. 2008). Fairy shrimp are more prone to endemism, with several species listed as threatened or endangered, and new species are described frequently (e.g., Rogers 2006, Rogers et al. 2006). Most of the comparatively few species of tadpole shrimp are widespread, but there is 1 endemic described from central California (L. packardi) and the recently described Lepidurus cryptus in the Northwest (Rogers 2001).

We report fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp collected during surveys for amphibians on Department of the Interior lands in western Montana from 2001 to 2008, primarily in Glacier National Park (NP). Glacier NP has an extensive history of limnology research but wetland invertebrates have not been well documented (Newell and Hossack, in review). Although western North America has been surveyed extensively for large branchiopod crustaceans, most effort in Montana has been focused on the Great Plains in the eastern portion of the state. We also provide an updated account of fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp collected from Montana, as well as species that occur in surrounding areas and may eventually be documented in the state.
Study Area and Methods

Wetlands in Glacier NP have been surveyed for amphibians since 1999 as part of a long-term monitoring and research program by the U.S. Geological Survey (Corn et al. 2005). Glacier NP is a 4082 km2 reserve that forms part of the Glacier-Waterton International Peace Park along the U.S.–Canada border. Elevations range from approximately 950 m to 3190 m. Much of the park is characterized by U-shaped valleys that reflect the extensive glaciation of the region during the Pleistocene (Carrara 1989). West of the Continental Divide, the park is dominated by a moist Pacific maritime climate. East of the Divide, the continental-polar air masses result in a colder, drier climate (Carrara 1989). Topographic and climatic variation in the park produce a variety of habitats, ranging from western red cedar (Thuja plicata)-western hemlock (Tsuga hetrophylla) forests typical of the Pacific Northwest, to alpine tundra and grasslands.

Local wildlife refuges, including the National Bison Range and Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), have also been inventoried periodically for amphibians since 2001. The National Bison Range (elevation range: 788 to 1489 m), part of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Wildlife Refuge System, is composed of Palouse Prairie grasslands and mountain forest. Lost Trail NWR (elevation range: 1064 to 1403 m) is in an intermountain valley surrounded by public and private forest that is managed for timber production. The valley bottom is covered with prairie grasses and weeds and has extensive wetlands. Most of the wetlands have been created or altered in support of previous livestock operations on the property, but there are also several natural wetlands on the west side of the refuge that dry annually.

We sampled a wide variety of wetlands, ranging from temporary marshes and pools to large cirque lakes, between mid-May and mid-August. With a few exceptions, most water bodies had near-neutral pH and specific conductance < 300 μS/cm. Surveys were timed to coincide with the approximate 6–8 wk period when amphibian larvae were expected to be present and free-swimming. Crews searched shallow areas ( 0.5 m) of each site, using a dip net (3.2 mm mesh) to sweep through vegetation and to capture amphibian larvae. Because our field efforts were directed towards amphibians rather than crustaceans, we only sampled water bodies that were likely to have water long enough for amphibian larvae to metamorphose. By excluding the most ephemeral water bodies, we did not sample many habitats that would have been suitable for branchiopod crustaceans.

Our collections were mostly opportunistic and our will not reflect the true extent of any species documented. The presence of fairy shrimp, especially, was frequently recorded by field technicians in Glacier NP during the early years of the study without the collection of specimens. Since 2001, however, when we first found tadpole shrimp in Glacier NP, crews were instructed to collect specimens whenever they were detected. Similarly, crews were instructed to collect fairy shrimp from all water bodies (374 surveyed) where they were detected in 2007 and 2008. All specimens were fixed in 10% formalin or 95% ethanol and identified at the University of Montana Flathead Lake Biological Station using standard taxonomic keys (Belk 2000, Rogers 2001, Rogers 2002). Species identifications were verified at EcoAnalysts, Inc. in Davis, California.

The list of confirmed and likely species for the state is from personal collections and records of D.C. Rogers. Collection abbreviations are as follows: DCR, D. Christopher Rogers personal collections; DB, Denton Belk collection (now at the U.S. Natural History Museum); U.S.N.M., U.S. Natural History Museum.


Results and Discussion

We collected 4 species of fairy shrimp (3 in Glacier NP) from 57 wetlands and 1 species of tadpole shrimp from 16 wetlands (Figure 1). All specimens were collected from valley-bottom or hillside water bodies. Fairy shrimp are common in some high elevation (including alpine) ponds elsewhere in the Rocky Mountains (e.g., Anderson 1974, Saunders et al. 1993, Bohonak and Whiteman 1999). We have not found fairy shrimp in high-elevation habitats in Glacier NP, but we have received reports of a high-elevation population near Snyder Lake.

We made the most collections of fairy shrimp in 2002 and 2008. The larger number of records in 2008 partially reflects sampling effort and a greater emphasis on preserving specimens, but similar effort in 2007 resulted in fewer observations. For example, we have sampled 1 wetland near Lake McDonald at about the same time (late May/early June) every year since 1999, and fairy shrimp were present in some years (e.g., 2002 and 2008) and not others.

We never found fairy shrimp at Lost Trail NWR or tadpole shrimp at the National Bison Range. Although co-occurrence within and between orders is common elsewhere (Dodson and Frey 2001), we found co-occurrence by 2 species of fairy shrimp and by a fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp in only 1 wetland. Both cases of co-occurrence were near Lake Sherburne on the east side of the park. In Glacier NP, we found all 3 species of fairy shrimp only in the lower Lee Ridge area, in the northeast corner of the park where the Great Plains transition into montane forests. Coordinates for all wetlands where we collected specimens identifiable to species are provided in Appendix 1. In addition to those we collected, 9 species of fairy shrimp from 5 genera and 3 species of tadpole shrimp from 2 genera have been documented from Montana (Table 1).

Nine species of fairy shrimp and four species of tadpole shrimp have been previously reported from Montana. Our recent collections add 5 species of fairy shrimp and provide new location records for 16 species of fairy shrimp and tadpole shrimp, detailed below. Additionally, we provide comments on species that have the potential to be found in Montana during future surveys.
Order Anostraca Sars, 1867

Branchinecta paludosa (Müller, 1788)

We collected the circumpolar fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa) from 1 pond in each of 3 drainages (Cutbank, Lake Sherburne, Lee Creek) on the east side of the park (Figure 1). All ponds were in mid-elevation (1708–1900 m), mixed aspen-conifer forests. Branchinecta paludosa is primarily a circumpolar arctic species but in North America its distribution extends southward along the Rocky Mountains (Saunders et al. 1993, Maynard Stern and Belk 1999). This shrimp occupies a wide variety of habitats, including alpine ponds >3000 m elevation in Wyoming (Saunders et al. 1993). It has been collected previously near Glacier NP (Lynch 1958) and from just north of our study sites in Waterton Lakes NP, Canada (Anderson 1974).


Branchinecta readingi Belk, 2000

We collected the Reading fairy shrimp (Branchinecta readingi) from a single pool in the Ravalli Potholes on the National Bison Range in 2002. Fairy shrimp were also noted from neighboring pools but were not collected. These pools fill only after heavy spring rains and have high specific conductance. When we collected B. readingi, specific conductance exceeded the limits of our meter (1990 μS/cm) and pH was 9.2.



Branchinecta readingi was recently separated from B. mackini based on distinct morphology of males (Belk 2000). Both B. mackini and B. readingi are widely distributed in western North America; however, Belk (2000) noted that B. readingi had only been collected east of the Continental Divide, whereas B. mackini had only been found west of the Divide. Our record is significant because the National Bison Range is approximately 95 km west of the Continental Divide. Notably, the males in this population had characteristics of B. readingi but the females had eggs typical of B. mackini, which suggests the collection area may be a hybrid zone. If our specimens were hybrids, B. mackini may also be present in western Montana. B. mackini is present in southern Idaho and northern Utah, as well as eastern Washington (Belk & Brtek 1997, Rogers et al., 2006).
Eubranchipus intricatus Hartland-Rowe, 1967

We collected the smoothlip fairy shrimp (Eubranchipus intricatus) from only 2 ponds (1574 m and 1635 m elevation) in the northeast portion of Glacier NP (Figure 1), in similar habitats as B. paludosa. E. intricatus is distributed widely in montane ponds in Alberta and low salinity wetlands of the central prairies of Canada (Heartland-Rowe 1967, Anderson 1974) and has been documented previously east of the Rocky Mountains in Montana (Table 1). Aside from Montana, E. intricatus has been documented only in the states of Massachusetts (where it is a species of concern) and Minnesota (NatureServe 2008).


Eubranchipus serratus Forbes, 1876

Collected from 51 sites, the ethologist fairy shrimp (Eubranchipus serratus) seems to be the most common and widely-distributed fairy shrimp in Glacier NP (Figure 1). Eubranchipus serratus was especially common in the Lake McDonald, Marias Pass, and Lee Ridge areas, although it was also found in many other low elevation areas around the perimeter of the park. This species is distributed across much of the continental U.S.A. as well as British Columbia (Belk 2000), and has been documented previouly in the Flathead and Ovando valleys in western Montana (Dexter 1953, Ludden 2000) and in northern Idaho (Rogers et al. 2006).


Other Montana records for Anostraca

Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906

Teton County: Pishkun Reservoir saline pools, 27 July 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR (D. C. Rogers collection number)-555.

Branchinecta coloradensis Packard, 1874

Glacier County: “Highway 89, seven miles south of Browning in sage brush area”, 25 June 1948, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 294523 and 109643. Teton County: pool 9 miles west of Dupuyer, 24 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-558.
Branchinecta constricta Rogers, 2006

This species was not encountered during our study, and there are no records for this species in Montana. It is found in central and southern Wyoming (Rogers, 2006) and has since been found in southern Idaho, in rock outcropping type pools at City of Rocks National Reserve, Cassia County) and may possibly be found in Montana at some point in the future. This is the first record of this species from outside Wyoming. Casssia County: City of Rocks National Preserve, 42˚ 4’ 31.08’’, 113˚ 43’ 19.27’’, date unknown, M. Vinson.


Branchinecta gigas Lynch, 1937

Pondera County: “About 14 miles southeast of Browning and about 60 miles north of Choteau, about 1/8th of a mile east of highway 89”, 18 July 1947, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 294523.
Branchinecta lateralis Rogers, 2006

Teton County: Pishkun Reservoir saline pools, 4 July 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-552.

Branchinecta lindahli Packard, 1883

Carter County: Rhodes Area ditch, 24 May 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR-568. Teton County: “East side of Highway 33, 16 miles south of Choteau”, 23 and 24 June 1958, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 109645. “On road running east-west between Dulton and Choteau, 13.5 miles west of Dulton and 11.5 miles east of Choteau”, J, E, Lynch, no date, U.S.N.M. 294523. “about 10 miles south of Choteau or 10 miles north of Augusta”, 23 & 24 June 1958, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 294523.
Branchinecta packardi Pearse, 1912

The first record of this species comes from J. E. Lynch, with no locality data beyond “Montana”, deposited at the U.S.N.M. under accession number 294523. Cascade County: Near Great Falls, 30 June 1964, J. S. Laurie, U.S.N.M. 294523. Carter County: Rhodes Area ditch, 24 May 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR-569. Lewis & Clark County: Alkali Flats ditch, 26 July 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR-579. Powder River County: Otter area pool, 25 May1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 572.



Branchinecta paludosa (Müller, 1788)

Park County: Wyoming Creek head pools, 9 July 1994, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-561.

Branchinecta raptor Rogers, Quinney & Weaver, 2006

This species was not encountered during our study, and there are no records for this species in Montana. It is endemic to the Snake River Plateau in Idaho, but may be found in Montana in the future.


Eubranchipus intricatus Hartland-Rowe, 1967

Beaverhead County: Elk Lake area ditch, 10 May 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-550. Glacier County: Kiowa, 3 July 1954, R. Brunson, DB-1154, and DB-1554. Pondera County: pool 6 miles south of Heart Butte, 3 June 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 575. Sheridan County: Coalridge area pool, 22 May 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-550.
Eubranchipus ornatus Holmes, 1910

Glacier County: Blackfoot Reservation, near Babb, 17 April 1937, R. M. Bond.
Eubranchipus serratus Forbes, 1876

No county data: Union Creek overflow, 17 April 1951, DB-451. Beaverhead County: Odell Creek Meadow, 45º33’N, 113º10’W, 2212 m elevation, 28 June 1984, gift from C.H. Eriksen, DCR-233. Deer Lodge County: Pintler Lake area pool, 19 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 583. Lake County: Pond near Kicking Horse, 23 April 1951, R. B. Brunson, DB-252. Ronan, 20 May 1956. Missoula County: Swan Valley, four pools, 30 May 1955, C. Milldrum, DB-3755. Sanders County: Trout Creek pools, 13 May 1956, R. Brunson, DB-3956. White Pine, 13 May 1956, R. Brunson DB-935.
Streptocephalus sealii Ryder, 1879

Beaverhead County: Cow Paddy Pond #2, Wise River, 7 July 1966, gift from C.H. Eriksen, DCR-234. Glacier County: Browning, 4 July, 1954, R. Brunson, DB-1954. 7.4 miles north of Browning, 8 July 1955, R. Brunson. Cut Bank, 4 July 1954, R. Brunson, DB-2354. Madison County: Hidden Lake pool, 30 June 1990, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR-578. Pondera County: pool 6 mi south of Heart Butte, 24 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 567. Sanders County: 13 May 1956, R. Brunson. Sheridan County: Coalridge area pool, 22 May1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-560. Valley County: Glasgow, May 1952, H. E. Nelson, DB-152.

Streptocephalus texanus Packard, 1871

Cascade County: Near Great Falls, 30 June 1964, J. E. Laurie, U.S.N.M. 294523. Carter County: “22 miles north of Alzada” 5 August 1966, J. H. Black, University of Arizona Collection. Lewis & Clark County: “22 miles east of Broadus”, 5 August 1966, J. H. Black, University of Arizona Collection. Powder River County: Big Gulch area pools, 9 June 1996, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-556. Powderville area pool, 29 June 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 577. Teton County: Theboe Lake area pool, 24 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-557. Valley County: Glasgow, May 1952, H. E. Nelson, DB-152. Nashua, Fort Peck Road, 12 September 1954, R. Brunson, DB-3254.
Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, 1877

Powder River County: Powderville area pool, 29 June 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det: D.C. Rogers, DCR-553. Valley County: Nashua, Fort Peck Road, 12 September 1954, R. Brunson, DB-3254.
Order Notostraca Sars, 1867

Lepidurus couesii Packard, 1875.

We collected the Couese tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus couesii) from several sites along the east side of Glacier NP and at Lost Trail NWR. Lepidurus couesii is distributed throughout much of western North America, including on the plains of eastern Montana where the type specimen was collected (Packard 1883, Rogers 2001). In the park, L. couesii was found most frequently in the Railroad Creek area and seemed patchily distributed elsewhere along the eastern boundary.



Lepidurus couesii is typically associated with plains, intermountain valley, and high desert environments, but it seems to occupy a wide range of habitats in Montana. We found it in water bodies ranging from temporary marshes that do not fill every year to seemingly-permanent beaver ponds and in habitats including aspen forests and ponderosa pine forest. One of us (RLN) also collected specimens in 1969 from ~1300 m elevation near Lincoln, MT, just west of the Continental Divide. Aside from this unpublished record, our collections from Lost Trail NWR are the first records of tadpole shrimp that we know of from western Montana. Lost Trail NWR is at the southern end of a long, narrow valley with numerous small wetlands. We have not surveyed the surrounding area, but suspect that this species is common elsewhere in the valley.
Other Montana records for Notostraca

Lepidurus bilobatus Packard, 1883

Glacier County: “Pond about 16 kilometers southeast of Browning” 18 July 1947, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 172990. “Pond about 19 kilometers southeast of Browning on US 89” 27 August 1947, E. Jeffries, U.S.N.M. 172989.
Lepidurus couseii Packard, 1875

Beaverhead County: Tepech Flats Pool, 16 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 582. Glacier County: Cut Bank Creek Road, Pond #9, 7 July 1956, R. Brunson, gift of D. Belk (DB-1372), DCR-201. Kiowa, 3 July 1954, R. Brunson, DB-1054, DB-1354, and DB-1454. Browning, 4 July, 1954, R. Brunson, DB-1954. Cut Bank, 4 July 1954, R. Brunson, DB-2454.
Lepidurus lemmoni Holmes, 1894

Glacier County: “Pond about 16 kilometers southeast of Browning” 18 July 1947, J. E. Lynch, U.S.N.M. 172990.

Triops (follows T. longicaudatus)

Philips County: “20 miles south of Malta”, 1952, F. Linder, U.S.N.M. 53715. Malta, U.S.N.M. 63289. Powder River County: Powderville area pool, 29 June 1997, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 581. Teton County: Thebae Lake pool, 24 June 1995, D. L. Gustafson, Det. D. C. Rogers, DCR- 580. Valley County: Nashua, 11 September 1954, R. Brunson, DB-3654. Pools in badlands 4 miles southeast of Fort Peck, 12 September 1954, R. Brunson, DB-835. Glasgow, July 1954, D. J. Nelson. Glasgow, July 1954, D. J. Nelson. Yellowstone County: Billings, U.S.N.M. 82047.
Acknowledgements

All specimens collected from Glacier National Park, the National Bison Range, and Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge are archived at the University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station. We are grateful to D. L. Gustafson and C. H. Eriksen for providing specimens. We thank XX and XX for comments that improved the manuscript. Mention of trade names does not imply endorsement or approval by the U.S. Government.



References

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Belk, D. 2000. Branchinecta readingi, new species name for a well-known fairy shrimp from east of the North American Continental Divide. Journal of Crustacean Biology 20:566–570.

Bohonak, A. J., and H. H. Whiteman. 1999. Dispersal of fairy shrimp Branchinecta coloradensis (Anostraca): effects of hydroperiod and salamanders. Limnology and Oceanography 44:487-493.


Brendonck, L., D. C. Rogers, J. Olesen, S. Weeks, and W. R. Hoeh. 2008. Global diversity of large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:167-176.

Carrara, P. E. 1989. Late quaternary glacial and vegetative history of the Glacier National Park region, Montana. USGS Bulletin 1902, Denver, Colorado.

Corn, P. S., B. R. Hossack, E. Muths, D. A. Patla, C. R. Peterson, and A. L. Gallant. 2005. Status of amphibians on the continental divide: surveys on a transect from Montana to Colorado. Altyes 22:85-94.

Dexter, R. W. and M. S. Ferguson 1943. Life History and distributional studies on Eubranchipus serratus Forbes (1876). American Midland Naturalist 29:210-222.

Dexter, R. W. 1953. Studies on North American fairy shrimps with the description of two new species. American Midland Naturalist 49:751-771.

Dodson, S. I., and D. G. Frey. 2001. Cladocera and other Branchiopoda. Pages 849-913, In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 2nd Edition (J. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Hartland-Rowe, R. 1965. The Anostraca and Notostraca of Canada with some new distribution records. Canadian Field-Naturalist 79:185-189.

Hartland-Rowe, R. 1966. The fauna and ecology of temporary pools in western Canada. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 16:577-584.

Hartland-Rowe, R., 1967. Eubranchipus intricatus n. sp., a widely distributed North American fairy-shrimp, with a note on its ecology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 45:663–666.

Linder, F. 1952. Contributions to the morphology and taxonomy of the Branchiopoda Notostraca, with special reference to the North American species. Proceedings of the U.S National Museum 102: 3291:1-65.

Ludden, V. E. 2000. The effects of natural variability on the use of macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of disturbance in intermontane depressional wetlands in northwestern Montana, USA. MSc Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.

Lynch, J. E. 1958. Branchinecta cornigera, a new Species of Anostracan Phyllopod from the State of Washington. Proceedings of the U.S National Museum 108: 25-37.

Lynch, J. E. 1966. Lepidurus lemmoni Holmes: a redescription with notes on variation and distribution. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 85:181-192.

Maynard Stern, S., and D. Belk. 1999. Confirmation of Branchinecta paludosa (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah. Southwestern Naturalist 44:213.

Newell, R. L., and B. R. Hossack. In review. Large, wetland-associated mayflies of Glacier National Park. Western North American Naturalist.

Packard, A. S., Jr. 1883. A monograph of the phyllopod Crustacea of North America, with remarks on the order Phyllocarida. U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (Hayden Survey), 12th Annual Report (Part 1):295-592.

Rogers, D. C. 2001. Revision of the nearctic Lepidurus (Notostraca). Journal of Crustacean Biology 21:991-1006.

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Rogers, D. C. 2006. Three new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Nearctic. Zootaxa 1126:35-51.

Rogers, D. C., D. L. Quinney, J. Weaver, and J. Olesen. 2006. A new giant species of predatory fairy shrimp from Idaho, USA (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Journal of Crustacean Biology 26:1-12.


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Figure Legends

Figure 1. Locations where we collected 3 species of fairy shrimp and 1 species of tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus couesii) in Glacier National Park (GNP). Detailed collection locations are not shown for Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge (LTNWR) and the National Bison Range (NBR) because only 1 species was found on each refuge. The black line bisecting the park and the state is the Continental Divide.

Figure 1.

APPENDIX. Location and collection date of Anostraca (fairy shrimp) and Notostraca (tadpole shrimp) collected from the National Bison Range (NBR), Glacier National Park (GNP), and Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge (LOTR), Montana. If specimens were collected from the same site more than once, only the first collection date is listed. Geographic coordinates are NAD83.



Species

Unit

Date

Latitude

Longitude

Anostraca













Branchinecta readingi

NBR

08 July 2002

47.2956625

114.1642668
















Branchinecta paludosa

GNP

26 July 2002

48.8027367

113.5562928




GNP

25 June 2003

48.9770823

113.6567686




GNP

07 July 2007

48.6273841

113.3847040
















Eubranchipus intricatus

GNP

16 June 2002

48.8360823

113.5334543




GNP

29 June 2002

48.9794999

113.6455516
















Eubranchipus serratus

GNP

08 May 2002

48.4993513

113.9563542




GNP

14 May 2002

48.6294160

114.0889959




GNP

28 May 2002

48.6117947

114.0428421




GNP

30 May 2002

48.5021328

114.0162670




GNP

30 May 2002

48.5487914

113.8920988




GNP

11 June 2002

48.8005326

114.2526083




GNP

11 June 2002

48.8029388

114.2534315




GNP

13 June 2002

48.8406734

114.2340529




GNP

16 June 2002

48.6415773

114.0523877




GNP

25 June 2002

48.9964114

113.6102109




GNP

25 June 2002

48.9932899

113.6287800




GNP

01 July 2002

48.3235561

113.3609082




GNP

18 June 2007

48.9894652

113.6539267




GNP

18 June 2007

48.9936217

113.6535458




GNP

02 June 2008

48.5688621

114.0132012




GNP

04 June 2008

48.4979349

114.0376529




GNP

11 June 2008

48.6130556

114.0502727




GNP

11 June 2008

48.5575297

113.9846997




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6238897

114.0692086




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6146519

114.0504776




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6022798

114.0426498




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6196452

114.0664131




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6209751

114.0688417




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6229005

114.0685107




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6188327

114.0590761




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6185418

114.0649348




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6176498

114.0622751




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6173862

114.0600064




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6207607

114.0684487




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6150971

114.0509929




GNP

12 June 2008

48.6189532

114.0653669




GNP

12 June 2008

48.3549450

113.3320247




GNP

12 June 2008

48.5686151

114.0147321




GNP

13 June 2008

48.3218948

113.3572429
















Notostraca













Lepidurus couesii

GNP

26 June 2001

48.4005373

113.2871823




LOTR

16 June 2002

48.1729802

114.9675514




LOTR

22 June 2002

48.1737018

114.9065048




LOTR

24 June 2002

48.1743431

114.9667711




LOTR

25 June 2002

48.1735500

114.9601034




LOTR

25 June 2002

48.1746618

114.9644447




GNP

10 July 2002

48.4166754

113.2444385




GNP

10 July 2002

48.4165212

113.2486488




GNP

26 July 2002

48.8027367

113.5562928




GNP

25 June 2003

48.9770823

113.6567686




GNP

22 July 2003

48.7032457

113.4539255




GNP

21 June 2004

48.3672198

113.2862291




GNP

14 July 2004

48.3701900

113.2893465




GNP

27 July 2004

48.3874115

113.2843783




LOTR

21 June 2007

48.1707716

114.9007594




LOTR

22 June 2007

48.1732158

114.8873288







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