|GRAMMAR RULES FOR
SUBJECT IS AT5 THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
i.e. hoč ǰu I am going home.
hošt ǰu We are going home.
hočɛp ǰu You (all) go home.
FRAME SENTENCES. PUTTING TWO VERBS TOGETHER.
i.e. hoč ǰu θapiš I am going home to bathe.
hošt ǰu θapiš We are going home to bathe.
hočɛp ǰu θapiš You (all) go home and bathe.
The activity can change to ƛočt̓ (sleep); ɛɬtən (eat);
PRESENT PAST FUTURE
I am going I went I will go
hoč hohoɬč hot́ᶿəm
to eat I ate I will eat
ʔɛɬən ʔɛɬtənoɬ ʔɛltənθəm
to dance I danced I will dance
čičɬɛm čičɬɛmoɬ čičɬɛmθəm
to carry I carried I will carry
kʷinət kʷinətoɬ kʷinətθəm
WEATHER WORDS FORM A DIFFERENT PATTERN.
rain it rained it will rain
č̓ɩɬ č̓ɩɬoɬ č̓ɩɬsəm
snow it snowed it will snow
ʔaχʷ ?aχʷoɬ ?aχʷsɛm
wind it was windy it will be windy
puʔɛm puʔemoɬ puʔəmsəm
hɛkʷ čɛ nɛs kʷaθ kæpoʔ where is your coat?
tam kʷaθ nanʔ what is your name?
k̓ʷɛnaye čɛpʔ how many of you?
k̓ʷɛnsəm kʷalčʷ tasʔ When will you be here?
čimšɛnčxʷʔ Where are you going?
hahačxʷʊm p̓ap̓ɛmʔ Are you going to work?
gət kʷaθ qəmʔ Who are you with?
Possessives are formed by adding the possessor to an article before the noun.
ʔat́ᶿ tat́ᶿ kʷat́ᶿ
ʔat́ᶿ tan tat́ᶿ tan kʷat́ᶿ tan
ʔaθ taθ kʷaθ
ʔaθ tan taθ tan kʷaθ tan
ɬaʔamɩn (Sliammon First Nations)
LETTER HOW TO PRONUNCE EXAMPLES
ʔ Glottal stop. Exists in English, but is ʔopan
not written: i.e. Typicallay heard in the 10
exclamation uh – oh!
a as in father, bought ʔaχʷ
æ as in apple, bat kʸæpo
č like ch in change, cherry čuy
č́ glottalized ch č́ɛno
e as in they, bait nɛʔɛt
be in the way
ɛ short e. As in led, bet qaʔyɛ
ə as in about kʷatə
g like g in gift gɩǰɛ
h like h in hoe hoǰoθɛn
be finished eating
i ee sound. As in she, beat ǰi:ƛ
ɩ as in hit, bit ǰɩƛ̓
ǰ as in job ǰɛʔǰɛ
Letter How to pronounce Examples
k as in kayak kušən
ḱ glottalized k ḱɩḱiḱ
kʷ lips rounded as in “oh”. As in quality kʷanəčɛm
ḱʷ glottalized rounded k ḱʷas
l as in lips č̓ɛləs
ĺ glottalized l, ./. most often used ʔal ̓əs / ʔaʔləs
ɬ “barred l” like a whispered l ɬa/amɛn
ƛ “barred lamda” t and- together ƛən̓ƛən
ƛ̓ glottalized barred lamda ƛ̓ɛʔƛ̓ɛ
m as in metal mos
ḿ glottalized m. ʔ often used haḿo / hamo
n as in name nɩgi
o as in throat, boat ʔoɬqʷo
ɔ as in caught p̓ɔhɔ
p as in paper paʔa
p̓ glottalized p p̓ap̓ɛm
q “uvular k”. back of the throat sound. qəχ
q̓ glottalized q̓atən
Letter How to pronounce Example
qʷ rounded back of the throat qʷɛyqʷɛy
q̓ʷ glottalized and popping q̓ʷɛt
s as in salt saɬt̓ɩxʷ
š́ like sh as in shoulder šɩm
t like t in take tala
t́ glottalized t t́ɛn
tᶿ t followed by th tᶿ (man)
t́ᶿ glottalized t́ᶿok̓ʷ
θ like th in thin θoθɛn
u oo sound as in boot kʷušɛm
ʊ sound as in book tʊkɬɛ
w as in wallet walθ
ẃ glottalized w mɛmaw̓
x uvular fricative χaʔa
like some people say Bach ‘ch’ butter clam
y as in yellow yɛχay
aw as in cow χawgəs
ay as in eye ʔayʔaǰʊθəm
speaking the language
Glottalized sounds are written with an apostrophe on top or after the letter. ᶿhey are made with a tightness in the throat and often sound a little popped.