Grammar rules for




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GRAMMAR RULES FOR

SLIAMMON LANGUAGE


PATTERNING.

SUBJECT IS AT5 THE END OF THE SENTENCE.


i.e. hoč ǰu I am going home.

hošt ǰu We are going home.

hočɛp ǰu You (all) go home.
FRAME SENTENCES. PUTTING TWO VERBS TOGETHER.

i.e. hoč ǰu θapiš I am going home to bathe.

hošt ǰu θapiš We are going home to bathe.

hočɛp ǰu θapiš You (all) go home and bathe.


The activity can change to ƛočt̓ (sleep); ɛɬtən (eat);
PRESENT PAST FUTURE
I am going I went I will go

hoč hohoɬč hot́ᶿəm


to eat I ate I will eat

ʔɛɬən ʔɛɬtənoɬ ʔɛltənθəm


to dance I danced I will dance

čičɬɛm čičɬɛmoɬ čičɬɛmθəm


to carry I carried I will carry

kʷinət kʷinətoɬ kʷinətθəm


WEATHER WORDS FORM A DIFFERENT PATTERN.

rain it rained it will rain

č̓ɩɬ č̓ɩɬoɬ č̓ɩɬsəm
snow it snowed it will snow

ʔaχʷ ?aχʷoɬ ?aχʷsɛm

wind it was windy it will be windy

puʔɛm puʔemoɬ puʔəmsəm


QUESTIONING TECNIQUES
hɛkʷ čɛ nɛs kʷaθ kæpoʔ where is your coat?

tam kʷaθ nanʔ what is your name?

k̓ʷɛnaye čɛpʔ how many of you?

k̓ʷɛnsəm kʷalčʷ tasʔ When will you be here?

čimšɛnčxʷʔ Where are you going?

hahačxʷʊm p̓ap̓ɛmʔ Are you going to work?

gət kʷaθ qəmʔ Who are you with?
POSSESSIVES

Possessives are formed by adding the possessor to an article before the noun.


ʔat́ᶿ tat́ᶿ kʷat́ᶿ

my mom


ʔat́ᶿ tan tat́ᶿ tan kʷat́ᶿ tan

ʔaθ taθ kʷaθ

your mom

ʔaθ tan taθ tan kʷaθ tan

PRONUNCIATION GUIDE

ʔaʔyǰuɬɛm

ɬaʔamɩn (Sliammon First Nations)
LETTER HOW TO PRONUNCE EXAMPLES
ʔ Glottal stop. Exists in English, but is ʔopan

not written: i.e. Typicallay heard in the 10

exclamation uh – oh!
a as in father, bought ʔaχʷ

snow
æ as in apple, bat kʸæpo

coat
č like ch in change, cherry čuy

young
č́ glottalized ch č́ɛno

dog
e as in they, bait nɛʔɛt

be in the way


ɛ short e. As in led, bet qaʔyɛ

water
ə as in about kʷatə

quarter
g like g in gift gɩǰɛ

earth
h like h in hoe hoǰoθɛn

be finished eating
i ee sound. As in she, beat ǰi:ƛ

running


ɩ as in hit, bit ǰɩƛ̓

run
ǰ as in job ǰɛʔǰɛ

tree/relative
Letter How to pronounce Examples
k as in kayak kušən

star
ḱ glottalized k ḱɩḱiḱ

bird
kʷ lips rounded as in “oh”. As in quality kʷanəčɛm

sit down
ḱʷ glottalized rounded k ḱʷas

hot
l as in lips č̓ɛləs

three
ĺ glottalized l, ./. most often used ʔal ̓əs / ʔaʔləs

sea cucumber
ɬ “barred l” like a whispered l ɬa/amɛn

Sliammon
ƛ “barred lamda” t and- together ƛən̓ƛən

shy
ƛ̓ glottalized barred lamda ƛ̓ɛʔƛ̓ɛ

fast
m as in metal mos

four
ḿ glottalized m. ʔ often used haḿo / hamo

pigeon
n as in name nɩgi

you
o as in throat, boat ʔoɬqʷo

dig clams


ɔ as in caught p̓ɔhɔ

raven
p as in paper paʔa

one
p̓ glottalized p p̓ap̓ɛm

work
q “uvular k”. back of the throat sound. qəχ

many
q̓ glottalized q̓atən

rat
Letter How to pronounce Example


qʷ rounded back of the throat qʷɛyqʷɛy

sand
q̓ʷ glottalized and popping q̓ʷɛt

beach
s as in salt saɬt̓ɩxʷ

woman
š́ like sh as in shoulder šɩm

dry
t like t in take tala

money
t́ glottalized t t́ɛn

barbecued fish
tᶿ t followed by th tᶿ (man)

my father


t́ᶿ glottalized t́ᶿok̓ʷ

day
θ like th in thin θoθɛn

mouth (external)
u oo sound as in boot kʷušɛm

green
ʊ sound as in book tʊkɬɛ

rabbit
w as in wallet walθ

frog
ẃ glottalized w mɛmaw̓

cat
x uvular fricative χaʔa

like some people say Bach ‘ch’ butter clam

xʷ xʷɛƛ̓ay

mountain goat

y as in yellow yɛχay

berry basket


y̓ qay̓ɛ

water
a qʸɩyɛ

water
DIPTHONGS
aw as in cow χawgəs

grizzly
ay as in eye ʔayʔaǰʊθəm



speaking the language
Glottalized sounds are written with an apostrophe on top or after the letter. ᶿhey are made with a tightness in the throat and often sound a little popped.


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