Glechoma hederacea L




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UDK 582.929.4-035.22:547.466

S. M. Marchyshyn, M. S. Garnyk

INVESTIGATION OF AMINO ACIDS OF THE GROUND IVY HERB (GLECHOMA HEDERACEA L.)

Amino acids of ground ivy herb (Glechoma hederacea L.), collected in different regions, were investigated. Using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography, total content of amino acids in raw material and free amino acids were determined. Results of comparative analysis have shown that investigated samples of ground ivy herb contain significant amounts of non-essential amino acids: Glutamate, Proline, Alanine and Aspartate and essential ones: Arginine, Leucine and Threonine. Investigated raw materials contain the identical composition of amino acids and differ in qualitative content.



Key words: ground ivy, amino acids, high-performance liquid chromatography.

INTRODUCTION

Proteins and amino acids play in the plant organism the dominant role because they are the basis of cell protoplasm [5, 6]. Furthermore, plant proteins are the main source of supply of amino acids to the animal world. Despite the enormous diversity of plant and animal proteins they are composed of 20 amino acids. The human organism is able to synthesize only 10 amino acids, the others are essential, that a human gets from food. These are amino acids such as Arginine, Valine, Histidine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine [6].
Amino acids are the starting material for the biosynthesis of a number of physiologically active substances: alkaloids, vitamins, phenolic compounds, enzymes, proteins, pigments, steroids, etc. [3, 5]. In particular, Histidine is a precursor of histamine, Tryptophan - serotonin, nicotinic acid, Phenylalanine - dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine [3, 9].
Amino acids have a wide range of pharmacological effects: Arginine and Glutamic acid exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, they also exhibit membrane stabilizing and wound healing effects; Alanine and Glycine regulate blood glucose levels, are involved in tissue regeneration; Serine provides glycogen reserves in the liver and muscles, participates in the metabolism of fats; Cysteine is ​​used to prevent the negative effects of alcohol poisoning; Tyrosine is the effective adaptogenic agent under conditions of stress, fatigue, climate change, etc. [2, 3, 4, 5], some amino acids provide the micro elements and other substances digestible form potentiating their effect [5]. Amino acids also play an important role in the life of the plant organism, for example, Alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, Proline and Cysteine ​​increase plant resistance to adverse environmental conditions [1, 3].
Medicinal plants as potential sources of amino acids up to date have been insufficiently studied, including ground ivy. The purpose of our investigation was to analyze the qualitative and quantitative analysis of amino acids in the ground ivy herb.
MATERIALS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

The objects of the investigation were ground ivy herbs that were collected around Ternopil and Vinnytsya (further object number 1 and number 2 respectively) during flowering period.

Qualitative and quantitative contents of amino acids were determined on the chromatograph Agilent Technologies (model 1100) which is completed by a flow vacuum degassator G1379A, 4-channel pump of low pressure gradient G13111A, G1313A automatical injector, column thermostat G13116A, G1316A diode-matrix detector. To perform the analysis chromatographic column with the size 4.6 x 50 mm, filled with sorbent oktadecylsylylic "ZORBAX-XDB C18 ˮ was used.
Conditions of chromatography: sample capacity - 2 mcl, mobile phase feed rate - 1.5-2 ml / min., eluent’s working pressure - 220-275 kPa, column thermostat temperature - 50 º C; detecting parameters: scale of measurement - 1.0, scan time - 0.5 s, wave length - 265 nm.

Amino acids were identified by the time of standard samples exposure. Quantitative content was determined by gas chromatographic area peaks compared to the standard peaks’ areas [7,8].
RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION AND THEIR DISCUSSION

With high performance liquid chromatography method a comparative analysis of qualitative composition and quantitative contents of amino acids in the investigated objects number 1 and number 2 were performed.

As a result of investigation of the object number 1, 9 free essential amino acids and 10 non-essential ones were identified. The results of the analysis are shown in Figures 1 and 2 and in Table 1.

A
nalyzing the amino acid composition of the object number 2, 9 free essential amino acids and 9 non-essential amino acids were found. Research results are shown in Figures 3 and 4 and in Table 1.

Fig. 1. Chromatogram of the total contents of amino acids in object 1.



Fig. 2. Chromatogram of the free amino acids in object 1.




Fig. 3. Chromatogram of the total contents of amino acids in object 2.



Fig. 4. Chromatogram of the free amino acids in object 2.

Table1

QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND QUANTITATIVE CONTENTS OF AMINO ACIDS IN GROUND IVY HERB




Amino acids

Object №1

Object №2

Total content, %

Free amino

acid , %

Total content, %

Free amino acid, %

Essential amino acids

1

Arginine

0,24

0,03

0,20

0,02

2

Valine

0,17

0,05

0,13

0,01

3

Histidine

0,10

0,006

0,10

0,002

4

Isoleucine

0,10

0,02

0,09

0,004

5

Leucine

0,20

0,01

0,17

0,004

6

Lysine

0,12

0,02

0,11

0,006

7

Methionine

0,03

0,01

0,03

0,008

8

Threonine

0,19

0,02

0,19

0,009

9

Thryptophan

-

-

-

-

10

Phenylalanine

0,12

0,01

0,10

0,004




1,27

0,18

1,12

0,07

Non-essential amino acids

11

Alanine

0,31

0,05

0,28

0,04

12

Asparagine

0,005

0,13

0,0

0,04

13

Aspartate

0,31

0,02

0,50

0,02

14

Glycine

0,26

0,02

0,24

0,008

15

Glutamate

0,88

0,03

0,63

0,02

16

Glutamine

0,0

0,20

0,0

0,06

17

Proline

0,60

0,43

0,52

0,28

18

Serine

0,28

0,02

0,25

0,01

19

Tyrosine

0,21

0,03

0,18

0,02

20

Cysteine

0,006

0,005

0,005

0,0

Total content of non-essential amino acids

2,86

0,94

2,60

0,50

Total content of essential and non-essential amino acids

4,13

1,12

3,72

0,57

Thus, the object number 1 includes the following amino acids:



aliphatic monoamine monocarboxylic: Valine - 0.05 %, Isoleucine - 0.02 %, Leucine - 0.01 % (essential), Alanine - 0.05 %, Glycine - 0.02 % (non-essential);

oxymonoamine carboxylic: Threonine (essential), Serine (non-essential) of 0.02 %;

monoamine dicarboxylic: Aspartate - 0.02 %, Glutamate - 0.03 % (non-essential);

amides of monocarboxylic acids: Asparagine - 0.13 %, Glutamine - 0.20% (non-essential);

dyamine monocarboxylic: Arginine - 0.03 %, Lysine - 0.02 % (essential);

sulfur-containing: Methionine - 0.01 % (essential), Cysteine ​​- 0.005 % (non-essential);



aromatic: Phenylalanine - 0.01 % (essential), Tyrosine - 0.03 % (non-essential);

heterocyclic: Histidine - 0.006 % (essential), Proline - 0.43 % (non-essential).

As can be seen from the data presented in Table 1, the object number 2 includes the following amino acids:



aliphatic monoamine monocarboxylic: Valine - 0.01%, Isoleucine, Leucine 0f.004 % (essential), Alanine - 0.04 %, Glycine - 0.008 % (non-essential);

oxymonoamine carboxylic: Threonine - 0,009 % (essential), Serine - 0.01% (non-essential);

monoamine dicarboxylic: Aspartate, Glutamate of 0.02 % (non-essential);

amides of monoamine monocarboxylic acids: Asparagine - 0.04 %, Glutamine - 0.06 % (non-essential);

diamine monocarboxylic: Arginine - 0.02 %, Lysine - 0.006 % (essential);

sulfur-containing: Methionine - 0.008 % (essential);



aromatic: Phenylalanine - 0.04 % (essential), Tyrosine - 0.02 % (non-essential)

heterocyclic: Histidine - 0.002 % (essential), Proline - 0.28 % (non-essential).
Based on the above it can be noted that in both of the investigated objects among the essential free amino acids Valine and Arginine predominate, among non-essential - Proline and Glutamine.

Analysis of the total content of amino acids in plant raw material has shown that the object number 1 contains a significant amount of essential amino acids - Arginine (0.24 %), Leucine (0.2 %) and Threonine (0.19 %) and non-essential - Glutamate (0 88 %), Proline (0.6 %), Alanine and Aspartate to 0.31 %. In object number 2 the essential amino acids also dominate: Arginine (0.2%), Threonine (0.19 %) and Leucine (0.17 %) and non-essential - Glutamate (0.63 %), PProline (0.52 %), Aspartate (0.5%), Alanine (0.28 %).



Thus, ground ivy herbs harvested in different regions the compositions of the amino acids are identical, investigated objects differ in quantitative content.
CONCLUSIONS


  1. Comparative analysis of amino acids contents of ground ivy herbs harvested in different regions was carried out.

  2. The total amount of amino acids in investigated objects and content of free amino acids were determined. The total content of amino acids in object number 1 is 4.13%, free amino acids – 1.12%, in object number 2 – 3.72% and 0.57% respectively.


LIST OF USED SOURSES OF INFORMATION

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