General Biology Syllabus Microscopic Structure of the Living Organism




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General Biology Syllabus
1. Microscopic Structure of the Living Organism


  1. The Cell Its Structure and Functions:

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, RER, SER; Golgi apparatus, GERL, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, plastids, cell wall in plants and bacteria, vacuoles, centrioles, ribosomes, nucleus: nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus, ATP, photosynthesis.


  1. The Cell Cycle

Cell Cycle control, G1, S, G2 phase


  1. Cell divisions: Mitosis and Meiosis

Divisions of the cell: mitosis, meiosis, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis, crossing over, homologous chromosomes.


  1. Organization of genetic information, chromosomes

Chromosomes, sister chromatids, centromere, kinetochore, nucleosome, histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. Types of chromosomes: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, telocentric, karyotype, karyogram, phytohemagglutinin, colcemid, colchicine, G-banding.


  1. Animal Tissues: Epithelium and Muscle Tissue

Simple epithelium: simple squamous epithelium, simple cuboidal epithelium, simple columnar epithelium, special types of columnar epithelium (cilliated, with microvilli and pseudostratified), stratified epithelium: stratified squamous epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, transitional epithelium. Muscular tissue: skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibrils, sarcomere, myosin filaments, actin filaments.


  1. Animal Tissues: Connective and Neural Tissues

Connective tissues: classification and characterization of connective tissues, cells of the connective tissue, fibers of the connective tissue; nervous tissue: morphologic classification of neurons, neuroglia, transmission of the nerve impulse.

2. Animal Structure and Function:


  1. Anatomy of the Skeletal System:

Evolution of the axial skeleton, with special regard to human; evolution of the skeleton of limbs, shoulder girdle, and pelvic girdle of vertebrates; adoption and importance of the upright position in humans.


  1. Nutrition: Functional Anatomy of the Alimentary System:

An outline of anatomy and physiology of the alimentary system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the alimentary system: salivary glands, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, pancreas; structure and function of the alimentary system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology.


  1. Reproduction: Functional Anatomy of the Reproductive System:

An outline of anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the reproductive system: testis, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, penis, ovary and development of the graafian follicle, fallopian tube, uterus – with regard to a phase of the menstrual cycle; structure and function of the reproductive system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology; pregnancy - mechanism of fertilization; transport of the fertilized ovum through the fallopian tube into the cavity of the uterus; development of the blastocyst and its implantation; anatomy and physiology of the placenta, with regard to its hormonal activity; development and functions of pregnancy membranes in the human embryo; metabolism of a pregnant woman; proturition and its mechanisms; microscopic structure of selected fetal organs: placenta, umbilical cord.


  1. Water Balance and Waste Disposal: Functional Anatomy of the Excretory System:

An outline of anatomy and physiology of the excretory system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the excretory system: kidney, urinary bladder, ureter; structure and function of the excretory system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology – protonephridia, metanephridia, Malpighian tubules, gills as organs of nitrogen excretion and ionic regulation, evolution of the mammalian kidney – pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros, renin angiotensin aldosterone system.


  1. Circulation: Functional Anatomy of the Cardio-Vasculatory System:

An outline of anatomy and physiology of the cardio-vasculatory system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the cardio-vasculatory system: heart, arteries, veins, capillaries; structure and function of the cardio-vasculatory system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology with special regard to the evolution of the heart.


  1. Gas Exchange: Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System:

An outline of anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the respiratory system: lung, trachea; structure and function of the respiratory system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology – gills and external body surfaces, tracheal systems, lungs, non respiratory functions of the lungs


  1. Systems of Internal Communication and Regulation: Functional Anatomy Nervous and Hormonal Systems:

an outline of anatomy and physiology of the nervous system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the nervous system: spinal cord, brain, peripheral nerves, ganglia of the autonomic nervous system; comparative anatomy of the nervous system; an outline of anatomy and physiology of the hormonal system; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected organs of the hormonal system: hypophysis, thyroid gland, adrenal gland; structure and function of the hormonal system in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology.


  1. Sensory Mechanisms: Functional Anatomy of Sensory Organs:

an outline of anatomy and physiology of the major receptors; macroscopic and microscopic structure of selected receptors: the visual apparatus, the auditory apparatus, the olfactory apparatus; structure and function of sensory organs in the light of comparative anatomy and physiology.



  1. Defense Systemes: The Immune System and Interactions in Immune Responses, Hypersensitivity

Antigens, lymphocytes, antibodies, specific and nonspecific reactions; organs of the immune system: primary organs – bone marrow and thymus, secondary organs – spleen and lymph nodes, immunoglobulins, generation of antigen-binding diversity among immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody complexes, CD molecules, complement, monoclonal antibodies, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I-III molecules, HLA molecules). Lymphocytes,

T-cell receptors, differentiation and maturation of stimulated cells, circulation of lymphocytes; nonspecific immunity, interferons, macrophages, granulocytes, antigen presenting cells, macrophages, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, cytokines. Hypersensitivity: types of hypersensitivity, allergic reactions, mechanisms of allergy, allergenic factors, allergen nomenculature, allergic diseases, allergic animals.




  1. The immunologic Response: Patterns, Mechanisms, the Immunologic memory

Innate and Adaptive Immune Response, Immunologic Memory, Vaccine, Nonspecific immunity, interferons, macrophages, granulocytes, monokines), presentation of antigens (antigen presenting cells, macrophages, B-lymphocytes, monocytes; cytokines; immunologic memory; anti-infectious immunity – immune responses against bacteriae and viruses).


  1. Allergy and Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is it effective? Indications and contrindications for immunotherapy, possible modes of action, technique and safety.
3. Biology of Development


  1. Mechanisms of Reproduction

asexual reproduction – definition, mechanisms, parthenogenesis; germ cells and fertilization - evolutionary aspects of the sexual reproduction; spermatogenesis, structure of the sperm cell; oogenesis; vitellogenesis; types of egg cells; egg membranes; the regulation of gonad functions; reproductive anatomy of human male and female, menstrual cycle of human female; menopause, fecundation.


  1. Early Stages of Embryonal Development: Types of Egg Cells, Fertilization, Cleavage

Egg types, sperm penetration through the egg cell membranes; the acrosomal reaction; egg reaction to the contact with a sperm – the reception hillock, mechanism of the egg cell activation; blocks for polyspermy; parthenogenesis; incorrect fertilization; blastulation: patterns of cleavage; types of blastulas; embryo metabolism during cleavage; mechanisms of cleavage.


  1. Early Stages of Embryonal Development: Gastrulation:

Gastrulation: patterns of gastrulation; embryo metabolism during gastrulation; mechanisms of the embryonal development during gastrulation; evolution of gastrulation;


  1. Organogenesis

Early stages of organogenesis: neurulation and origin of primary axial organs, differentiation of somites and origin of the coeloma; ectodermal organs, mesodermal organs, endodermal organs, origin of primordial germ cells, mechanisms of organogenesis; protostome and deuterostome animals.


  1. Regeneration

Animals undergoing regeneration: Hydra, planarians, newts, salamanders; types of regeneration: by differentiation – urodeles, with the use of stem cells – flatworms, Hydra; human stem cells: embryonic and adult stem cells; stem cells as tools for repair of the human body – future of stem cells in medicine.


  1. Introduction to human embryology

First stages of the zygote development: cleavage and implantation, embryo development from the epiblast, origin of the embryonic mesoderm; origin of the notochord; extraembryonic membranes and placenta, branchial splits, branchial arches; clinical aspects.

  1. Fetal and Neonatal Biology, Biology of Aging

The Molecular Basis of Aging, Telomers and Cancer, Premature Aging Disorders (Progeria-Hutchinson-Gillford Syndrome, Werner’s Syndrome, Cockayne Syndrome), Gene Families of Development, Environmental Factors of Birth Defects (Infectious Agents and Chemical Teratogenes)


  1. Human Embryology: Development of the Human Embryo

Chromosomal Disorders, Prenatal Diagnosis


  1. Human Embryology: Developmental Anomalies

Overgrowth Disorders, Skeletal Disorders, Neural Tube Deffects as Effects of Disturbances in the Process of Neurulation, Limb and Skin Pigmentation Defects during embryonal development.
4. Biological Hazards of Natural Environment


  1. Man and His Environment: Population and Community Ecology

Basic terms (ecology, population, community, biocenosis, biotope, ecosystem, biosphere). Population ecology: characteristics of population: density, dispersion and its patterns, demography: age structure, birth rate, death rate, generation time, sex ratio, population growth models, population limiting factors: density dependant factors, density independant factors, human population growth; community ecology: definition of the community, interspecific interactions within the community – predation, parasitism, interspecific competition, symbiosis, interspecific interactions and community structure, the ecological succession.


  1. Man and His Environment: Ecosystems

Ecosystems: trophic relationships in ecosystems, production, consumption, decomposition – primary productivity, secondary productivity, ecological efficiency, cycling of chemical elements in ecosystems – water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, human impacts on ecosystems – disrupting chemical cycles throughout biosphere. Aquatic biomes, terrestrial biomes: Tropical rain forest, Savanna, Temperature deciduous forest, Chapparal (scrub forest), Taiga (coniferous forest), Tundra.


  1. Man and His Environment: Antropopression

Anthropopression: Greenhouse effect, toxins concentration, depletion of atmospheric ozone; smog, acid rains, endangered species.





  1. Toxic Mushrooms and Plants:

Review of toxic mushrooms: sweat mushroom (Clitocybe sp.), smoothcap mushroom (Psilocibe sp.), deathcap (Amanita phalloides), fly agaric (A. muscaria), panthercap (A. pantherina), fool's mushroom (A. virosa), autumn skullcap (Galerina autumnalis), early false morel (Gyromitra sp.), sorrel webcap mushroom (Corthinarius sp.), psychotropic mushrooms (Panaeolus sp., Inocybe sp.); biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of mushroom toxins: gastrointestinal irritans, muscarine, isoxazole derivatives, amanitin, gyromitrin, orellanine, psilocibin, psilocin, and other indole derivatives, miscellaneous and unknown mushroom toxins; review of major toxic plants: foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), lily-of the-valley (Convallaria maialis), castor bean (Ricinus communis), marijuana (Canabis sativa), English yew (Taxus baccata), English ivy (Hedera helix), opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), Atropa Belladonna, Scopolia Carniolica; biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of plant toxins: glycosides – carcinogenic glycosides, carboxyatractylosides, cardiac glycosides, cumarins, alkaloids, symptoms of poisoning with toxins produced by mushrooms and plants and first aid.


  1. Allergic and Venomous Animals:

Review of major venomous animals: scorpions (Scorpionoidea), scolopendra (Scolopendra gigantea), wasps (Vespidae), honeybee (Apis mellifera), molluscs (Mollusca) – cone shell (Conus sp.), fishes (Pisces) – stone fish, puffer fish, coral snakes (Micrurus spp.), taipan (Oxyuranus), common adder (Vipera berus); symptoms of poisoning with toxins produced by venomous animals and first aid.

Definition and general aspects of allergy; animal allergens nomenculature; food products of an animal origin and allergy – honey, milk, eggs, fish, pork, beaf meat; other animal allergens – feathers, dander, hairs; indoor and outdoor allergens; review of major allergic animals: allergenic arthropods – mites, cat fleas, cockroaches, mosquitoes, house flies, cats and dogs, rodents, horses, cows, birds.




  1. Introduction to Evolution:

What is evolution? Macroevolution and microevolution. The Darwinian Revolution and his book. The origin of species. Mendel’s theories. Microevolution and five causes of microevolution: genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, non-random mating, natural selection. Evolution terms: effects of genetic drifts, founder effect, bottlenecks, assortative mating, inbreeding. Natural selection. Evolutionary fitness. Macroevolution. What is species? Reproductive isolating mechanisms: prezygotic barriers (habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation); postzygotic barriers (reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown). Human evolution. Primates and the phylogeny of Homo sapiens. Comparison of characteristic of Apes and humans. First humans: Australopitecus.


  1. Behavioral Biology:

Behavioral ecology. Behaviour. Innate behaviour. Fixed Action Pattern. Learning. Imprinting. Critical Periods. Habituation. Associative learning: Classical conditioning, operant conditioning (trial-and-error learning). Cognition. Cognitive maps. Kinesis. Taxis. Migration Behaviour. Social behaviour and sociobiology. Agonistic behaviour. Dominance hierarchies. Territoriality. Communications (pheromones, acoustic signals and light signals). Mating behaviour. Courtship. Parental investment. Mating systems: promiscuous, monogamous, polygamous. Altruistic behaviour. Causes. Social Systems: Society and Castes. Insect Societes.


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