Freshwater cladocera




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Branchiopoda

FRESHWATER CLADOCERA

LOURDES M. A. ELMOOR-LOUREIRO

Departamento de Biologia

Universidade Católica de Brasília

Order Cladocera Latreille, 1829

Family Holopedidae Sars, 1865

Genus Holopedium Zaddach, 1855



Holopedium amazonicum Stingelin 1904

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 78.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 78.

References: Stingelin, 1904a: 55, pl. 1, figs. 1-2; 1904c: 153; Thomasson, 1955: 214; Green, 1972: 218; Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Hardy, 1980: 604; Brandorff et al., 1982: 92; Korovchinsky, 1992: 78, figs. 378-381.

Geographic distribution: Tropical America. Brazil (AM, MT).

Comments: Pelagic, in rivers and lakes with pH ranging from 4.8 to 5.6.

Family Sididae Baird, 1850



Genus Diaphanosoma Fischer 1850

Diaphanosoma birgei Korineck 1981

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 229.

Description and diagnosis: Korineck, 1981: 1115.

References: Thomasson, 1955: 214 (as Diaphanosoma brachyurum); Herbst, 1967: 96, figs. 17-19 (as D. cf brachyurum); Green, 1972: 217 (as D. brachyurum); Santos, 1980: 225 (as D. brachyurum); Korinek, 1981: 1115, figs. 1-11; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 17, figs. 4a-g (as D. brachyurum); Bohrer et al., 1988: 553 (as D. brachyurum); Elmoor-Loureiro, 1990a: 757, figs. 1-11; Korovchinsky, 1992: 229, figs. 135-142.

Geographic distribution: North to South America. Brazil (AM, MT, DF, MG, SP, RS).

Comments: The South American records were questioned by Korovchinsky (1992), who supposed them to represent a new species.



Diaphanosoma brevireme Sars 1901

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 57.

Description and diagnosis: Paggi, 1978: 44.

References: Sars, 1901: 13, pl. 2, figs. 11-16; Daday, 1905: 213; Brehm & Thomsen, 1936: 213, figs. 1-2 (as Diaphanosoma neotropicum); Brehm, 1937: 502 (as D. neotropicum); Schubart, 1938: 48 (as D. neotropicum); 1942: 26 (as D. neotropicum); Arcifa, 1984: 138 (as D. neotropicum); Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 20, figs. 5a-f; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466; Korovchinsky, 1992: 57, figs. 278-287.

Geographic distribution: Neotropical Region. Brazil (AC, MS, PE, SP, RS).

Comments: Probably in littoral zone or in waters with widely varying water level.
Diaphanosma fluviatile Hansen 1899

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 35.

Description and diagnosis: Paggi, 1978: 59.

References: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 19, figs. 4h-o; Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Brandorff & Andrade, 1978: 64; Korovchinsky, 1992: 35, figs. 162-170.

Geographic distribution: Neotropical Region. Brazil (AM, RS).
Diaphanosoma polyspina Korovchinsky 1982

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 57.

References: Korovchinsky, 1982: 695, fig. 4; 1992: 57, figs. 288-294.

Geographic distribution: Amazonian Region. Brazil (AM).
Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 53.

Description and diagnosis: Paggi, 1978: 49.

References: Sars, 1901: 10, pl. 2, figs. 1-10 (as Diaphanosoma sarsi); Spandl, 1926: 102 (as D. sarsi); Green, 1972: 217 (as D. sarsi); Brandorff, 1978: 1201 (as D. sarsi); Paggi, 1978: 49, figs. 33-55; Hardy, 1980: 604 (D. sarsi); Robertson, 1980: tab. 2 (as D. sarsi); Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 22, figs. 5g-j (as D. sarsi); Neumann-Leitão et al., 1989: 809, pl. 2, figs. 2-2b; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466; Korovchinsky, 1992: 53, figs. 265-271.

Geographic distribution: Neotropical Region. Brazil (AC, AM, PA, PI, PE, MT, SP, RS).

Comments: Planktonic, eurytopic.

Genus Latonopsis Sars, 1888



Latonopsis australis Sars, 1888

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 14.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 14.

References: Richard, 1897a: 277; Brehm & Thomsen, 1936: 212 (as Latonopsis breviremis); Brehm, 1937: 497 (as L. occidentalis); 1938: 95 (as L. breviremis); Schubart, 1938: 48 (as L. breviremis); 1942: 25 (as L. breviremis and occidentalis); Elmoor, 1981: 35 (as L. occidentalis); Brandorff et al., 1982: 91, figs. 48, 55; Rey & Vasquez, 1986a: 145, pl. 3, fig. 1-14; Korovchinsky, 1992: 14, figs. 65-68.

Geographic distribution: Tropical and subtropical Regions. Brazil (AM, PE, AL, DF, RS).

Comments: Especially in littoral zone.

Genus Pseudosida Herrick, 1884



Pseudosida bidentata Herrick 1884

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 70.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 70.

References: Bergamin, 1931: 47; 1939b: 63; Thomas, 1961: 2, figs. 2-3; Green, 1972: 217; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 15, figs. 3b-c; Korovchinsky, 1992: 70, figs. 343-351.

Geographic distribution: “Known with certainty only from the southern Regions of USA”, “but it is probably distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Central and South America.” (Korovchinsky, 1992). Brazil (MT, SP, RS).
Pseudosida ramosa (Daday, 1904)

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 67.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 67.

References: Brandorff et al., 1982: 92, figs. 51-54; Rey & Vasquez, 1986a: 144, pl. 1, fig. 1-11; Korovchinsky, 1992: 67, figs. 321-336.

Geographic distribution: Tropical America. Brazil (AM).

Comments: Environments with pH ranging from 5.0 to 6.37.

Genus Sarsilatona Korovkinsky, 1985



Sarsilatona behningi Korovkinsky, 1985

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 92.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1985: 418.

References: Brandorff et al., 1982: 92, figs. 49-50 (as Latonopsis fasciculata partim); Korovchinsky, 1985: 418, pls. 9-11; 1992: 92, figs. 105-114.

Geographic distribution: Amazonian Region. Brazil (AM).

Comments: Occurs together with Sarsilatona serricauda.
Sarsilatona serricauda (Sars, 1901)

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 21.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1985: 406.

References: Sars, 1901: 6, pl. 1, figs. 1-6 (as Latonopsis serricauda); Hardy, 1980: 604 (as L. fasciculata); Robertson, 1980: tab. 2 (as L. serricauda); Brandorff et al., 1982: 92, figs. 49-50 (as L. fasciculata part); Korovchinsky, 1985: 406, pls. 3-8; 1992: 21, figs. 91-104; Reid & Turner, 1988: 489 (as L. fasciculata).

Geographic distribution: From southern USA to Argentina. Brazil (AM, MA, SP).

Comments: Occurs together with Sarsilatona behningi.

Genus Sida Straus, 1820



Sida crystallina (O. F. Müller, 1875)

Synonymy: Korovchinsky, 1992: 2.

Description and diagnosis: Korovchinsky, 1992: 2.

References: Ihering, 1895: 169; Bergamin, 1931: 47; 1939b: 63; Korovchinsky, 1992: 2, figs. 1-17.

Geographic distribution: Almost all of Holarctic Region, sparse records for Vietnam and South America. Brazil (SP, RS).

Comments: Littoral species, occasionally pelagic.

Family Bosminidae Sars, 1865

Genus Bosmina Baird, 1845

Bosmina hagmanni Stingelin, 1904

Synonymy: Paggi, 1979: 144.

Description and diagnosis: Paggi, 1979: 144.

References: Stingelin, 1904b: 582, tab. 20, figs. 5-6; 1904c: 153; Daday, 1905: 196, pl. 12, figs. 18-24; (as Bosmina tenuirostris and B. macrostyla); Herbst, 1967: 96 (as Neobosmina hagmanni); Green, 1972: 218; Brandorff & Andrade, 1978: 64 (as B. chilensis); Paggi, 1979: 144, figs. 90-107; Hardy, 1980: 604 (as B. chilensis); Robertson, 1980: tab. 2 (as E. hagmanni); Elmoor-Loureiro, 1988: 505, figs. 6-12; 1990b: 109; Neumann-Leitão et al., 1991: 400.

Geographic distribution: South America. Brazil (AM, PA, DF, SP, RS).

Comments: Resembles Bosmina chilensis, which only occurs in the southern part of South America.
Bosmina longirostris (O. F. Müller, 1785)

Synonymy: Lieder, 1983: 121.

Description and diagnosis: Elmoor-Loureiro, 1988: 503.

References: Arcifa-Zago, 1976: 131; Arcifa, 1984: 138; Lieder, 1983: 121, figs. 1-9; Elmoor-Loureiro, 1988: 503, figs. 1-5; Reid & Turner, 1988: 489; Bohrer et al., 1988: 553.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Brazil (MA, DF, SP, RS).

Comments: Appears to prefer eutrophic environments; with several ecomorphs.
Bosmina tubicen Brehm, 1953

Synonymy: Deevey & Deevey, 1971: 213.

Description and diagnosis: Elmoor-Loureiro, 1988: 507.

References: Deevey & Deevey, 1971: 213, figs. 6-7 (as Eubosmina tubicen); Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 43, fig. 12e-f (as E. tubicen); Elmoor-Loureiro, 1988: 507, figs. 13-18; Neumann-Leitão et al., 1991: 400; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466.

Geographic distribution: Tropical America, Africa, and Australia. Brazil (AC, PA, DF, MG, SP).

Comments: In the Distrito Federal (DF), inhabits slightly eutrophic waters.

Genus Bosminopsis Richard, 1895



Bosminopsis brandorffi Rey & Vasquez, 1989

Description and diagnosis: Rey & Vasquez, 1989: 215.

References: Brandorff et al., 1982: 93 (as Bosminopsis sp.); Rey & Vasquez, 1989: 215, figs. 1-13.

Geographic distribution: Venezuela and Brazil (AM, PA, MT).
Bosminopsis deitersi Richard, 1895

Synonymy: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 45.

Description and diagnosis: Rey & Vasquez, 1986d: 222.

References: Richard, 1895: 96, fig. 14; 1897a: 283, figs. 28-31; Stingelin, 1904c: 154; Thomasson, 1955: 214 (as Bosminiella anisiti); Hardy, 1980: 604; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Reid & Turner, 1988: 489; Green, 1972: 218; Brandorff, 1976: 113; 1978: 1201; Daday, 1905: 199, pl. 13, figs. 1-5 (as B. anisiti); Santos, 1980: 225; Arcifa-Zago, 1976: 131; Arcifa, 1984: 138; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 45, fig. 13a-d; Rey & Vasquez, 1986d: 222, pl. 2, figs. 1-16; Neumann-Leitão et al., 1991: 400; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466.

Geographic distribution: North to South America and Sri Lanka. Brazil: (AC, AM, PA, MA, MT, MG, MS, SP, RS).
Bosminopsis negrensis Brandorff, 1976

Description and diagnosis: Brandorff, 1976: 109.

References: Brandorff, 1976: 109, figs. 1-6; 1978: 1201; Hardy, 1980: 604.

Geographic distribution: Amazonian Region. Brazil (AM).

Comments: In black waters.

Family Daphniidae Straus, 1820



Genus Ceriodaphnia Dana, 1853

Ceriodaphnia cornuta Sars, 1886

Synonymy: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 26.

Description and diagnosis: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 26.

References: Sars, 1901: 20 (as Ceriodaphnia rigaudi); Stingelin, 1904c: 154 (as C. rigaudi); Daday, 1905: 206, pl. 13, figs. 14-15 (as C. rigaudi); Spandl, 1926: 102, fig. 3a-d (as C. paradoxa); Brehm & Thomsen, 1936: 213 (as C. rigaudi); Brehm, 1937: 499 (as C. rigaudi); 1938: 95 (as C. rigaudi); Bergamin, 1931: 26 (as C. rigaudi); 1939b: 62 (as C. rigaudi); 1939c: 87, fig. 8 (as C. rigaudi); Schubart, 1938: 48 (as C. rigaudi); 1942: 26 (as C. rigaudi); Thomasson, 1953: 191, pl. 2, fig. 3a-b; 1955: 214 (var. paradoxa); Herbst, 1967: 96; Green, 1972: 218 (as C. cornuta var. rigaudi); Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Brandorff & Andrade, 1978: 64; Hardy, 1980: 604; Santos, 1980: 225; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Elmoor, 1981: 35; Arcifa, 1984: 138; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 26, fig. 7a-e; Reid & Turner, 1988: 489; Neumann-Leitão et al., 1989: 809, pl. 2, figs. 1-1a (as C. rigaudi); Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466.

Geographic distribution: Tropical and temperate North to South America. Brazil (AC, AM, PA, MA, PI, PE, DF, MG, MS, SP, RS).

Comments: The occurrences of distinct varieties (typica and rigaudi) is related to the presence or absence of predators.
Ceriodaphnia pulchella Sars, 1862

Synonymy: Olivier, 1962: 209.

Description and diagnosis: Olivier, 1962: 209.

References: Herbst, 1967: 96.

Geographic distribution: Europe and South America. Brazil (AM).

Ceriodaphnia quadrangula (O. F. Müller, 1785)

Synonymy: Olivier, 1962: 210.

Description and diagnosis: Olivier, 1962: 210.

References: Bergamin, 1931: 27; 1939b: 62; 1939c: 88, fig. 9; Bohrer et al., 1988: 553.

Geographic distribution: North to South America. Brazil (SP, RS).
Ceriodaphnia reticulata (Jurine, 1820)

Synonymy: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 29.

Description and diagnosis: Olivier, 1962: 211; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 29.

References: Richard, 1897a: 278; Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Arcifa, 1984: 138; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 29, fig. 8a-b.

Geographic distribution: Holarctic, Neotropical, and Ethiopic Regions. Brazil (AM, PA, SP, RS).

Comments: Planktonic, in waters with pH between 7.0 and 9.2 and dense vegetation.
Ceriopahnia richardi Sars, 1901

Synonymy: Olivier, 1962: 212.

Description and diagnosis: Olivier, 1962: 212.

References: Sars, 1901: 21, pl. 3, figs. 11-15; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 28, fig. 7f-h (as Ceriodaphnia dubia).

Geographic distribution: Argentina and Brazil (SP, RS).

Comments: Planktonic, in waters with salinity between 0.86 and 3.55.
Ceriodaphnia silvestrii Daday, 1902

Synonymy: Olivier, 1962: 212.

Description and diagnosis: Daday, 1902: 276.

References: Daday, 1902: 276, pl. 11, figs. 6-10; Elmoor-Loureiro, 1990b: 109.

Geographic distribution: South America. Brazil (DF, RS).

Comments: Some plates (Daday, 1905; Olivier, 1962) did not show the lateral expansions of fornices. This species was reported as Ceriodaphnia dubia by Harding (1955: 335).

Genus Daphnia O. F. Müller, 1785



Daphnia ambigua Scourfield, 1947

Synonymy: Brooks, 1957: 96.

Description and diagnosis: Brooks, 1957: 96.

References: Arcifa, 1984: 138; Matsumura-Tundisi, 1984: 162, figs. 6-7; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 25, fig. 6c-d.

Geographic distribution: North to South America, England, and Belgium. Brazil (SP, RS).
Daphnia gessneri Herbst, 1967

Description and diagnosis: Herbst, 1967: 96.

References: Herbst, 1967: 96, figs. 20-29; Arcifa-Zago, 1976: 131; Arcifa, 1984: 138; Brandorff, 1978: 1202; Brandorff & Andrade, 1978: 64; Hardy, 1980: 604; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Santos, 1980: 225; Matsumura-Tundisi, 1984: 161, figs. 1-2; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (AC, AM, PA, MG, SP).

Comments: Usually is the most common species in eutrophic waters.

Daphnia laevis Birge, 1878

Synonymy: Brooks, 1957: 117.

Description and diagnosis: Brooks, 1957: 117.

References: Santos, 1980: 225 (as Daphnia dubia); Matsumura-Tundisi, 1984: 162, figs. 3-5.

Geographic distribution: From southern USA to Argentina. Brazil (MG).

Genus Scapholeberis Schoedler, 1858



Scapholeberis armata (Herrick, 1882)

Synonymy: Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 35.

Description and diagnosis: Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 35.

References: Daday, 1905: 205 (as Scapholeberis mucronata); Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 35, figs. 18-20.

Geographic distribution: North to South America. Brazil (MS).

Comments: In South America the variety freyi occurs.
Scapholeberis spinifera (Nicolet, 1849)

Synonymy: Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 32.

Description and diagnosis: Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 32.

References: Richard, 1897a: 281, figs. 25-27 (var. brevispina); 1897b: 329; Dumont & Pensaert, 1983: 32, pl. 17, figs. 1-12; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 41, fig. 12a-d.

Geographic distribution: Chile, Argentina, and Brazil (RS).

Comments: In the Patos Lagoon, inhabits coastal waters, with floating or benthic vegetation.

Genus Simocephalus Schoedler, 1858



Simocephalus acutirostris King, 1853

Description and diagnosis: Gauthier, 1939: 144.

References: Brehm, 1937: 502; fig. 2; 1938: 95, figs. 1-2 (as Simocephalus acutirostratus); Gauthier, 1939: 144, figs. 3A-F (as Simosa acutirostrata brehmi); Schubart, 1942: 26.

Geographic distribution: Australia, Africa, and Brazil (PE, AL).
Simocephalus aguabrancai Bergamin, 1938

Description and diagnosis: Bergamin, 1939b: 62.

References: Bergamin, 1939b: 62, fig. 7.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (SP).
Simocephalus iheringi Richard, 1897

Synonymy: Harding, 1955: 329.

Description and diagnosis: Sars, 1901: 25.

References: Richard, 1897a: 279, figs. 22-24; Sars, 1901: 25, pl. 4, figs. 10-13; Bergamin, 1931: 23, pl. 1, fig. 2 (Simocephalus fonsecai); 1939a: 85, pl. 1, figs. 2, 4 (S. fonsecai); 1939b: 62, figs. 1-4 (S. fonsecai).

Geographic distribution: South America. Brazil (SP, RS).

Simocephalus kerhervei Bergamin, 1931

Description and diagnosis: Bergamin, 1939a: 85.

References: Bergamin, 1931: 25, pl. 1, fig. 3; 1939a: 85, pl. 1, fig. 3; 1939b: 62, fig. 6.

Geographic distribution: Brazil (SP).

Simocephalus latirostris Stingelin, 1906

Description and diagnosis: Orlova-Bienkowskaja, 1995: 46.

References: Stingelin, 1906: 187, figs. 5-7; Brehm, 1937: 503, figs. 2-3; Schubart, 1942: 26; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Brandorff et al., 1982: 92, figs. 56-60; Orlova-Bienkowskaja, 1995: 46, figs. 2-6.

Geographic distribution: Tropics and subtropics of South and Central America. Brazil (AM, PA, PE).

Comments: In waters with low pH, high constant temperatures, which may have low levels of O2 and, probably, clear and not polluted.

Simocephalus serrulatus (Koch, 1841)

Synonymy: Stingelin, 1913: 611.

Description and diagnosis: Sars, 1901: 23; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 37.

References: Richard, 1897a: 278, figs. 20-21; Sars, 1901: 23, pl. 4, figs. 1-9 (as Simocephalus semiserratus); Stingelin, 1913: 611, figs. 14-16; Bergamin, 1931: 24; 1939b: 62, fig. 5; Santos, 1980: 225; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 37, figs. 10c-f.

Geographic distribution: North to South America and Africa. Brazil: (MG, SP, RS).

Comments: In shallow littoral waters with benthic and floating vegetation.

Simocephalus vetulus (O. F. Müller, 1776)

Description and diagnosis: Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 38.

References: Brehm & Thomsen, 1936: 213; Brehm, 1938: 95 (as Simocephalus cf. vetula); Schubart, 1938: 48; 1942: 26; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 38, fig. 11 a-c.

Geographic distribution: North to South America, Africa, and Nepal. Brazil (PE, RS).

Comments: In Patos Lagoon, always associated with vegetation.

Family Moinidae Goulden, 1968

Genus Moinodaphnia Herrick, 1887

Moinodaphnia macleayi (King, 1853)

Synonymy: Goulden, 1968: 84.

Description and diagnosis: Goulden, 1968: 84.

References: Sars, 1901: 16, pl. 3, fig. 1-10; Daday, 1905: 203; Brehm & Thonsem, 1936: 213; Brehm, 1937: 497; 1938: 95; Schubart, 1938: 48; 1942: 27; Goulden, 1968: 84, figs. 45-46.

Geographic distribution: Circumtropical. Brazil (PE, AL, MS, SP).

Comments: In small lakes, swamps and pools, near the bottom mud or in the weeds.

Genus Moina Baird, 1850



Moina micrura Kurz, 1874

Synonymy: Goulden, 1968: 28.

Description and diagnosis: Goulden, 1968: 28; Smirnov, 1976: 194.

References: Daday, 1905: 201, pl. 13, figs. 9-13 (as Moina ciliata); Brehm & Thonsem, 1936: 213 (as M. makrophtalma); Brehm, 1937: 497 (as M. propinqua); 1938: 95 (as M. makrophtalma); Schubart, 1938: 48 (as M. cf. macrophtalma); 1942: 27 (as M. macrophtalma and propinqua); Goulden, 1968: 28, figs. 8-12; Montú & Gloeden, 1986: 23, fig. 6a-b; Neumann-Leitão et al., 1989: 809, pl. 2, fig. 3; Elmoor, 1981: 35.

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, tropical and subtropical. Brazil (PE, AL, DF, MS, RS).

Comments: The variety present in South America is Moina micrura ciliata (after Goulden, 1968).

Moina minuta Hansen, 1899

Synonymy: Goulden, 1968: 62.

Description and diagnosis: Goulden, 1968: 62; Smirnov, 1976: 222.

References: Stingelin, 1904b: 580, T 20, figs. 3-4 (as Moinodaphnia brasiliensis); 1904c: 153 (as M. brasiliensis); Spandl, 1926: 103, figs. 4a-d (as Moina minima); Schubart, 1942: 27; Goulden, 1968: 62, figs. 27-28; Brandorff, 1978: 1201; Robertson, 1980: tab. 2; Santos, 1980: 225; Brandorff et al., 1982: 92; Bohrer et al., 1988: 553; Sendacz & Melo Costa, 1991: 466.
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