How are chemical/physical properties and persistence linked to environmental transport, transfer within and between environmental compartments, degradation and transformation to other chemicals?
Bio-concentration or bio-accumulation factor, based on measured values (unless monitoring data are judged to meet this need)
(d) Monitoring data (provide summary information and relevant references)
EXPOSURE DATA and LRT-information: Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian coast. Bustnes J.O., Helberg M., Strann K-B., Skaare, J. U. Environmental Pollution 144 (2006) 893-901. Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscusand greyish mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermediusappearance,m in the Barents region. Relative high levels of beta-HCH were found in L.f. fuscus.
The levels of DDE and beta-HCH wqs higher in an endangered than in an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway.
The article concludes that even if the use of technical HCH, that contains beta-HCH, has decreased over the globe the two last decades the levels of beta-HCH is still relative high in many areas. L.f. fuscus migrates through the Black Sea area, considerably contaminated with HCH. The levels found can therefore be a result of this migration.
(Jfr Stockholm Convention 1 (d) (ii) in Annex D.)
(e) Exposure in local areas (provide summary information and relevant references)
- as a result of long range environmental transport