Fitzgerald biosphere recovery plan




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FITZGERALD BIOSPHERE RECOVERY PLAN

A landscape approach to threatened species and ecological communities for recovery and biodiversity conservation

APPENDIX 2: Species Profiles









South Coast Region

Department of Environment and Conservation



Cover photos: top leftKunzea similis subsp. mediterranea (Stephen Kern)

top middle – Numbat (Stephanie Hill)

top rightEremophila denticulata subsp. denticulata (Sarah Barrett)

bottom – Fitzgerald River National Park (Sarah Comer)

Department of Environment and Conservation

South Coast Region

120 Albany Highway

Albany WA 6330.

FORWARD
This Appendix 2: Species Profiles is the supporting document for the Fitzgerald Biosphere Recovery Plan. This Plan constitutes the formal national regional recovery plan for the threatened species and ecological communities of the Fitzgerald Biosphere on the south coast of Western Australia under the Commonwealth’s Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
The Fitzgerald Biosphere is a designated Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program, recognised for its relatively pristine state and high biological diversity, especially flora. It is approximately 1.3 million hectares including the Fitzgerald River National Park and surrounding catchments. The Biosphere includes 41 threatened species/communities listed by the State, 33 of which are also listed by the Commonwealth.
These Species Profiles provide information on the biology, ecology, habitat requirements, distribution and threatening processes for each of the 41 threatened species and ecological communities of the Fitzgerald Biosphere.
Information contained in the species profiles on distribution, habitat critical to survival, habitat, important populations and threats is based on current knowledge of habitat occupied or used, and only relevant to the Biosphere, and may not be comprehensive for the entire range of the species.
The information in these Species Profiles is accurate at March 2011.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
These threatened species profiles were prepared by Saul Cowen for DEC South Coast Region.
The following people assisted in the preparation of these profiles:

Sarah Barrett DEC Threatened Flora Officer, South Coast Region

Sarah Comer DEC Regional Ecologist, South Coast Region

Sandra Gilfillan Ecologist

Janet Newell DEC Recovery Planner, South Coast Region

Deon Utber DEC Regional Leader Nature Conservation, South Coast Region


Thanks also to those who contributed knowledge and advice in the preparation of individual species profiles.
Grateful thanks is extended to all those who contributed photographs. All photographs are copyright and may not be reproduced by a Third Party without prior permission of the photographer or DEC (where appropriate).

CONTENTS
Fauna

  • Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris 1

  • Western Bristlebird Dasyornis longirostris 3

  • Chuditch Dasyurus geoffroii 5

  • Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata 7

  • Numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus 9

  • Dibbler Parantechinus apicalis 11

  • Western Ground-Parrot Pezoporus wallicus flaviventris 13

  • Red-tailed Phascogale Phascogale calura 15

  • Heath Mouse Pseudomys shortridgei 17

Flora

  • Acacia rhamphophylla 19

  • Adenanthos dobagii 21

  • Adenanthos ellipticus 23

  • Anigozanthos bicolor (subsp. minor) 24

  • Beyeria cockertonii 26

  • Boronia clavata 27

  • Caladenia bryceana (subsp. bryceana) 28

  • Calochilus pruinosus 30

  • Conostylis lepidospermoides 31

  • Coopernookia georgei 32

  • Daviesia megacalyx 33

  • Daviesia obovata 34

  • Eremophila denticulata (subsp. denticulata) 35

  • Eremophila subteretifolia 36

  • Eucalyptus burdettiana 37

  • Eucalyptus coronata 39

  • Eucalyptus nutans 40

  • Eucalyptus purpurata 41

  • Grevillea infundibularis 42

  • Hibbertia abyssa 43

  • Kunzea similis (subsp. mediterranea) 45

  • Kunzea similis (subsp. similis) 46

  • Lepidium aschersonii 47

  • Marianthus mollis 48

  • Myoporum cordifolium 50

  • Ricinocarpos trichophorus 52

  • Stylidium galioides 53

  • Thelymitra psammophila 54

  • Verticordia crebra 55

  • Verticordia helichrysantha 56

  • Verticordia pityrhops 60

Communities

  • Eucalyptus acies mallee-heath 61


ABBREVIATIONS
DEC Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation

FRNP Fitzgerald River National Park

IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Mt Mount

NP National Park

NR Nature Reserve

NSW New South Wales

NT Northern Territory

SA South Australia

spp. multiple species belong to single genus

subsp. subspecies

TR Timber Reserve

UCL Unallocated Crown Land

VIC Victoria

WA Western Australia

Carnaby’s Black-CockatooCalyptorhynchus latirostris (Psittacidae)

(White-tailed or Short-billed Black-Cockatoo, Ngolak, Ngoolya)



Conservation Status

IUCN Red List 2010: Endangered


  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950: Endangered

Photo: © Raana Scott



Description

A large black cockatoo (53-58cm), with a white cheek patch and white interior to tail feathers. Males distinguishable by a black (rather than grey) bill and red (not grey) eye-ring. Heavy bill structure differs slightly from the very similar Baudin’s Black-Cockatoo (C. baudinii) in that the upper mandible is shorter. Being gregarious, these birds form large flocks outside the breeding season.


Distribution and Habitat

Occurs patchily throughout much of the south-west land division, from the Murchison River in the north-west to the Esperance region in the south-east. Moves to higher-rainfall coastal areas outside breeding season.

Mainly occurs in uncleared or remnant eucalypt woodland or heath.
Important Populations

Carnaby’s Cockatoo exists as a single population. Several important nesting

sites known within the Fitzgerald Biosphere, and large flocks of cockatoos

are regularly seen feeding throughout the Biosphere.


Habitat Critical

  • Breeding, feeding and watering sites used during the breeding period; and

  • Woodland and Mallee heath, and other areas where the cockatoos feed in the non-breeding period; and

  • Areas currently used for nocturnal roosts in the non-breeding period; and

  • Woodland sites known to have supported past breeding activities which could also be used in the future once food resources are re-established.


Biology and Ecology

Generalist seed-eaters, feeding on a wide range of both native and introduced flora. Usually arboreal but will occasionally feed on the ground. Will also feed on the nectar of native Proteaceae, as well as extracting insect larvae from the fruits and flowers of Banksia species.

Socially monogamous, pairs retain strong pair bonds for the duration of their reproductive lives (>4-5 yrs for females). Requires suitably-sized hollows (25 to 250+cm deep) for breeding.
Threats

Loss of breeding and feeding habitat including suitable nest-hollow trees; Fragmentation of habitat through clearing and degradation of habitat from the effects of Phytophthora dieback, salinisation, intense bushfires and mining activities; Competition for nesting hollows with other hollow-nesting birds and feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera); Illegal harvesting of nestlings for the cage-bird trade; Illegal shooting; Climate change; Stochastic events (e.g. disease, climate events); Vehicle collision.





References

BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Calyptorhynchus latirostris. http://www.birdlife.org - Accessed 16/2/2010

Cale, B. (2003) Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) Recovery Plan 2002-2012. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

DEWHA (2010) Calyptorhynchus latirostris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 23/2/2010



Western Bristlebird Dasyornis longirostris (Dasyornidae)

(Booderitj)



Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red List 2010: Vulnerable

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950: Vulnerable

Photo: © Ray Smith



Description

Medium-sized (c.17cm) ground-dwelling bird with short wings and long, graduated tail. Colouration is generally rufous-brown with fine dark-brown scalloping. The underparts brownish-grey. An elusive species and often difficult to observe.


Distribution and Habitat

Endemic to south-west WA and occurs in two disjunct areas: from Two Peoples’ Bay NR to Cheynes Beach and in the FRNP as far east as East Mt Barren. Not recorded between these populations, which are themselves fragmented.

Favours diverse areas of closed coastal heathland, usually with abundant sedges and low sparse eucalypt thickets. May reoccupy burnt areas 2-3 yrs post-fire but in drier areas it may take 11-14 yrs.
Important Populations

The FRNP is one of the two secure populations of this species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • That area of current occupancy of known populations; and

  • Nearby similar habitat nearby used as dispersal corridors; and

  • Potential habitat into which the species could disperse or be translocated.


Biology and Ecology

Ground-foraging species with diet consisting mainly of seeds and invertebrates. Weak flier and generally terrestrial but will occasionally make short flights.

Song is distinctive and antiphonal, i.e. ‘male’ call is answered by ‘female’ call. Little is known of breeding biology but pairs appear to hold territories together.
Threats

Fragmentation of habitat through clearing of native vegetation; Degradation of habitat from the effects of Phytophthora dieback, hard-hoofed introduced animals, intense and high frequency bushfires and weed invasion; Predation by feral cats and foxes; Stochastic events; Small population size (genetic issues) exacerbated by fragmented and isolated populations, Climate Change.







References

BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Dasyornis longirostris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org - 23/2/2010

DEWHA (2010) Dasyornis longirostris in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 23/2/2010

Gilfillan, S., Comer, S., Burbidge, A., Blyth, J., Danks, A. & Newell, J. (2009) South Coast Threatened Birds Recovery Plan 2009-2018. Department of Environment and Conservation, Albany, Western Australia.


Chuditch Dasyurus geoffroii (Dasyuridae)

(Western Quoll, Djooditj, Ngooldjangit)



Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red List 2010: Near Threatened

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950: Vulnerable

Photo: © Cameron Tiller (DEC)



Description

One of Australia’s largest mainland carnivorous marsupial, with mature adults reaching the size of a small domestic cat and weighing up to 1.3kg. Pelage is reddish-brown with white spots, and the long tail graduates to black at distal end.


Distribution and Habitat

Formerly occupied up to 70% of Australian mainland but since mid-20th century has been confined to south-western WA. The species has been translocated to various sites between Cape Arid and Kalbarri NPs and ranges widely so exact distribution is difficult to assess. However, appears to occurs patchily throughout the south-west land division using a wide range of habitats from sclerophyll woodlands to beaches and deserts. Riparian systems may support higher than normal densities.



Important Populations

An important population of the species occurs in the Ravensthorpe Range through to the northern marine plain of the FRNP.


Habitat Critical to Survival

Has historically been present in a wide variety of habitats and is not possible to list specific habitat characteristics that should be conserved. However, some key aspects for survival in an area include:



  • Adequate den resources (hollow logs, burrows or rock crevices); and

  • Adequate prey resources (particularly large invertebrates); and

  • sizeable areas (>20,000ha) to accommodate large home ranges.


Biology and Ecology

Opportunistic omnivore and consumes large invertebrates as well as small birds, mammals and reptiles. Plant material (e.g. Zamia (Macrozamia riedlei) seed pulp) occasionally eaten and may also scavenge from humans. Mainly terrestrial and nocturnal but will occasionally climb trees and forage diurnally.

Males and females reach sexual maturity in first year and rarely live longer than four years. Both sexes are promiscuous. Young spent first 2 months in pouch, after which they reside in a den.
Threats

Loss and fragmentation of habitat; Degradation of habitat including loss of den sites (e.g. hollow logs); Inappropriate fire regime (e.g. high frequency); Competition with and predation by feral cats, foxes, and dingoes; Conflict with humans (e.g. trapping, illegal shooting, poisoning); Vehicle collisions.






References

DEWHA (2010) Dasyurus geoffroii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat.- Accessed 23/2/2010

Morris, K., Burbidge, A. & Hamilton, S. (2008) Dasyurus geoffroii. IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org - Accessed 23/2/2010.

Orell, P. & Morris, K. (1994) Chuditch Recovery Plan (1992-2001). Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.



Malleefowl Leipoa ocellata (Megapodiidae)

(Ngow, Ngowo)



Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red List 2010: Vulnerable

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950: Vulnerable

Photo: © Alan Danks



Description

A large, ground-dwelling bird up to 60cm long and 2.5kg in weight. Adult birds have grey necks with black medial stripe and upperparts are chestnut brown with mottled brown, black and white ocellations on the wings.


Distribution and Habitat

In Australia, occurs in a wide distribution (approximately 900,000km²) from the Great Dividing Range in the east to Shark Bay in the west. In WA, occurs south-west of a line from Carnarvon to Eyre Bird Observatory, often patchily especially in remnant bush in the Wheatbelt. It is absent from far south-west.


Important Populations

There is no information to specify that any population is more under threat than any other, nor are there any locations where the species can be confidently regarded as secure. However, it is regularly seen throughout the FNRP.


Habitat Critical to Survival

Habitat requirements are poorly understood, but a sandy substrate and abundant leaf litter are clear requirements for the construction of nests. In WA, the Malleefowl occurs mainly in arid mallee and shrubland habitats on sandy soils.


Biology and Ecology

Generalist foragers and will consume invertebrates, a variety of plant material (especially seeds) as well as fungi but may also use artificial sources of food (e.g. spilt grain. Usually forage around dawn and dusk.

A mound-nester, it builds mounds 4-5m in diameter and 1m high. Pairs may raise 8-10 chicks per year. Sexually mature at 4-5 yrs and the average lifespan may be c.15 yrs.
Threats

Loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat from land clearing, environmental weeds and effects of altered hydrology; Predation by cats and foxes; Vehicle collision while foraging for spilt grain along roadsides; Inappropriate fire regimes (e.g. large-scale or high frequency fire events); Small population sizes (genetic issues) exacerbated by fragmented and isolated populations; Competition from grazing herbivores; Climate change.






References

Benshemesh, J. (2007). National Recovery Plan for Malleefowl. Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

BirdLife International (2009) Species factsheet: Leipoa ocellata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/2/2010

DEWHA (2010) Leipoa ocellata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat.- Accessed 23/2/2010

Short, J. & Parson, J. (2008) Malleefowl Conservation – informed and integrated community action. A final report to WWF Australia and Avon Catchment Council.
Numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus (Myrmecobiidae)

(Noombat, Wioo)



Conservation Status

  • IUCN Red List 2010: Endangered

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Stephanie Hill (DEC)



Description

A small marsupial, with distinctive white transverse stripes on the lower back and rump over the reddish-brown pelage. Has large brush-like tail and single black and white lateral stripe on either side of the head between the eye and lower jaw. Mature adult body length is around 200-250mm, with the tail adding 150-180mm.


Distribution and Habitat

Formerly widespread across semi-arid and arid southern Australia from western NSW and southern NT to the south-west of WA.

Just two natural populations remain, at Dryandra Woodland (near Narrogin) and Perup NR (near Manjimup). Translocated populations now exist in a number of reserves throughout the south-west, including Cocanarup TR in the Fitzgerald Biosphere.

Historically, habitat preferences were varied but currently the species is restricted to eucalypt woodland areas, e.g. Salmon Gum (Eucalyptus salmonophloia) in Cocanarup TR.


Important Populations

The translocated population in Cocanarup TR in the Fitzgerald Biosphere.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the translocated population; and

  • Similar habitat that currently does not contain the species but may be suitable for translocations.


Biology and Ecology

Feeds almost exclusively on termites (Isoptera), extracted by digging to intercept galleries (rather than nests) and using its extremely long tongue, coated with adhesive saliva. Unusually for a small marsupial, it is a diurnal species. Solitary and territorial, females raise young in burrows until mature enough to forage further afield. May live up to 5 yrs, reaching sexual maturity in the first year for females and second yr for males.


Threats

Predation by cats, foxes and native avian predators; Inappropriate fire regimes (frequency and intensity); Loss of woodland habitat, Stochastic events, Climate change.





References

DEWHA (2010) Myrmecobius fasciatus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 1/4/2010

Friend, J.A. (1989) Fauna of Australia Volume 1B (Mammalia) Chapter 22 Myrmecobiidae, Published by AGPS, Canberra, Australia.

Friend, J.A. (1994) Recovery Plan for the Numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus) 1995-2004, Department Conservation and Land Management, Albany, Western Australia.

Friend, T. & Burbidge, A. (2008) Myrmecobius fasciatus. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org - Accessed 1/4/2010

McKenzie, N.L., May, J.E. & McKenna, S. (Eds) (2002) Bioregional Summary of the 2002 Biodiversity Audit for Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.


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