Fish Classification of Fish Fish can be classified in various ways: Zoological Classification




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Fish
Classification of Fish
Fish can be classified in various ways:
Zoological Classification

  • Cartilaginous or non-bony fish:

The cartilaginous fish comprises about 500 species, including sharks and rays.


  • Bony Fish:

The bony fish group has about 20,000 species. The largest of which are tuna that can grow up to 6 feet long and weigh up to 700 pounds.

Classification by Origin:



Classification by Fat Content:
Nutritional considerations determine the classification of these fishes.

  • Oily fish:
    Have large amounts of oil embedded in their flesh. Examples are eel, herring and salmon.





  • Lean fish:
    Contain little or no oil in their flesh; fatty deposits are generally in the gut that need to be removed. Examples are cod and haddock.




Classification by Skeletal Types

  • Round fish:

Have a backbone at the top and two fillets on each side.


  • Flatfish:

Have a backbone that runs through the center of the fish, with two upper and lower fillets. Flatfish start out as round fish but, to adapt to their environment and feeding needs, turn on their sides and become flatfish with both eyes on top.


  • Non-bony fish:

Fish-like shark, skate and monkfish are generally grouped with round fish.

Aquaculture
A growing industry all over the world and is becoming more and more important. Fish hatcheries are primarily concerned with raising small fish from eggs in a protective environment and releasing the young fish into freshwater ponds and streams for sport fishing. Fish farms raise fish to a market size for the food industry.


  • Fish Farming in Ponds

Most freshwater fish are raised in ponds. Extensive farming relies on naturally available foods to nourish the fish. Intensive farming provides additional fish food especially formulated for the type of fish raised. The most common farm-raised freshwater fish are rainbow trout, char, catfish, eel and carp. To increase yield, large natural bodies of water are sometimes covered with netting to protect the fish from predators.


  • Fish Farming in Weirs

Use of netting makes it possible to farm fish in “open” waters of large lakes, rivers and bays. The weirs are protected from bird predators with netting. Freshwater fish farmed in lake weirs are trout and carp. Saltwater fish farmed in bay weirs are salmon, sea trout and halibut. Turbot farming is still in the experimental stage.


  • Fish Farming in Oceans

Fish can be farmed in bays, fjord and lagoons. Barriers prevent the fish from escaping into the open sea. Salmon, sea trout and halibut are raised in Norwegian fjords, salmon and sea trout in North Pacific bays; and the lagoons of the Adriatic Sea are used to raise mullet and bream.

Technical Terms:


Fish Parts

Aquaculture:

Growing fish in ponds, ocean farms, weirs, etc. such as for example, salmon and trout.


Barbel:

Thread-like or, sometimes, ragged attachments of various sizes on the jaws of some fish; for example carp and catfish.


Stocking:

The release of fish bred in hatcheries into streams or lakes; for example char, brook trout, pikes and pike perch.


Adipose fin:

A small, fleshy fin located between the dorsal and caudal fins.

Diadromous:

Regularly migrating between freshwater and seawater. This category includes anadromous, catadromous and amphidromous fishes such as sea-lampreys, sturgeons, salmons, Anguilla, Alosa, etc. Migrations are cyclical, as well as predictable and cover more than 100 km.


Anadromous:

Fish that live in saltwater and spawn in freshwater like salmon and sturgeons.

Catadromous:

Fish that leave the freshwater and spawn in salt water like river eels.


Amphidromous:

Moving from fresh water to the sea, or vice versa, for non-reproductive purposes like certain crustaceans.


Stationary:

Fish that stay in the same water, either fresh or saltwater like trout, pike, ray, shark, tuna.


Parasite:

An organism that lives inside another, feeding on it without killing it, and sometimes depositing harmful waste.


Population:

The numbers and types of fish present in a particular body of water.



General Nutritional Value of Fish and Seafood
Nutritional value of fish differs greatly among different types of fish:


  • Protein content ranges from 17 to 20 percent.

  • Fat content of lean fish is about 0.8 to 2 percent; oily fish is about 4.5 to 12 percent. Eel has an extremely high fat content at approximately 25 percent.

  • Carbohydrate content is below 1 percent.

  • Water content is about 75 percent.

  • Mineral content is 1 to 1.5 percent, mostly sodium, calcium and phosphorus. Saltwater fish also contain iodine.

  • Vitamins in fish include vitamin A, thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2) and niacin.

  • Caloric content depends on the amount of oil in the flesh.



Nutritional Values of Popular Fish
Anchovies (European)


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water


73.37g

Calories

131kCal

Protein

20.35g

Fat

4.84g

Carbohydrates

0g

Cholesterol

60g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

0g

Calcium

147mg

Iron

3.25mg

Magnesium

41mg

Phosphorus

174mg

Potassium

383mg

Sodium

104mg

Zinc

1.72mg

Copper

0.211mg

Manganese

0.07mg

Selenium

36.5mg

Vitamin C

0mg

Vitamin E

0.57mg

Vitamin K

0.1mg

Thiamin

0.055mg

Riboflavin

0.256mg

Niacin

14.024mg

Folic Acid

0mg









Bass Fresh Water (mixed spices)


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

75.66g

Calories

114kCal

Protein

18.86g

Fat

3.69g

Carbohydrates

0g

Cholesterol

68g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

g

Calcium

80mg

Iron

1.49mg

Magnesium

30mg

Phosphorus

200mg

Potassium

356mg

Sodium

70mg

Zinc

0.65mg

Copper

0.093mg

Manganese

0.889mg

Selenium

12.6mg

Vitamin C

2mg

Vitamin E

mg

Vitamin K

mg

Thiamin

0.075mg

Riboflavin

0.074mg

Niacin

1.25mg

Folic Acid

0mg








Cod (Atlantic)


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

81.22g

Calories

82kCal

Protein

17.81g

Fat

0.67g

Carbohydrates

0g

Cholesterol

43g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

0g

Calcium

16mg

Iron

0.38mg

Magnesium

32mg

Phosphorus

203mg

Potassium

413mg

Sodium

54mg

Zinc

0.45mg

Copper

0.028mg

Manganese

0.015mg

Selenium

33.1mg

Vitamin C

1mg

Vitamin E

0.64mg

Vitamin K

0.1mg

Thiamin

0.076mg

Riboflavin

0.065mg

Niacin

2.063mg

Folic Acid

0mg








Salmon


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

68.5g

Calories

142kCal

Protein

19.84g

Fat

6.34g

Carbohydrates

0g

Cholesterol

55g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

g

Calcium

12mg

Iron

0.8mg

Magnesium

29mg

Phosphorus

200mg

Potassium

490mg

Sodium

44mg

Zinc

0.64mg

Copper

0.25mg

Manganese

0.016mg

Selenium

36.5mg

Vitamin C

0mg

Vitamin E

mg

Vitamin K

mg

Thiamin

0.226mg

Riboflavin

0.38mg

Niacin

7.86mg

Folic Acid

0mg







Eel (mixed species)


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

68.26g

Calories

184kCal

Protein

18.44g

Fat

11.66g

Carbohydrates

0g

Cholesterol

126g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

0g

Calcium

20mg

Iron

0.5mg

Magnesium

20mg

Phosphorus

216mg

Potassium

272mg

Sodium

51mg

Zinc

1.62mg

Copper

0.023mg

Manganese

0.035mg

Selenium

6.5mg

Vitamin C

1.8mg

Vitamin E

4mg

Vitamin K

0mg

Thiamin

0.15mg

Riboflavin

0.04mg

Niacin

3.5mg

Folic Acid

0mg









Nutritional Values of Crustaceans
Shrimps (mixed spices)


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

75.86g

Calories

106kCal

Protein

20.31g

Fat

1.73g

Carbohydrates

0.91g

Cholesterol

152g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

0g

Calcium

52mg

Iron

2.41mg

Magnesium

37mg

Phosphorus

205mg

Potassium

185mg

Sodium

148mg

Zinc

1.11mg

Copper

0.264mg

Manganese

0.05mg

Selenium

38mg

Vitamin C

2mg

Vitamin E

1.1mg

Vitamin K

0mg

Thiamin

0.028mg

Riboflavin

0.034mg

Niacin

2.552mg

Folic Acid

0mg








Lobster


Values are per 100g (typical values)

Water

76.76g

Calories

90kCal

Protein

18.8g

Fat

0.9g

Carbohydrates

0.5g

Cholesterol

95g

Fiber

0mg

Sugar

0g

Calcium

48mg

Iron

0.3mg

Magnesium

27mg

Phosphorus

144mg

Potassium

275mg

Sodium

296mg

Zinc

3.02mg

Copper

1.663mg

Manganese

0.055mg

Selenium

41.4mg

Vitamin C

0mg

Vitamin E

1.47mg

Vitamin K

0.1mg

Thiamin

0.006mg

Riboflavin

0.048mg

Niacin

1.455mg

Folic Acid

0mg







Importance in the Diet of Fish and Seafood

  • Compared to meat, most fishes are low in fat. Fish flesh has little connective tissue and a loose cell structure, which allow the human digestive enzymes to break down the flesh quickly. Fish, therefore, is more easily digestible than red meat but produces a relatively low satiety.



Health Hazards
Fish and seafood spoil rapidly; and, incorrect storage and preparation can cause food poisoning. Raw or partially cooked fish or shellfish can cause parasitic infections and hepatitis. Clams or mussels harvested from “red tide,” infested waters carry a toxin that affects the human nervous system. The toxin is not destroyed by heat.


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