|Final Draft Itinerary TCC Rome Pilgrimage 2006
2 January 2006
Friday, 6 January 2006: Arrive
Transfer from airport and arrive at convent, Casa di Santa Brigida (CSB). There will be 5 pickups at the airport; look for the name of your group:
1 ORLANDO (Fr. Paul, Ann and Terry Orlando, Bob Mann, Debb Hodges, Elizabeth Basha; Joel Fernandez) arriving Flight Alitalia Flight 1027
2.NOLTE (Adam and Suzanne) arriving flight UA Flight: 8800
3. FARRELLY (Elizabeth Farrelly) arriving flight UA Flight: 8800
4. CHRISTINE YU arriving flight Delta 148
NOTE: Hayley and Tom are making their own arrangements to/from the airport; as are Steve and Bridget ENGLEBRETON
The Cab or minibus driver will be waiting with a placard with your name when you come out of the customs.. Approach him and he will take care of you. In case if you want to contact the driver , Mr. Alberto 's telephone number is 39 06 347 456 471.
CASA DI SANTA BRIGIDA
PIAZZA FARNESE 96
Tel. 0039 06 68892596
Dinner at Convent (1:00 pm)
Dinner at Convent at 7:00 pm.
Saturday, 7 January
Breakfast 8:00 at CSB
Leave at 9:00
Walking Tour of Baroque Churches around P. Navona (Details at the end)
Palazzo della Cancelleria
S Agnese in Agone Tues-Sat 9-12; 4-7; Sun 10-1
Bernini’s Fountain of the Four Rivers
S Luigi dei Francesi Fri-Wed 7:30-12:30, &15:30-19:00 (M7 & 19)
Pantheon Mon-Sat 8:30-19:30, Sun 9-18:00
S M Sopra Minerva 7-12,15:30-19:00
S Ignazio di Loyola 7:00-12:00 & 16:00-19:00
Basilica di S Andrea della Valle daily 7:30-12:30; 4:30-7:30
Not on tour
St Ivo Sun 9 or 10-noon; M-F 10-4:30; 10-1 Sat; 9-12 Sun
Gesu 7:00-12:30, 16:00-19:15. (Mass here on Sunday)
Lunch 1:00 at CSB
Leave for Vatican 2:00 pm; Bus 64
Tour of Scavi, reservation at 3:00 pm
Mass CSB 6:00 pm
Dinner Out in Campo di Fiore
Trattoria der Pallaro
Sunday, 8 January
Breakfast 8:00 CSB
Leave at 9:00
1. St. Paul Regola
2. Jewish Bakery and Synagogue
3. Theatro Marcello
4. St. Nicholas in Carcere 9-7 daily
5. Walk around temples of Forum Baorium
6 Visit S. Maria in Cosmedin 9-5 daily
7. Circus Maximus
8. St. Mark in Piazza Venezia 8-1:15; 4-7 on Sunday (7:30-12:30; 4-7 M-Sa)
9. Area Sacra
Lunch CSB 1:00
Leave 3:30 to walk to Gesu; Mass at Gesu 4:00 pm
Late Afternoon, after Mass
1. Tour Gesu
2. San Ignazio 7:30-12:30; 3-7:30
3. Trevi Fountain
4. Spanish Steps and Café Greco
5. Piazza Colonna
6. San Agostino
Monday, 9 January
Leave BEFORE BREAKFAST at 6:45
1. Mass St. Peter’s 7:45
2. Tour Vatican Museum 9:00 with Rome Walks
3. Lunch at Vatican Museum
1. St. Peter’s Basilica; Penance Daily 7 – 12: 3-6;
Eucharistic Adoration 8 – 4:45
Hosteria dei Basitoni
Alfredo e Ada
Tuesday, 10 January
Breakfast at 8:00;
Leave at 8:30; go on Bus
1. Mass at San Clemente 10:00
2. Tour San Clemente
4. Lunch around Colosseum (on your own)
5. Walking tour of Forum (Palantine?)
6. Trajan’s Column
7. Walk back via Capitoline Hill
8. Out to Trastevere; Dinner and Vespers with S. Eligio Community at Santa Maria Trastevere
Wednesday, January 11
Leave at 9:30 Bus 64
1. Papal Audience
2. Say goodbye to St. Peter’s
Lunch at CSB 1:00
Leave at 2:15; Bus 62
1. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane 10-1; 3-6 M-Sat
2. Mass S. Mary Major 4:00
3. Tour Mary Major
4. Tour S. Pressede Daily 7:30-12; 4-6:30
5. S. Maria della Vitoria 8:30-11; 3:30-6 Daily
6. Reception at Paulist Center, Santa Susanna
Thursday, January 12: Depart
January 6 is the Feast of the Epiphany in Italy. This is a very big holiday in Rome; nearly as big as Christmas. Because it is Epiphany, almost all Churches will be open in the evening for people to come in and look at the manger scenes. In some cases, this may be the only chance to get into some small Churches, such as St. Ivo and those around Piazza Farnese.
We can walk over to Piazza Navona to see the Epiphany Fair that is setup in the piazza. If the weather is not bad, there will be many small carnival-type booths and it will be very crowded with families celebrating the last day of the Christmas holidays.
Among the special things going on further a field are:
After walking up the Capitoline Hill, we slowly ascended the 124 steps of the Aracoleli to Santa Maria in Aracoeli, where we went to evening mass for the Epiphany. The altar and the first arch way for it are surrounded by 15 hanging chandeliers. There is also what looked like an iconostasis, which had a alter attached to it, and now an altar facing the congregation. After mass, there was a special procession to the crèche where the Santo Bambino was. We bought some blessed oil. The ceiling of the church is decorated in blue and gold maritime motifs for the Battle of Lepanto. For 1€ we lit up the Pinturiicchio chapel of the life and death of St Bernadino of Siena.
Sacred concert at St. Ignatius at 9:00 pm. St. Ignatius is not too far from where we are.
Saturday Morning: Renaissance & Baroque Church Tour
1. Palazzo Farnese
This is the French embassy and it is next to CSB in the Piazza Farnese. Begun initially as a palace for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (or more specifically for his illegitimate son), the plan was enlarged and changed once the Cardinal became Pope Paul III. Antonio da Sangalla the Younger died in 1546 before the palace was completed so Michelangelo was brought in as architect late in the project. The three-story palace is enormous--185 feet with 13 bays and nearly 100 feet tall. Like many Florentine palazzi, it is a square free-standing block with a central courtyard. It lacks textural emphasis in the masonry, however, using rustication only in the quoins and archway of the entrance. Unfortunately, visitors are not allowed in, but each evening we will check to see if the lights and on and the curtains drawn so that we can see some of the opulent paintings inside as we stand in the piazza.
2. Palazzo della Cancelleria
Started in the late 15th , turned into a chancery by Leo X in 16th C. Important Renaissance building. Compare with Palazzo Farnese
3. Piazza Novona
Built by Domitian as a racecourse.
• S Agnese in Agone
S Agnese in Agone lies across from the Bernini Fountain of the Four Rivers in P Novona. Its exterior was covered in scaffoldings for renovations. Borromini know of Michelangelo’s original plans for S Peters, and he used this church to "correct" S Peters that others had compromised. He built a large dome which gave the appearance of a head with a short neck which was in the viewers face. the Facade has curved "scholders". After Bernini criticized his design, Borromini walked off the job, even though he had worked hard and had the building and dome built in a year. He lived frugally and was not worried about the lost of revenue. Others "corrected" the effect of his dome by building the two flanking towers higher and putting a railing to hide the base of the dome. Much of the interior was done by others, some with regard to his original designs.
• Bernini’s Fountain of the Four Rivers
Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers symbolizes the reach of Christianity to the 4 corners of the world. The four rivers are: Plata, Nile, Danube, Ganges. The rivers were Borromini’s idea.
4. S Luigi dei Francesi Fri-Wed 7:30-12:30, &15:30-19:00 (M7 & 19)
This is the French national church. Caravaggio (1571-1610) Call of Matthew, Martyrdom of Matthew, St. Matthew and the Angel.
5. Pantheon Mon-Sat 8:30-19:30, Sun 9-18:00
The Pantheon was built by Hadrian in 118-125 AD on the site of a small temple to all the gods built by Marcus Agrippa, son-in-law to Augustus. During the first years of Hadrian’s reign he stopped Trajan’s policy of expansion; building walls in Britain and along the Danube. He was a proponent of Greek culture and an architect who built his Villa and the Pantheon.
The original columned portico extended across the square with a straight line view of the Mausoleum of Augustus. The outside ceiling was copper, which was melted down to create the baldacchino in St. Peter’s. The columns in the inside alternated in pairs of flat ones with round ones. The Flat columns enclosed shrines, and the round ones were opened. The main altar has columns on either side, with the entablature broken by an arch, the “Pantheon motif”. (Look over near the entrance for one set of columns on the second storey which are not directly over their first-floor counterparts.) The oculus is 142 feet high as is the diameter of the dome: a perfect sphere. The Pantheon holds the grave of Victor Emanuel which has honor guards around it. Raphael is also buried her. The Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV in 608 who consecrated it to Mary of the Martyrs; Phocas also placed a column in the Forum, the last work built there.
6. S M Sopra Minerva 7-12,15:30-19:00
The inside of S M sopra Minervra is gothic, with stained glass windows, vaulted ceilings painted sky blue with stars, angels, and saints. The alter houses the grave of Catherine of Siena. Fra Angelico was also buried in this Dominican church. Outside stands Bernini's elephant supporting an obelisk. Also the site of a Temple of Isis built by Domitian. Down the street is a large foot that was part of the Temple
7. S Ignazio di Loyola 7:00-12:00 & 16:00-19:00
The Pie di Marmo is a giant foot from a Roman statue that is placed along side the wall of a store. Passing from the front of the Collegio Romano, we went through the Piazza di Stant'Ignazio with its bright yellow curved Rocco buildings facing the Church of Sant'Ignazio di Loyola. The cupola is a fake perspective painting, and the observatory of the Collegio Romano is above it
8. Basilica di S Andrea della Valle
The facade is by Carlo Rainaldi.
The interior sets the style for the Baroque. The Council of Trent in 1563 decrees are reflected in the Baroque. There is a clear focus on the altar at the front of the church, both for mass and for the new devotion of Eucharistic Adoration. The side chapels are recessed and are interlocked. There is pulpit for homilies which then were to be weekly.
The lower level of the church is colored in red and dark marble to signify the mortal nature of man.
There are windows, no stained glass windows especially, which would distract from the focus on the altar or be used as private devotions to distract from the mass. The sense of solidity of the walls reflected the solidity of the faith in the church.
The upper level is gold and white for the state of grace. The dome reflects loyalty to Rome by its resemblance of St Peters. Plain windows at this level show the infused light of grace from heaven. The dome is pierced by a cupola for the first time in the Baroque in this church. The cupola is surrounded with windows, to give a sense of infinity. The paintings at this upper level show a transition of darker colors to gold and white. The frescos were done by Lanfranco, including God the Father in the cupola. (Most later Baroque churches would emphasize the Holy Spirit in the Cupola.)
The Frescos of St Andrew surrounding the altar were done by Domenichino, a rival of Lanfranco.
St Ivo Sun 9 or 10-noon.
Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza is the university chapel created by Borromini in his first Roman church commission. Although he later became a bitter rival of Bernini, it was Bernini who arranged for the commission. Unlike Bernini, Borromini relied on ancient Roman geometrical proportions in is work. The interior is based on two equilateral triangles. The one whose apex is the alter in concave, whereas the other one has convex apexes. The walls are white, without the color scheme of most Baroque churches. The heavenly upper thrust is caused by the dome which encompasses the whole church. It was the largest Roman dome since the Pantheon, and he had to sign a 50 year guarantee that it would not fall. Also the church was controversial since the church's design was a play on the pagan Pantheon itself.
The exterior of the church was built into an existing enclosed courtyard. The tower resembles the tower of Babel so as a warning to the scholars; and it is topped by the fiery flames of Pentecost the source of all learning.
Santa Maria della Pace 's facade was designed by Pietro da Cortona to have a theatrical portico of curved columns. The church was on a narrow cul-de-sac, but the street dramatically opens near the church and roads were put to either side of it so that the wealthy patron’s carriages would not be congested. (The church was closed.)
The Torre dell Orologio was designed by Borromini and over looks a small square. It is part of his Oratorio dei Filippini. For this he designed special bricks to resemble the ancient Roman ones. However some of the bricks are rounded, both concave and convex. The Oratioria has a courtyard, but is itself closed. We finished the tour with Chiesa Nuova, the church of Philip Neri. There are three Rubens surrounding the altar.
Saturday Afternoon: Scavi
Excavations below the central nave of Saint Peter’s in the years 1940-1949 revealed part of a Roman necropolis which had spread over the Vatican hillside during the Imperial period. Debate over the interpretation of graffitti scratched onto a red-painted plaster wall in the area of the apostle’s shrine cannot detract from the important archaeological discovery of a well-preserved street lined with brick mausolea and surface tombs. Some of these family tombs close to the monument marking Peter’s grave were early adopted for Christian burial. The site and visit are visible testimonies to the devotion to Peter, the apostle of Rome, through the centuries.
Overlaid on the current St. Peter’s is Nero’s racetrack, c. 62 AD. In addition to races (think Ben Hur), there would have been other ‘entertainments’ such as the execution of criminals in various horrific ways. The necropolis served wealthy pagan families as well as the poor wretches who died in the circus.
Also shown on this picture is Constantine’s original church, c. 320. It was built on the site that already for 250 years had been honored by Christians as the place of Peter’s execution and burial. The obelisk that now stands in the middle of St. Peter’s piazza was taken from the circus.
Sunday Morning Notes Republican Rome
1. San Paolo alla Regola
By ancient tradition, the place where Paul lived in house arrest in Rome
2. Jewish Bakery and Synagogue
3. Theater of Marcellus
The first set of ruins was the Temple of Apollo Medicus Sosianus. The Theater of Marcellus was built by Julius C. to rival Pompei's. Much of the semicircular structure is still intact except for the wooden third floor.
4. Forum Baorium
The Temple of Portunus is a small rectangular Greek temple that was near the cattle market.
Further down is the Round Temple, probably to Hercules and marble was put on it by Augusts, and he employed Greek Architects and used Greek Marble.
5. S Maria in Cosmedin
This church was mobbed on the outside due to the Boca Verita. Inside a Byzantine Rite mass was being chanted to traditional Greek chant but with Italian words. The church has long had a Greek connection since the 8th century. A mosaic from the original S Peter's is in the church shop.
6. Circus Maximus
We crossed the street and walked the length of the Circus Maximus, Started in 4th C BC, used as a racecourse until 550 AD. At its height, stadium seating held over 300,000 spectators. Two obelisks are associated with this racetrack; one is in front of S Mary Popolo; the other in front of S John Lateran.
7 S Nicola in Carcere
This church is near the Forum Holitorium, the Vegetable Market. The ruins of an ancient temple are built into the walls. Ann bought a Baby Jesus there at the creche, a tradition founded poor mothers feeding their children there.
8. Church of St. Mark
Church founded in 335 by Pope Mark, who is buried here. The mosaics date from the 9th C.
9. Area Sacra di Argentina.
There are ruins of 4 Republican Temples, one being round. The area is covered with cats, and there is also a cat shelter and cat cafe there. Near this site Julius C was assassinated.
The remains of four temples were discovered here during rebuilding in the 1920s. Dating from the Republican era, they are among the oldest to have been found in Rome. They are known as A, B, C and D. The oldest (temple C) dates from the early 3rd century BC. It was placed on a high platform preceded by an altar and is typical of Italic temple plans as opposed to the Greek model.
Temple A is from later on in the 3rd century BC. In medieval times the small church of San Nicola de' Cesarini was built over its podium. The remains of its two apses are still visible.
The north column stumps belonged to a great portico, the Hecatostylum (portico of 100 columns). In Imperial times two marble lavatories were built here - the remains of one are visible behind temple A.
Behind temples B and C are remains of a great platform of tufa blocks. These have been identified as part of the Curia of Pompey, a rectangular building with a statue of Pompey, where the Senate met and Julius Caesar was murdered on 15 March 44 BC.
Sunday Evening Walk
1. Church of Gesu
Mass here at 4:00 pm. This is the “Mother Church” for the Jesuits. The church structure was completed in 1584 and its design was copied around the world by Jesuit missionaries. Decorations include monuments to Ignatius, Francis Xavier and Robert Bellarmine (by Bernini)
2. Trevi Fountain
Completed 1762 on the site of the terminus of the 1 C BC Roman aquaduct
3. Spanish Steps and Café Greco
Area popular in 18th, 19th Century with foreigners living in Rome; including Goethe, Keats, Shelley, Byron, Liszt, Wagner.
The Café Greco was opened in 1760; this small coffee shop has portraits of many of its famous foreign visitors (see above).
4. Piazza Colonna
In the middle of 'Piazza Colonna' is this column: the Marcus Aurelius Column. At the top of the column sits a Saint Peter Sculpture. The column, very similar to the Trajan one, was built in the years 176-193 to commemorate the victories of this Emperor against the Germans and Sarmaths.
5. S. Agostino
The church was started in 1286; but worked on throughout the Baroque era. Artists who had a hand in it include Michelangelo, Bernini (the altar), Caravaggio (Modonna dei Pelligrini); Raphael (Isaiah). The Byzantine icon was moved here from Constantinople in 1453. St. Monica’s remains were moved here from Ostia in the 17th C.
Tour Vatican Museum
We arrived early for our tour of the Vatican Museum, but the guard would not let us in until the general public was let in. Gabriela was our guide. She took us directly to the Sistine Chapel though back channels. We had the Sistine chapel all to our selves. After a short look, we asked her about the paintings on the side panels; which turns out to be her specialty as a art historian at the Vatican. She gave us a detailed explanation of each panel and how they related to each other. All the figures are the same perspective and size because the overall project was directed by one artist Perrugino, although all the artists were from central Italy, such as Ghiraldello, Botecelli, Rosselli and Signorelli. The landscape is unified among all except the earliest painting, which mountains continuing from one painting by one artiste to an adjacent panel by another artist. The panels on the right were the new testament and one the old testament scenes which were the Lenten prototypes from the life of Moses for Jesus. She then explain the Michelangelo ceiling of the creation. The first panel painted was at the rear of the church and is a small, framed picture. Michelangelo was dissatisfied with this and reconsidered the whole plan. Four angles surround each panel, and two devils are atop each of the triangles. The lunnettes were painted free-handed, without the use of stencils.
In the Raphael Rooms the Eucharistic disputation was painted in the old style that Raphael was trained in. The School of Athens was in the new style and has Epicurus on Plato's side, much to Ann's surprised.
The room has four parts, Theology, Law, Beauty, and Philosophy, as represented by the Disputation, the Civil and Canon Law side, the Muses, and the School. The St Peter in jail was being restored. But the Constantine rooms were opened.
Next we went on a short preview tour of the Roman Art.
Ann was most interested in t he special exhibit on Epiphany and Nativity Scenes on sarcaphagi form the Necropolis of St Peter's and the Catacombs. Most intriguing was the figure of Christ holding a rolled up scroll during his ministry and an opened one from the Resurrection on. Ann believed this was the scroll of life; whereas, the books indicated that it represented the Law of Moses. Also the Three Youths in the fiery furnace were often depicted next to Moses with the dove returning with an olive branch. We will learn more about this symbolism on our next visit on Wednesday.
Tours of St. Peter’s Basilica
The are many ways to obtain a tour of St Peter's Basilica. The simplest way may be to print out Fr. Carolan's one page walking tour, and do it yourself. The bag check area to the right of the basilica entrance, now rents an audio walking tour which is very good. Check at the Information Desk near the Post Office on the left of the basilica for the free guided tour schedule. These one hour tours are conducted by seminarians from the N.A.C. or the English Guides to St. Peter's, and depart around 2:15PM.
Tuesday Morning Notes
1. Mass at San Clemente 10:00
San Clemente (12C) =has a four-sided courtyard in front of the church. The church itself is located near an open field where the Guild of Butchers and also soldiers turned back the Norman invasion. Inside the church there are geometric patterns in the floor made from cut pieces of stone by the Cosma Family. Before the altar is a Schola Cantora which is a raised enclosed area where the monks sat. Arches are visible in the church which are the arches from the lower 6C church. This lower church had a portico in which Roman Columns were reused and placed in the corners of the brick pillars for decoration. There may have been a second portico. There are also many 19C supporting brick columns in the lower church placed there for support structures once the ruble was cleaned during the 19C excavations. An 11C fresco contains some of the first written Italian writing, telling of the story of S Clemente being turned into a stone column to protect him from the avenging husband of a church going wife. At an even lower level, there is a Domus from around Titus's time. Part of this Domus was transformed into a Mithraeum. The central structure has Mithras stabbing a bull in the neck, with a small snake and a small dog looking on. All these are signs of loyalty, which is why this mystery religion was strong among the army. Interestingly Mithras' birthday was celebrated on December 25th. Two statues, one of the rising sun god and one of the setting sun god, usually flanked each side of the above structure. The vault of the Mithraeum was made to look like a grotto by having rock like stucco decoration. This Mithraeum also had an antechamber and a schola, which were converted from rooms in the he house. Outside the Domus was a commercial building. The floor was of fishbone pattern of brick since this is cheap and easy to do. The outer walls were tufa. There was also walls of a layer of horizontal bricks separated by a diagonally laid section of tufa. Some of the back rooms of the commercial building had plaster rounding at the intersection of wall and floor so as to have no edges or corners for ease of cleaning. The water source for this Domus and commericial building was the same as the Domus Aurea.
2. Tour Colosseum
4. Palantine Hill
5. Trajan’s Column
After a nap we headed towards the Roman Forum., which was closed but we saw some of the ruins from the outside near the church of Santi Luca e Martina and the church of St Peter in Chains. We were eye level to the mid part to the Arch of Semptimus Severus. Its carvings were worn, the lettering was once in bronze but was long gone as well as the bronze statues atop it. The Rostum was next to it. Julius C spoke from the semi-circular one. Augustus enlarged the Rostum, which is tall and overlooks the Forum itself. The outline of Julia's Basilica is along side of the Forum. And the Column of Phocus was in the Forum We were also able to be next to the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Vespasian.
In the distance we could see lit up in the night, the Temple of Castor and Polox, The Temple of Antonius and Faustina, The Temple of Vesta, the Arch of Titus, and the great expanse of the Palantine Hill.
We first did the Roman Forum, beginning the Temple of Concordia Augusta, the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, and the Precinct of the Haronius Gods. Then we got a closer look of what we saw in a distance yesterday, the Temple of Saturn, the Rostra of Julius Caesar and the expansion by Augustus with the nearby Umbilicus Urbis and, the Arch of Semptimus Severus. The Basilica Julia was large, and we were able to see two game areas etched into the steps, one was circular and one was and eight by eight square checkerboard. The Forum of Julius Caesar was outlined in a double row of 7 pedestals, three of which still had columns atop, and the later (608 AD) Column of Phocas stands near the Rosta. Up the Vicus Tuscus we past the Temple of Castor and the booksellers' shops to the gate at the foot of the Palatine Hill and the closed off S Maria Antiqua, a region being excavated by Stanford University. Our only public toilet in Rome was found here. Retracing our steps we then went through what was the Arch of Augustus, the Temple of the Divine Julius, and down along the Basilica Paulli towards the Arch of Semptimus Severus. Special note was made of the small 4 ft granite circle marking the shrine of Venus Cloacina where the water and sewer were diverted under the Forum. We entered the Curia, which housed the Senate; and where two large pieces of a marble balustrade depicting the emperor addressing the people. After looking at the Black Stone, we headed back up to see the Upper Forum.
In the Upper Forum, we began with the Temple of Vesta and the houses of the Vesti. Then we saw the Regia. The Temple of the Divine Antonius and Faustina has well preserved carving of winged lions on the upper side frieze. The round Temple of the Divine Romulus was a gem, with the two flanking semicircular hall ways, and the bronze door flanked by two purple columns of different height. We ended with the Arch of Titus and the enormous New Basilica. We exited the way we came.
Palatine Hill. Passing through the Farnese Gardens, we went into the large area which is now believed to be the Domitian's Palace. The large standing brick column marked the top of the first floor of a three story basilica, which abutted an Audience Chamber, and was diagonal to the large First Court which had an octagonal garden in the center. To the south of it, was a banquet hall from which guests could see an oval shaped fountain whose brick outline is still visible. To the west was the modern Paletine Musuem, built by Mussollini, where some protoroman artifacts were displayed next to models of the wooden huts. Further on was the Third Court, with a square symmetrical pattern which was much lower than the other levels we had walked on. To the west was a sunken oval garden surrounded by square brick bases for columns, and northwest of the garden was a large rectangular area. Previously this area had been labeled as a hippodrome, which it may have been used for footraces in Theodotic's time in the 5th C. From the Gallery we overlooked the Circus Maximus. We also saw the Severen Baths. As we exited we passed by the small remains of an Acqueduct that fed the baths. Walking by the Arch of Constantine we entered the Colosseum. The long line to buy tickets was by-passed since we had bought the pass and we took the elevator to the upper floor. Much of the lower level was not accessible but could be seen. Exiting the Colosseum, we visited the Baselica of Cosmus and Damien, whose back is built into the round Temple of Romulus in the Forum. The inside of the Temple was visible through a glass panel in the back of the Basilica.
We walked to Trajan's Column. The well preserved carved column depicts scenes from Trajan's victory over the Dacians in 106 BC. Of note are the omen-scene of a man falling off a mule, and the scene of Victory writing on the shields. Dacia was destroyed and resettled by Romans, in what is now Romania. Much sliver was brought back and sparked an economic boom. Trajan was the second of the 5 good emperor; a Spaniard who followed Nerva, after the disastrous reign of Nero. Pliny the Younger’s letters from Bithynia and Pontus provide us with one of the first records of the follower’s of “Christus”.
Between the two churches were a temple of Trajan, flanked by two libraries, one Greek(Nome di Maria) and one Latin(in front of S M di Loreto).
The Church of S. Maria di Loreto was designed by Antonio Sangallo the Younger in 1522, who was Bramante’s draughtsman. Note the flat façade with flat pilasters. Giacomo del Duca of Sicily as student of Michelangelo redesigned 1573 the octagonal barrel and the dome. Note the St Peter’s like structure. SS Nome di Maria was built in 1736 by Antoine Derizet and is based on S Maria de Loreto. However, it is the last of the High Baroque churches which contrasts with S. Maria di Loreto which is one of the High Renaissance buildings--- all of Barque and St Peter’s lies in between.
Night fell as were were beginning to look at Trajan's Market. This was a large semicircle of about 5 stories of arched niches for shops. A medieval tower was at one end. The whole complex was very impressive in its scope. It connected (now by a passage way under the modern road) to the Forum of Julius Caesar.
Option 1: St John Lateran Baptistery Open 9-1
This basilica is still officially part of the Vatican City. We went into the underground excavations which is not normally opened to the public. The underground domus is connected to a domus across the street from a domus which belonged to the family of Marcus Aureulis and is where his equestrian statue is thought to have been originally, before being moved to the Capitoline Hill. The domus had many frescoes. The domus was taken over by the army for barracks during Septimius Servus. Here we even saw a Roman bread oven, which was used by both members of the domus and by the army when a barracks was built there. Baths there were part of the Domus of Marcus Aurlieus, and one could see the covered small canals for water to the baths. These baths were partly under the baptistery. We could see the manholes into the baptistery. At one place we were under the chapel in the baptistery, whose floor had been reinforced with a concrete slab, and about 2m below it was a mosaic floor from the baths. At one point there was a vaulted ceiling with terra cotta tiles lining it.
After the tour ended, Ann and I visited the Baptistery and the Basilica itself, and we went to mass in a one of the side chapels. Afterward we looked at the mosaics in the apse, and the 12 large statue of the apostles that flanked the pillars in the main part of the church. We walked out the main facade of the church.
Option 2: Capitoline Museum; open 9-8 Tue-Sun
Wednesday Afternoon Notes
3. Sant'Andrea al Quirinale Bernini (1658-1671)
Eye-161 (11), Key-177, Blue-231, Closed Tuesdays.
“I will never forget my feelings during those first ‘Roman’ days of mine, when in 1946 I began to get to know the Eternal City…I would set off every day from the Belgian College, at 26 via del Quirinale, to attend lectures at the Angelicum. I would always make a stop at the Jesuit church of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale, where the relics of Saint Stanislaus Kostka are enshrined. Saint Stanislaus had lived in a novitiate next door and died there… At the heart of Christendom, and in the light of the saints, people from different nations would come together, as if to foreshadow, beyond the tragic war which had left such a deep mark on us, a world no longer divided.” (JPII, Gift and Mystery, pp 51-53, 1999)
4. San Carlino alle Quarttro Fontane Borromini 1634-1667
EYE-161 (12) , Key-176, Open 4-7
Borromini’s first commission, done for the Spanish Discalcated Trinatrarians.
We entered through the Cloister with its small water well surrounded by two stories of white pillars coupled in pairs but its top is open to the air. The church itself is again mostly white interior, in an elongated shape with contiguous equilateral triangles sharing their base. The upper triangle's apex is the altar, and the altar and the other two corners have large paintings. The ceiling is a white oval dome with a cupola piercing it, and the Holy Spirit in the form a dove is centered in a golden triangle which has golden wavy rays emanating from it. Octagonal lattice work is reminiscent of the Nova Basilica, but here crosses are attached to alternate edges of the octagon, and small elongated hexagons fill in the space. Crosses are painted on the columns, displayed on the grill work, and on the habits of Spanish Trinitarians. The Crypt access by a single spiral staircase, down to where Borromini had prepared his burial place.
We passed the Quartro Fontane, which I remembered from previous trips, and we also had a clear view of the four obelisks. Just before the Moses Fountain, we went into Santa Susanna which is now restored and the mock tapestry paintings are in the lower nave. Mass was in Italian with Dominican nuns singing from the two choirs on either side of the altar. Next we went into
5 S. Mary Major
Original church built mid 4th C after a miracle snowfall in August. Major renovations in honor of Council of Ephesus, 431. In the nave (3) the 36 mosaics of Old Testament figures are the oldest in Rome and date from 432. the columns also probably date form the original church. The gold in the ceiling is from the first gold brought back from the New World and donated by Ferdinand and Isabella.
Links will take you directly to the relevant text; http://roma.katolsk.no/mariamaggiore_plan.htm
Monument to Pope Clement IX
Bust of Costanzo Patrizi
Fragments of reliefs from early baldachino
Fragments of reliefs from early baldachino
Frescoes of the Evangelists
Column erected in memory of the abjuration of Emperor Henry IV
Chapel of the Holy Relics
Monument to Pope Sixtus V
Monument to Pope St Pius V
Holy Sacrament Tabernacle
Crypt with crib and tomb of St Jerome
Sacristy of the Sistine Chapel, with vestments of St Pius V
Tomb of Consalvo Cardinal Rodriguez Hinojosa
Mosaic of the Coronation of the Virgin
Tomb of Clement Merlini
Monument to Pope Paul V
Salus Populi Romani, early picture of Our Lady
Monument to Pope Clement VIII
Sacristy of the Pauline Chapel, with entrance to Borghese burial crypt
Monument to Pope Nicholas IV
Exterior of the Pauline Chapel
Exterior of the apse
6. S. Prassede
St. Prassede (Praxedes) was the sister of St. Pudenziana; their father was St. Pudens. By tradition, he gave hospitality to St. Peter and was martyred. Both St. Prassede and St. Pudenziana are titular churches. The first post-Constantinian church here was probably built in the time of Pope St Siricius (384-399). The present church is the one built by Pope Adrian I c. 780, completed and altered by Pope St Paschal I c. 822. It was enlarged at that time mainly to serve as a repository for relics from the catacombs. The Chapel of St Zeno on the right side of the church, built on a cruciform plan, has 9th century mosaics, depicting the Blessed Virgin and saints on the inner arch and Christ and the Apostles on the outer. The mosaics are in the Byzantine style, which is rare in Rome. The chapel was built by Pope St Paschal I in honor of his mother Theodora, and as her burial place, to enshrine the relics of St Zeno and St Valentine, which were brought here from the catacombs. The plan of the chapel imitates a cubiculum (small room) in the catacombs.
7. Tour S. Maria della Vitoria
Santa Maria della Vittoria to see Bernini's Ecstasy of St Teresa. The opposite chapel has the angel telling Joseph in his dream to flee to Egypt. The angel's finger points toward another sculpture of Joseph leading Mary and Jesus upon a donkey to Egypt, while the third part of the triptych is the Nativity.