Federal republic of nigeria fourth national biodiversity




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Future priorities for Nigeria is to adopt measures and capacity to accomplish the present priority and to take a more holistic ecosystem approach to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. This will very much be led by the States and relevant institutions to increase efforts around working with other sectors, incorporating social and economic issues, taking a broader landscape or wider countryside perspective and trying to do more for the marine environment. This will be in addition to the more traditional work on the conservation of priority habitats and species, and protected areas.

The implementation of the NBSAP has been constrained by lack of funding.

Other constraints include inadequate human capacity , lack of database and lack of awareness which has caused poor understanding of the importance of biological diversity to the national economy, Uncoordinated approach to the implementation of the NBSAP, Lack of compliance monitoring, Weak implementing Institutions and Weak legislative framework.

Support from international partners will go a long way in addressing these constraints.

One of the critical factor that militated against successful implementation of the NBSAP is lack of awareness on the NBSAP. Even the various institution allocated mandates were not aware of such responsibilities.
The capacity building need for Nigeria are:

i) The reviewing of its biodiversity status,

ii) Enlightenment of Public and private institutions on their mandates in the NBSAP

iii) Raising awareness of biodiversity in non-environment sectors and with the general public, and in particular to increase understanding of the impacts of development activities on biodiversity and the role biodiversity plays in delivering environmental quality of life and key services, such as helping to address climate change issues, flood mitigation, air quality improvements, natural resources such as fish,

timber, thatch, etc.


      1. Meeting the 2010 Target

In 2002 the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development endorsed the target agreed five months earlier by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) ‘to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth’. The is no single agreed measure of biodiversity loss but, within the CBD, Parties have decided to use a broad framework of goals, sub-targets and indicators relating to seven focal areas of the Convention to assess progress towards the 2010 target. Following this lead, Nigeria developed set of indicators to measures her performance in addition to the more specific targets agreed for priority species and habitats as part of Nigeria NBSAP. According to these indicators there has been no improvement in biodiversity conservation and there is great damage to habitats and decline in species. Nigeria has not been able to meet the 2010 target in so many areas, particularly in the reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss and in reversing it.


There is the urgent need for Nigeria to make financial resources available and make deliberate effort to the implementation the Nigeria NBSAP .

4.3.5 Improving the Convention
The Convention has been a stimulus to scientific endeavour and a focus for capacity building and transfer of resources to parties with weak economy

The aims of the Convention which are conservation, sustainable use and access and benefit sharing, are very significance for human well-being.

Not withstanding the above, the Convention has not been able to mobilize Parties to commit funds to its implementation in developing countries.

Most developing countries that are members of the party relied solely on the resources provided by the CBD/GEF in their biodiversity conservation programs with little national effort. There is need for a road map particularly for the implementation of the convention by developing countries

Also there is not enough awareness on the Convention at the national level.

More needs to be done to communicate effectively about what the Convention aims to do.


The 2010 target of significantly reducing the current rate of biodiversity loss has proved extremely important in providing a political focus. Unfortunately most developing countries have not been able to achieve these targets but rather struggling with economic survival in the face of poverty. The target should be extended to 2012 with defined road map for developing countries to enhance the achievement of the targets .The targets should have a timescale that ensures continued political focus so that governments will have the consciousness to accomplish the targets. The convention should engage parties in workshops and quarterly review of the targets.

APPENDIX 1: SELECTED PLANTS COMMONLY USED IN NIGERIA


NAM E

PART USED

HOW USED

Aframomum danieli

Ripe fresh fruit pulp and seed

Frui pulp and seed eaten seed raw

Aframomum baumannii

Ripe fresh fruit pulp only

Used as spice in food or chewed as stimulant

Aframomum sceptium

Friut and seed

Ripe fruit pulp and seed eaten raw

Aframomumm elegueta

Fruit pulp and seed

Spice for eating cola nut (peppery taste)

Anchomanes difformis

Rhizome

The rhizome is everywhere (B1) eaten in time of scarcity but only after special preparation

Ancistrophyllum secondiflorum

Fresh terminal bud

Fresh terminal bud is eaten raw

Annonidium mannii

Fruit

The fruit is well fleshed is edible and has a sweet sour taste

Annona senegalensis

Leaves

Leaves are good strengthening food for human and horse flowers are used for flavouring food. Ripe fruits is edible, has a pleasant flavour

Ancrocaryon waneanum

Fruit flesh

Fruit flesh edible with an acid taste, seed-oily and edible

Balanites aegyptiaca

Leaves

The leaves are eaten as a vegetable

Boeerthavia diffusa

Leaves

The leaf is used occasionally as course kind of pot-herb in soup

Canarium schweinfurthii

Fruit pulp

Ripe fruits are soaked in hot water to soften the pulp which is eaten

Carpobia lutea

Fruit pulp

Ripe fruit pulp eaten raw

Ceiba pentandra

New leaves

Used as vegetable for soup by Igbo people

Cerototheca seasamoides

Leaves

Used as soup vegetable and used along with other food stuffs for the sake of its mucilaginous activity

Chrysophylum albidum

Fruit and seed mucilage

Ripe fruit pulp eaten raw

Chrysophylum perpulchrum

Fruit pulp

Sweet fruit pulp eaten raw

Coula edulis

Fruit pulp

Seed kernel ground and used as condiment

Crytosperma

Leaves

The leave are eaten as a Senegalese vegetation in Gabon and young leaves are eaten in Orlu area as vegetable

Deibollia purinata

Seed mucilage

Seed mucilage is suck

Detarium senegalense

Seed kernel

Seed kernel powder used as condiment in soup

Deterium microcarpum

Seed kernel

Seed kernel powder used as condiment

Dlalium guineense

Seed kernel

Seed kernel powder used as condiment

Dissotis grandifolia

Root stock

Mature (dry) fruit pulp is eaten raw. The tuber root contains sugar, which is extracted as follows: The roots are washed and half dried in the sun beaten in a mortal and steamed. When cool they are squeezed by hand and the huice obtained is used as substitute for sugar, it also used to produce a fermented beverage.


Emilia sonchifolea

Leaves

Leaves used as vegetable

Eribroma oblonga

Seed

Seed roasted and eaten

Garcinia kola

Bitter seed

Seed chewed like cola nut

Gongronema latifolim

Leaves

Leaves used as vegetable has slight bitter taste

Gymnema syvestris

Leaves

Leaves chewed as sugar-free diabetic diet

Heinsia rinita

Leaves

Leaves used as soup herb

Irvingia gabonensis

Fruit pulp, seed kernel

Ripe fruit pulp is eaten mango fruit seed kernel is ground and used as soup thicker. Ground seed kernel used as a soup thicker

Irvingia wombulu

Seed kernel only

Seed kernel powder used as soup thickener condiment

Lasinanthera africana

Leaves

Leaves are used as soup herb

Landolphiaduicis

Fruit

Edible in vegetables taste

Landolphia hirsita

Fruit

Fruit occasionally eaten

Landolphia owariensis

Fruit pulp

The fruit pulp is edible and is esteemed in all areas and is recorded as a source of vitamin in various areas. It is fermented to give an alcoholic drink

Lannea acida

Yong leaf, fruit pulp

Young leaves are eaten in W. Africa fruit pulp is edible

Monoadora myristica

Seed

Seed roasted, ground and used as condiment in pepper soup

Mondora tenuifolia

Seed

Seed roasted, ground and used as condiment in pepper soup preparation

Napoleona vogelli

Fruit pulp

Ripe fruit pulp and seed mucilage are sucked

Parkia biglobosa

Seed

Seed is roasted, ground, mixed with oil and pepper and used to eat boiled yam, coco yam etc. (by Ifunkpa people Cross River State

Pergulaia daemia

Leaves and fruit

Leaves used as vegetable

Pentaclethra macrophylla

Seed kernel

Kernel of cooked seed is cliced, washed and allowed to ferment or a few days after which it is eaten as salad or used as condiment in other food preparation. The leaves and fruit are edible and used as spice in soup and other food all over Nigeria.

Piper guineensis

Leaves and fruit

The dried black berried and the fresh red fruits are used in flavouring soup, rice etc. The leaves taken with food are supposed to improve the chances of conception.

Portulaca olerace

Leaves

Used as vegetable

Saba florida

Fruit

Fruit pulp is eaten raw

Sclerocarpbirrea

Fruit

Fruit juice is boiled down to thick consistency used for sweetening guinea corn gruel only seed kernel is edible

Sroindela junglafidolia

Fruit

Ripe fruit is edible

Sorindela warneckii

Fruit

Ripe pulp sweet and edible

Spondia mombin

Fruit

Ripe fruit fresh edible and in the fruit is fermented into a kind of beer

Stereopermum kanthiamum

Fruit pod




Trichoscypha

Fruit pulp

Ripe fruit pulp is sweet and is widely eaten

Tranthema portulacastrum

Leaves

Used as vegetable

Uraria chamae

Fruit pulp

Ripe fruit is sweet and is widely eaten.













Parkia Biglobosa(African locust bean tree)

APPENDIX 2: STATUS OF WILDLIFE IN NIGERIA
(A) Surveys on the status of wildlife in Nigeria have been few. Hunting and habitat loss have lead to serious impacts on wildlife population. However, the effect of hunting on wildlife populations cannot be easily predicted and assessed. This is because different species react differently to hunting pressure and disturbances as a result of hunting and other human activities. Some species, which have withstood hunting pressure, are they cutting grass cricetomys spp. and the giant rat.

  1. The following is a list of wildlife species classified as rare, threatened or endangered




S/NO

ORDER

FAMILY

COMMON NAME

SCIENTIFIC NAME

STATUS



Chelonia

Pteomedusidae

African keeled mud turtle

Pelosiso carinus

Endangered









African keeled mud turtle

Pelusions castaneeus

Endangered









African keeled mud turtle

Pelusions nanus

Endangered









William’s African Mud turtle

Pelusions williamsi

Endangered






Trionychidae

Abry’s flapshell turtle

Cycloderma aubryii

Endangered









Namibain flapshell turtle

Cyslonorbis elegans

Endangered









Senegal flapshell turtle

Cyclonorbis senegansis

Endangered






Dermochelidae

Leatherback turtle

Dermochelys coriacea

Endangered






Chelonidae

Green turtle

Chelonia mydas

Endangered









Olive ridley

Lepidochelys olivacea

Endangered









Hoaksbill turtle

Eretmochelys imbircata

Endangered



Crocodylia




Nile crocodile

Crocodylus Loticus

Endangered









Slender snouted crocodile

Crocodylus catapractus

Endangered









African dwarf crocodile

Osteolamus tetrapis

Endangered





The sclater’s of guenon



Squamata

Veranidae

Nile monitor lizard

Varamus niloticus

Endangered









Monitor lizard

Varanus exanthematicus

Endangered






Pythonidae

Royal Python

Python regius

Endangered









Rock Python

Python sebae

Endangered



Struthioniformes

Struthionidae

Ostrich

Struthio camelus

Endangered



Pelecaniformes

Pelethronodae

Pinkbacked pelican

Pelecanus rufescens

Endangered



Coconiforms

Adeidae

Grey heron

Ardea cinerea

Endangered









Goliath heron

Ardea goliath

Endangered









Breen heron

Bruorides virescens

Endangered









Purple heron

Ardea purpurea

Endangered









Great Egret

Egretta alba

Endangered









Little egret

Egretta garzetta

Endangered









Cattle egret

Ardeola ibis

Endangered









Squocco heron

Ardeola rolloides

Endangered









Black-crowned night heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

Endangered






Scopidae

Hammercop

Scopus unbretta

Terminated






Ciconodae

White stork

Ciconia ciconia

Endangered









Abdims stork

Ciconia abdimii

Endangered









Saddle-billed stork

Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis

Endangered









Marabou stork

Leptoptilus crumeniferus

Endangered









Wood ibis

Ibis ibis

Endangered






Threskiornithidae

African spoonbill

Platelea alba

Endangered









Sacred ibis

Threskiomis aethiopica

Endangered









Glossy ibis

Plegadis falcinelus

Endangered









Hadada ibis

Bostrychia hagedash

Endangered



Falconiforms

Accipitaridae

Nubian vulture

Aegypius tracheliotus

Endangered









Rappels griffon vulture

Gyps ruppellii

Endangered









White-backed vulture

Gyps bengalensis

Endangered









Palm-nut vulture

Gypohierax angolensis

Endangered









Hooded vulture

Neophron monachus

Endangered









West African River Eagle

Haliaetus vocifer

Endangered









Short toed eagle

Cricaetus gallicus

Endangered









Marital eagle

Polemaetus bellicosus

Endangered









Bateleur eagle

Terathopius ecaudatus

Endangered









Common buzzard

Buteo buteo

Threatened









Montaguas harrier

Cyrcus pygargus

Threatened









Goshawk

Accipitar genitilis

Threatened









Sparrow hawk

Accipitar nisus

Threatened






Fa;cpmodae

Hobby

Falco subbuteo

Threatened









Kestrel

Falco innunculus

Threatened






Sagisttariidae

Secretary bird

Sagittarius serpentarious

Endangered






Phasianidae

Helmet guinea-fowl

Numida meleagris

Threatened









Crested guinea-fowl

Guttera edourdi

Endangered









Blue-breasted kingisher

Halcyon malimbica

Threatened









Malachite kingfisher

Alcedo cristata

Threatened









Pied kingfisher

Ceryle rudis

Threatened









Pigmy kingfisher

Ceryx picta

Threatened









Senegal Kingfisher

Halcyon senegalensis

Threatened






Upupidae

Hoopoe

Upupa epos

Endangered






Bucerotidae

Abyssianian Ground Hornbill

Bucorvus abyssinicus

Endangered






Ploeceidae

Ibadan malimbus

Malimbus ibadansis

Endangered









Black mountain weaver

Ploceus melanogaster

Endangered



Primates

Cercopithecidae

Colobus monkey (Guereza

Colobus polykomos

Endangered









Olive Colobus

Procolobus verus

Endangered









Red-eared Guenon

Cercopithecus erythrotis

Endangered









Moustached Monkey

Cercopithecus cephus c.

Endangered









Mona Monkey

Cercopithecus mona

Threatened









White throated monkey

Cercopithecus eruthrogaster

Endangered









Patas monkey

Erythrocebus patas

Threatened









Olive baboon

Papio anubis

Threatened






Ceropithecus

White hosed monkey

C. Nictitans

Extinct









Green (tantelus) monkey

C. aethiops

Extinct









Rensiss monkey

C. preussi

Extinct









Ground monkey

C. Poganis

Extinct









Grey-checked mangabey

C. albigenia

Extinct









Red-capped mangabey

C. torguatus

Extinct









Drill baboon

Mandrillus leucocphaeus

Endangered









Chimpanzee

Pan troglodytes

Endangered






Pongidae

Western lowland gorilla

Gorilla gorilla

Endangered









Manis gigantean

Giant pangolin

Threatened



Pholidota

Manidae

Treep pangolin

Manis tricuspis

Threatened









Crested porcupine

Hystrix cristata

Threatened



Hystricomorpha

Hystricidae

Brush-tailed porcupine

Atherurus African

Threatened









Hunting dog

Lycaon pictus

Endangered



Carnivora

Canidae

Side-striped jacka

Canis adustus

Rare









Pale fox

Vulpes pallida

Rare









Honey badger

Mellivora capensis

Rare






Mustelidae

Cape clawless otter

Aonys capensis

Rare






Viverridae

African Civet cate

Civettictis civetta

Endangered









Cusimanse

Crossarchus crossarchs

Rare









Cusimanse

Crossrchus crossarchs

Rare









Spotted hyaena

Crocuta crocuta

Rare






Hyaenidae

Striped hyaena

Hyaena hyaena

Endangered









Serval cat

Leptailuru serval

Rare






Feidae

Caracal or desert hynx

Caracal caracal

Rare









Leopard

Panthera pardus

Endangered









Lion

Panthera leo

Endangered









Cheetah

Acinonyx jubatus

Endangered



Tubulidentata

Oryeteropidae

Aardvark

Orycteropus afer

Extinct



Proboscidea

Elephanitidae

African bush elephant

Loxodonta Africana africana

Endangered









African forest elephant

Loxodonta africana cyclotis

Endangered



Hyracoidea

Procaviidae

Rock hyrax

Procavia capensis

Rare









Three hyrax

Dendrohyrax

Rare



Sirenia

Trichechidae

Manatee

Trichechus senegalensis

Endangered



Artiodactyla

Suidae

Red river hog

Potamochoerus aethipicus

Rare









Wart hog

Phocochoerus aethipicus

Threatened









Giant forest hog

Hylochoerus Meinertzhagani

Endangered






Hippopotamidae

African hippopotamus

Hippopotamus amphibious

Endangered









Pigmy hippopotamus

Hexaprotodon liberensis helsopi

Endangered






Tragulidae

Water chevretain

Hymoschus acquaticus

Endangered






Giraffidae

Giraffe

Giraffa camelopardalis

Endangered






Bovidae

African buffalo

Cyncerus cafer cafer

Threatened









Dwart buffalo

Cyncerus cafer nanus

Threatened









Mountain reedbuck

Redunca fulvirufula

Endangered









Bohor reedbuck

Redunce redunca

Endangered









Giant eland

Taurotragus derbianus

Endangered









Western hartebeest

Alcelahpus b. major

Endangered









Roan antelope

Hippotragus equines

Endangered









Korrigum (topi)

Damaliscus l. korrigum

Endangered









Western kob

Kobus kob kob

Endangered









Bush buck

Tragelahpus scriptus

Endangered









Sitatunga

Tragelahpus spekii

Endangered









Red-fronted gazelle

Gazalla rufifrons

Threatened









Dorcas gazelle

Gazelle dorcas

Endangered









Dama gazelle

Gazelle dama

Endangered









Yellow backed duiker

Cephalophys sylvicultor

Endangered









Red flanked duiker

Cephalophus rufilatus

Endangered









Maxwells duiker

Cephalophus maxwellii

Endangered









Black duiker

Cephalophus niger

Endangered









Blue duiker

Cephalophus monticlla

Endangered









Bay duiker

Cephalophus dorsali

Endangered









Klipspringer

Oreotragus oreotragus

Endangered









Royal antelope

Neotragus pygmaeus

Endangered


Appendix III– Information concerning reporting Party and preparation of national report
A. Reporting Party


Contracting Party

Nigeria

NATIONAL FOCAL POINT

Full name of the institution

Federal Ministry of Environment, Mabushi Abuja

Name and title of contact officer

Mr. John Auta

Mailing address

Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja

Telephone




Fax




E-mail




CONTACT OFFICER FOR NATIONAL REPORT

Full name of the institution

Federal Ministry of Environment, Mabushi Abuja

Name and title of contact officer

Mr. Rufus Ebegba(Assistant Director)

Mailing address

Federal Ministry of Environment, Environment House, Independence Way, Central Area, Abuja

Telephone

+234807778

Fax




E-mail

rebegba@hotmail.com

SUBMISSION

Signature of officer responsible for submitting national report




Date of submission

27th August 2010




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