Federal republic of nigeria fourth national biodiversity




старонка5/7
Дата канвертавання21.04.2016
Памер0.79 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7

xi. Legal Reforms:

In consonance with Articles 4,15,17,22 and 42 of the convention, Nigeria has embarked on the review of biodiversity related laws. This is done through a consultative process involving the Federal Ministry of Justice (FMJ), the Law Review Commission and the Nigerian Institute for Advanced Legal Studies, the Federal Ministry of Environment, the National Assembly and other relevant stakeholders.


xii. Technology:
Conservation of biodiversity requires the development and application of appropriate technology, particularly in research, education, ex-situ conservation, and information management and risk analysis which can enhance the implementation of the NBSAP.

xiii. Public Awareness and Education:
In line with Article 13 of the Convention, the Federal Ministry of Environment as Focal Point, has the plan to collaborating with the Federal Ministry of Information (FMI), the Broadcasting Organization of Nigeria (BON) and the Newspapers Proprietors Association of Nigeria (NPAN), the Nigerian Guild of Editors (NGE), among others, through appropriate mass media instruments to achieve public education and awareness on the value of biodiversity and the need for their conservation and sustainable use. This could not be achieved however the Federal Ministry of Environment through the annual World Environment Day program show cases biodiversity conservation and its relevance.

4.0 PROGRESS TOWARDS THE 2010 TARGET AND IMPLEMENTAION OF THE STRATEGIC PLAN.

Nigeria is highly endowed with biodiversity. Information about its current biodiversity status is lacking. However various Non Governmental Organizations and some Government Institution have some information which have been basis for progress indicators.

Chapter 4 uses biodiversity indicators information available in Nigeria to assess the level of achieving the 2010 Target and the Global Goals and Targets agreed upon by the CBD. Information has been gathered from various Biodiversity conservation programs by various Agencies and Institutions in Nigeria which has helped in the development of Biodiversity conservation policies in the country.
4.1 –Progress towards 2010 Target:
PROTECTING THE COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY

Goal 1. Promote the conservation of Biodiversity ecosystems, habitats and biomes

Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

1.1: At least 10% of each of the world ecological Region effectively conserved

Nigeria’s present protected areas include a biosphere reserve,. Other sanctuaries and game reserves which are to be conserved have been proposed. The total area of land under national parks is about 2.4 million hectares.

Nigeria has 7National parks, 445 forest reserve, 12 strict nature reserves and 28 game reserves

Forest Reserves covered about 11% of the country’s land area, by 1980.

But currently the total Reserve is about 4.2%

The ecological changes in Table 5 are indicators of progress trend:


Forest Reserves covered about 11% of the country’s land area, by 1980.

But currently the total Reserve is about 4.2% which is a great decrease instead of increasing



Specific Targets for each National Institution to achieve were not achieved

1.2: Areas of Particular importance to Biodiversity Protected










Priority areas protected are wetland and national parks and forest reserve without much progress

The target is to increase protected areas


Assessment of Progress:

Some efforts have been made in Nigeria to establish ecological coherent series the country providing protection for nationally and internationally important species and habitats. The protected areas are part of Nigeria’s effort to conserving her species and habitats. This has been done through legislation and Institutional arrangements and mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation activities into national programmes. Significant achievement has not been made in achieving this goal. There is need for more funding and action in order to meet the 2010 Target and beyond.

Goal 2. Promote the conservation of species:



Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

2.1. Restore maintain or reduce the decline of populations of selected taxonomic groups

Species that had priority for conservation which are in table 3 have evidence that some of these have since become extinct and there is need for a new survey of species to determine their present status.

Some of the plant species are presently in National Gene bank.




Status of plant and animal species as indicated in appendix 1-2 , table 3

Biodiversity Surveys of 1976 and 1995 indicated drastic decrease of species and their habitats

Some species that where endangered at indicated in the 1976 and 1995 surveys have evidence that some of them have since become extinct

The target is to protect the species from extinction

2.2.State of threatened species improved




Species that had priority for conservation which are threatened in table 3




Species which are threatened in table 3 have that had priority for conservation have evidence that some of these have since become extinct

The Government of Nigeria has

Various targets for the NBSAP which have various Institution mandates to accomplish




Assessment of Progress

Efforts have been made to address the decline in species population but there has been increase in the decline.


Goal 3. Promote the conservation of genetic diversity

Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

3.1 Genetic diversity of crops, livestock and of harvested species of trees, fish and other valuable species and local knowledge maintained

Nigeria has strengthened its National Gen bank, Aforestation program and Bioresource centre with the aim of improving, National Institute of Animal Research, National Institute for Fresh Water Fisheries Research, Developed draft Guidelines for bioprospecting and indegenious knowledge in the conservation of biodiversity, with the aim of strengthening Genetic diversity of crops, livestock and of harvested species of trees, fish and other valuable species and local knowledge.


Native goat breed ,

Sustainable Fisheries Management programmes; Agro-biodiversity;

Medical Plants Conservation;

Captive breeding of a variety of animal species; and animal species, and

Plantations of indigenous tree crops.


National Conservation Strategy 1985

,Natural Resources Conservation Action Plan 1992

,National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 1998

All show increase of diversity of species due to in breeding cross breeding and technological application.

There is however total aggregate of genetic decline in domestic animals and crops


There are indications that there is increase of diversity of species due to in breeding cross breeding and technological application, though the situation has not been fully ascertained.


There are various Government programmes to increase biological resources in the country which has resulted in increase in diversity of species .


Assessment of Progress

The National Genetic and Biotechnology Research Center has a pool of genetic materials of various plants in its Gen bank. Fisheries; Agro-biodiversity;

Medical Plants Conservation, livestock, crop research programmes have increase the diversity of domestic animals, crops and fisheries resources. There is however total aggregate of genetic decline in domestic animals and crops .






Goal 4. Promoting sustainable use and consumption

Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets



















4.1 Biodiversity based products derived from sources that are sustainably managed and production areas consistent with the conservation of biodiversity

The use of fuel wood by Nigerians has been in the increase with various programs to enhance sustainable utilization, through reaforestation programs, Captive breed of wildlife is another step of sustainable utilization of wildlife in the country. The forest reverse with introduce agro-forestry also enhance conservation

-Fadama Integrated Land Management Project: This project empowers the Rural People on how to utilization wetlands in sustainable manner

-Local Empowerment and Environmental management program(LEEMP); its for the empowerment of rural populace while protecting the environment.








Its not within the target achievement

Government has established a national programme for sustainable utilization of biological resources at the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, as well as the Raw Materials Research and Development Council in order to optimize the contribution of these resources in the national economy. It is also envisaged that an Inter-Ministerial Panel or a full-fledged Biodiversity Institute will be established to coordinate and harmonize the activities of various agencies of Government, bio-industries and the civil society in sustainable utilization of biological resources. The planning process for this strategy initiated the formation of a private sector driven Bio-resources Industry Organization of Nigeria (BIN) to engage the private sector and civil society in monitoring the use of biodiversity for the production of consumer goods.



4.2 Unstainable consumption of biological resources or that impacts upon biodiversity reduced

Hunting for games in Nigeria and extraction of plant materials are forms of unsustainable utilization of biological resources. Nigeria has marine/coastal environment within its territory, rich in fisheries resources. Fishing is a major industry which is unsustainable practiced, Protection of the inland aquatic environment from pollution by oil exploration, agro-chemicals, and pesticides, industrial domestic wastes and restoring fish stock to sustainable level will contribute to the global target.

Establishment of Institute for Oceanography and marine Research, Department of Fisheries to ensure sustainable marine and fisheries resources extraction, National Oil Spill and Detection Agency




No improvement

,

Training of fishermen to upgrade their proficiency in sustainable catching, handling of fish,

Prevention and rapid response to off shore oil spills.


4.3 No Species of wild floral or fauna endangered by international trade

Nigeria had substantial trade in wild floral and fauna but not totally ensure compliance with CITES to contribute to the global target




Nigeria has strengthened its enforcement of CITES

In two 2000/2001 it was discovered that there were some lapses in the enforcement of CITES.

There is currently improvement in the enforcement of CITES within the country.

There is no specific national target



Assessment of Progress

Little progress is made in the contribution of Nigeria to the global target as fishing is carried out unsustainably in the country. The CITES licences issued are done to ensure that export of fauna and floral do not impact on the population of species concerned. However there has been cases of contavence of CITES procedures by individuals with no capacity to detect them.



Addressing threats to Biodiversity
Goal 5. Pressure from habitat loss, land use change and degradation, unsustainable water use reduced

Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

5.1 Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats reduced

Nigeria has designated protected areas in the form of Parks, secred grooves, Forest Reserves, wetlands , botanical gardens, Game Reserves under special management

The total area of land under national parks is about 2.4 million hectares.

Nigeria’s present network of protected areas includes a biosphere reserve, 7 national parks, 445 forest reserve, 12 strict nature reserves and 28 game reserves. Other sanctuaries and game reserves which are to be conserved have been proposed






Priority habits which are wetlands, mangroves and arid have been reduced due to human activities

The restoration of degraded habitat for restoration,

Protection and conservation of Priority habitats


Assessment of progress

There is no substantial contribution to the achievement of the global target by Nigeria. There is gradual decrease in the priority habitats as well as species therein.



Goal 6. Control threats from invasive alien species


Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

6.1. Path ways for major potential alien species controlled
6.2. Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten ecosystem, habitats of species

Some major non native species like water hyacinth,

Nypa palm have been noticed to be invasive

Presence of these species particularly in the coastal areas of Nigeria. Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem project and Invasive species project control are in place in the Nigeria to control invasive species

The Control measures are achieving some result but not enough

The trend is that there are increase in the Known species while there are no record of most non native species and their level of invasiveness

There are no National targets on this goal but there are programmes in Nigeria that are controlling invasive species



Assessment of progress

Invasive Alien species have been identified in Nigeria that threaten biodiversity and their habitats. The threats are in the form of displacing original species, spreading of diseases, competition for resources, parasitism.

Nigeria has ongoing invasive control projects and programmes in place, with some level of success



Goal 7. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change and pollution

Global Targets

Nigeria’s contribution to global Targets

Relevant Nigeria’s Indicators and associated measures

Assessment of change of each measure

Summary of Change

Related Nigeria National Targets

7.1.

Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adopt to climate change

Climate change is associated erratic weather with extreme , temperature ,draught, flooding, Sea level rise leading to loss of biodiversity.

Nigeria has established a special climate Unit to tackle the issues of climate change. A climate change bill has also been passed into an Act awaiting presidential accent. The Federal Government has equally directed that a major aspect of the Ecological Fund be directed towards aforestation programs with a view of mitigating impact of climate change. The government has equally signed some international treaties with a view of working with the international community in addressing issues of climate change




Erratic weather with extreme , temperature ,draught , flooding, Sea level rise leading to loss of biodiversity.

Nigeria has established a special climate Unit to tackle the issues of climate change. A climate change bill has also be passed into an Act awaiting presidential accent.



Not assessed

The change is not assessed as indicators have not be fully ascertained with parameters . Measures to address climate issues are being developed

No Nigeria specific targets to climate change.

7.2 Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity

Nigeria’s economy is depended on petroleum and its exploration has affect biodiversity in the Niger Delta region of the country. Though the level of damage has not been fully ascertained. Gas flaring is also a major threat to biodiversity.

The Nigerian Government has directed oil companies in the country to stop gas flaring by 2010 . It has also established a National Oil Spill and Detection Agency to address issues of oil spill to reduce its impact on biodiversity and the environment in general. Projects are also on ground to restore damage ecosystem due to oil exploration.

Industrial pollution is another aspect that the Nigerian Government is equally concerned about


Damaged ecosystem in the Niger Delta Region of the country, with is attended biodiversity loss.

The Nigerian Government has directed oil companies in the country to stop gas flaring by 2010 . It has also established a National Oil Spill and Detection Agency to address issues of oil spill to reduce its impact on biodiversity and the environment in general. Projects are also on ground to restore damage ecosystem due to oil exploration



The assessment of change is still on going

The assessment of change is still on going

The national target is to achieve zero flaring; minimize oil spill and restore degraded sites and restore the biodiversity

1   2   3   4   5   6   7


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка