Federal republic of nigeria fourth national biodiversity




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Other Policy Considerations

Development of baseline information on indigenous food trees, crops, microbes etc, which would be published and disseminated to stakeholders;


Development of Zoological/botanical gardens in the various eco-geographic zones in order to capture the nation’s agro-biodiversity;
Composition of an effective committee in order to revive dormant and non-performing local organizations, which facilitate conservation, involving participatory approach to ensure success;
Strengthening Agricultural and Forest Research Institutes to conserve species that fall under their mandate;
Initiation of a programme of bio-pesticides production from indigenous plant derivatives;
Realignment of crop science research to focus on indigenous food crops and plants; and
Adequate equipping of relevant research institutions to conduct research on indigenous plant species.
Sustainable Utilization of Biological Diversity
An integrated and coordinated plan for biological diversity utilization is in the NBSAP. Government has established a national programme for sustainable utilization of biological resources at the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, as well as the Raw Materials Research and Development Council in order to optimize the contribution of these resources in the national economy. It is also envisaged that an Inter-Ministerial Panel or a full-fledged Biodiversity Institute will be established to coordinate and harmonize the activities of various agencies of Government, bio-industries and the civil society in sustainable utilization of biological resources.
Policy Perspectives

a. Development of a national policy to regulate the exploitation of biological resources, with emphasis on added local value and broad stakeholder participation instead of export of raw plant materials.


b. Development of a national database of ethno-botanical and ethno-medical information. This is expected to be done with the active collaboration of local communities, traditional healers, ethno-botanists and taxonomists. To achieve this goal, a system of incentives is expected to create reward for the holders of indigenous knowledge. In this regard, the NBSAP recognized the need for immediate steps to be taken to establish a Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) this will in turn involve:
i. Coordination of biological resources information collection, especially through the establishment of an efficient Clearing House Mechanism (CHM), with full government support. This would include a review of roles and responsibilities of related ministerial and line agencies at federal and state levels to ensure articulation of all relevant information. The information collected should reflect the categories as identified by the World Conservation and Monitoring Centre (WCMC) namely, Conservation, Genetic Resources, Technology, Biotechnology, Environmental Statistics/Economics, Policy, Human Factors, Environmental Law; and
ii. Recognition of a distinct role for the media in biodiversity information management.
c. Initiation of a programme of bio-discovery, with emphasis on the collection of information on microorganisms and their role in bioremediation.
d. Internalization of the process of data collection through education and public awareness, which would include encouragement of indigenous crop studies in secondary schools and university training in plant taxonomy and systematic.
Access and Benefit Sharing
Article 10 of the CBD requires signatories to the convention to develop Fair and Equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of the commercialization of biological diversity. Hitherto local communities have derived minimal benefits from the commercial exploitation of the country’s biodiversity. The NBSAP is intended to address this problem by according recognition to local communities as the custodians of most of the nation’s biodiversity. A national policy on intellectual property rights and traditional knowledge is be developed to formulate a sui generis system that will reward indigenous knowledge. Access to national parks is regulated through the National Parks Decree of 1999, which gives the Conservator General, on approval from the Honourable Minister for Environment, authority to grant access to the national parks. The development of Bio-prospecting Framework for Nigeria is ongoing.
Biosafety
Developments in genetic engineering have led to the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO’s) and their derived products in crops, food and consumer goods. This evolution from purely research and development endeavour to consumable products has generated serious debate on the benefits and risks associated with altering the genetic material of living organisms. Although genetic modifications of plants and animals through domestication and controlled breeding have gone on with little debate for several thousand years, it was only since 1973 that scientists began to transfer isolated genes from one organism into the DNA of other organisms. The use of this technology has become more widespread and sophisticated such that there is now increased public concern over the safety of genetically modified plants and animals especially in their use for human consumption. The uncertainty over the effects of genetically modified crops and the consumption of GM foods has also raised concerns in the health profession over the regulation and safety of GM foodstuff. For the purpose of the NBSAP, the immediate concern is on the regulation of the trans-boundary movement of living modified organisms and procedures for risk assessment and safety in the utilization of such organisms in Nigeria.
The expert consultation process on this issue reached the conclusion that this was clearly a policy area where the grafting of foreign solutions based on experiences from outside our region may prove to be catastrophic. The NBSAP provides for multi-sectoral approach in developing legislation and establishing guidelines for the control and monitoring of GMO’s. Counter-balancing this need for caution is the equally important national development objective of participating and harvesting the fruits of this technology, which has been widely recognized as being capable of changing the entire agro-pharmaceutical industry. The national strategy advocates increased activities in the non-transgenic biotechnology processes, use of naturally occurring micro-organisms for industrial processes and to improve agricultural productivity and the intensification of traditional plant breeding technologies, while developing adequate guidelines and protocols for field testing and subsequent release of genetically modified organisms For a biodiversity rich country such as Nigeria, unregulated importation and use of living genetically modified organisms may be catastrophic to the environment, human health and sustainable development of the country. Nigeria has successfully developed a National Biosafety Framework to ensure the safe use of GMOs in the country.
Financial Mechanism
Although the commercial value of biological diversity in Nigeria exceeds the cost of conservation measures by more than $3 billion at 1993 values ($3.75 billion versus $0.37b), biodiversity conservation has not been recognized as feasible investment in Nigeria’s economic development and consequently natural resources valuation has not been fully incorporated into the national economic planning. It has been estimated that the ratio of conservation costs to Nigeria was about 3.8 % of GDP while the aggregate contribution of biodiversity to the GDP was about 46% in 2001. In 1990, it was estimated that the monetary value of other benefits realized from conservation was put at well over $6 billion. With the increase in bio prospecting and bio-discovery activities in Nigeria and the growth in biotechnology related industries that utilize indigenous genetic materials as feedstock, the 2002 estimate for the benefits of biodiversity to Nigeria is over $8 billion per annum. The strategic plan therefore provides for a significant increase in the national expenditure on biodiversity conservation in order to ensure the continuous availability of these resources.

Level of Achievement of the CBD Targets:

The Action Plan makes concrete provisions for a programme of research, extension and education that will enhance sustainable development of Nigeria’s biodiversity, using a combination of policy reforms, new legal instruments, institutional collaboration and a responsive financial mechanism targeted at areas of greatest need in order to achieve the CBD 2010 Targets. It has also established a framework for continuous assessment and monitoring of biodiversity and a system of measurement of the stated targets.

Nigeria is richly endowed with diverse flora and fauna. These vital resources are presently threatened by increased population pressure and intensified human development activities and unsustainable utilization of Biodiversity. These activities have been of major concern to political leaders, policy makers and analysts, ecologists and economic managers who realize that natural resources are the backbone of industry and national development. Consequently government has adopted the policy of integrated conservation and sustainable use of the nation's biological diversity, with a view to promoting greater awareness of the value of biodiversity as well as involving more stake holders in biodiversity conservation. In line with Article 6 of the Convention, Nigeria has integrated biodiversity concerns into her environmental policy and in developing the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The country has also taken steps to integrate biodiversity considerations into the various sectors of the economy. The major constraints identified in conserving biodiversity and in the achievement of the 2010 Targets, include the dearth of trained/skilled manpower, appropriate technology, and inadequate funds to implement the various biodiversity programmes. What Nigeria requires is enhanced cooperation at the local, regional, and global levels to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of her rich biodiversity and ensuring equitable sharing of the benefits derivable from these resources. A successful effort will no doubt influence development in the West African sub-region, and so enhanced international cooperation. The 4th National Reports examined the level of Nigeria’s implementation of the NBSAP objectives and the 2010 CBD Target based on various anticipated actions and targets to be achieved.

The realization of the actions and targets is however far fetched.




FOURTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY REOPRT 2010
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Nigeria is located in the western part of Africa between latitudes 4 16’N and 1352’N; and between longitudes 249’E and 1437’E. It occupies a total land area of 923,768 km2 with a population of about 120 million people. By virtue of it geographical extent, it spans different climatic and ecological zones. The variable climatic conditions and physical features have consequently endowed Nigeria with a very rich biodiversity. The mean manual rainfall ranges from about 450 mm in the northeast to about 3500 mm in the coastal south-east, with rains falling within 90 to 290 days respectively. The mean annual temperature ranges from 21oC in the south to 30oC in the north with extremes of 14oC and 45oC and a latitude range of 0 – 1000m above sea level.
At the current annual growth rate of 3%, the country’s population may reach 150 million by the year 2011. Consequently, the demand for food, fuel-wood and other biological resources will experience a corresponding increase and this will lead to increased pressure on land, water and other resources. Thus the high rate of population growth is crucial among the set of factors that degrade the environment and threaten biodiversity in Nigeria. In line with this, the Federal Government of Nigeria(FGN) has adopted various measures to address issues that can adversely affect its populace and natural resources.
Although Nigeria derives about 80% of its external earnings from the oil sector, agriculture contributes about 38% of the GDP. About 70% of the population derives their means of livelihood from agriculture, and the economy is characterized by a large rural based traditional sector. Furthermore, most of the rural poor derive their livelihood from wild species of biodiversity. The urban population also benefit from the exploitation of the country’s biological resources, particularly in the construction industry.
Nigeria operates a federal system of government with 36 States and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. There are 774 Local Governments at the third tier level, which support the Federal system. The country has over 250 ethnic groups with rich cultural endowment. The diversity of culture has considerable impact on biodiversity utilization and the level of protection. Natural and man-made threats including unsustainable natural resource exploitation as well as direct and indirect consequences of socio-economic development have contributed to the erosion of biodiversity in the country.
Nigeria signed the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992 and ratified it in 1994. It has since participated actively in the activities of the Convention and is committed to its objectives. Nigeria equally signed the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety which is intended to conserve Biological Diversity from adverse impact of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). The country, therefore, accords very high priority to a successful implementation of all articles of the Convention as a responsible member of the global community and in pursuit of sustainable development.
This report documents efforts of the FGN in the implementation of the Convention and the NBSAP, prepared through a participatory process in compliance with the obligations pursuant to Article 26 of the Convention and in keeping with decisions of the second and third Conferences of Parties to the Convention.
1.1 CURRENT STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY IN NIGERIA
i. Biodiversity Endowment
Nigeria is rich in Biodiversity. The country is endowed with a variety of plant and animal species. There are about 7,895 plant species identified in 338 families and 2,215 genera. There are 22,000 vertebrates and invertebrates species. These species include about 20,000 insects, about 1,000 birds, about 1,000 fishes, 247 mammals and 123 reptiles. Of these animals about 0.14% is threatened while 0.22% is endangered.


Family

Number of Threatened

Plant spp.

Acanthaceae

26

Adiantaceae

5

Agavaceae

2

Amarantaceae

1

Anacardiaceae

7

Annonaceae

15

Apocynaceae

19

Araceae

3

Araliaceae

1

Aristolochiaceae

3

Asclepiadaceae

2

Aspidiaceae

7

Aspleniaceae

6

Athyriaceae

2

Balsaminaceae

1

Begoniaceae

2

Boraginacea

4

Burseraceae

1

Butomaceae

1

Caesalpiniaceae

13

Capparidaceae

2

Caryophylaceae

2

Celastraceae

6

Combretaceae

9

Commelinaceae

3

Compositae

36

Connaraceae

6

Convolvulaceae

3

Cruciferae

1

Cucurbitacea

6

Cytheaceae

1

Cyperaceae

21

Dennstaedtiaceae

1

Dichapetalaceae

11

Ebenaceae

7

Ericaceae

2

Eriocaulaceae

3

Euphorbiaceae

31

Flacourtaceae

7

Gentinaceae

2

Geraniaceae

1

Gnetaceae

1

Goodeniaceae

1

Graminae

19

Guttiferae

4

Hymenophylacelae

4

Hypericaceae

3

Icacinaceae

2

Iridaceae

1

Labiatae

6

Lauraceae

2

Lecythidaceae

2

Lemnaceae

1

Lentibulariaceae

1

Liliaceae

2

Lobeliaceae

3

Loganiaceae

4

Lomariopsidaceae

2

Table of threatened plant species
About 1,489 species of micro-organisms have also been identified (Table 1). All of these animal and plant species occur in abundance within the country’s vegetation that range from the mangrove along the coast in the south to the Sahel in the north. Most of the biodiversity sustain the rural economy.
Table 1: INVENTORY OF PLANT SPECIES


GROUPS OF PLANTS

FAMILIES

GENERA

SPECIES

Algae

67

281

1335

Lichens

-

14

17

Fungi (Mushrooms)

26

60

134

Mosses

-

13

16

Liverworts

-

16

6

Pteridophytes

27

64

165

Gymnosperms

2

3

5

Chlamydosperms

2

2

6

Monocotyledons

42

376

1575

Dicotyledons

172

1396

4636

Total

338

2215

7895




GAME RESERVES

Table 2



S/No.

Name of Reserve

Area Location

Vegetation



Ebbazikampe

Kwara State

Guinea Savannah



Okpara

Oyo State

Rain Forest



Upper Ogun

Oyo State

Dry Forest/G. Savannah



Ohosu

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Ologbo

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Iri-Ada-Obi

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Emu-Urho

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Orle River

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Gilli-Gilli

Edo State

Low land Rain forest



Anambra

Anambra State

Rainforest/Derived savannah



Udi/Nsukka

Anambra State

Low land Rain forest



Akpaka

Anambra State

Low land Rain forest



Obudu

Cross River State

Low land Rain forest



Stubbs creek

Akwa-Ibom State

Mangrove/Swamp Forest



Ibi

Taraba State

Guinea Savannah



Wase Sanctuary

Plateau State

Sudan Savannah



Wase Rock Bird Sanctuary

Plateau State

Sudan Savannah



Pandam Wildlife Park

Plateau State

Sudan Savannah



Pai River

Plateau State

Sudan Savannah



Ankwe River

Nasaraw State

Sudan Savannah



Damper Sanctuary

Nasaraw State

Sudan Savannah



Nasarawa

Nasaraw State

Sudan Savannah



Lame/Bura

Bauchi State

Sudan Savannah



Kogin Kano

Kano State

Sudan Savannah



Lake Chad

Borno State

Sahel Savannah


Wild life


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