Federal republic of nigeria fourth national biodiversity




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FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA




FOURTH NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY

REPORT

ABUJA 2010

TABLE OF CONTENT

Table of Content …………………………………………………………….
List of Acronyms…………………………………………………………….
Forward ………………………………………………………………………

Acknowledgement …………………………………………………….............

Executive Summary…………………………………………………………….


  1. Introduction …………………………………………………………….




  1. Nigeria National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan…………….

2.1 Summary of the NBSAP ………………………………………………

3.0 Efforts of integrating Biodiversity Conservation in Policies and Programs

…………………………………………………

4.0 Progress Towards the 2010 Target and implementation of the Strategic
Plan ………………………………………………………………….
4.1 Progress towards 2010 Target………………………………………………….
4.2 Progress towards the Goals and Objectives of the Strategic Plan of the

Convention…………………………………………………………


4.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………..
Table 1: Environmental Related International Conventions and Protocols signed
and Ratified by Nigeria

Table 2: Environmental related National Legislations enacted by Nigeria………………


Table 3: Changes in Nigeria vegetation ………………………………………………

Table 4:: Inventory of plant species …………………………………………………

Table 5: Game Reserves ……………………………………………………………..
Table 6: Threatened Plant Species and Animals and their uses……………………..
Appendix 1: Selected Plants Commonly Used in Nigeria …………………………

Appendix 2: Status of Wildlife in Nigeria …………………………………………

Appendix 3– Information concerning reporting Party and preparation of Report…

LIST OF ACRONYMS
ADB - African Development Bank

BD - Biodiversity

BDCP - Bio-resources Development and Conservation Programme

BON - Broadcasting Organization of Nigeria

CBD - Conservation on Biological Diversity

CBOs - Community Based Organizations

CITES - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

CRIN - Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria

CRNP - Cross-River National Park

EMP - Environmental Management Programme

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization

FDF - Federal Department of Forestry

FEPA - Federal Environmental Protection Agency

FHI - Federal Herbarium Ibadan

FMANR - Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources

FMF - Federal Ministry of Finance

FME - Federal Ministry of Environment

FMI - Federal Ministry of Information

FMIA - Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs

FMJ - Federal Ministry of Justice

FMST - Federal Ministry of Science and Technology

FMWH - Federal Ministry of Works and Housing

FORMECU - Forestry Monitoring Evaluation and Co-ordination Unit

FOS - Federal Office of Statistics

FRIN - Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria

GCLME - Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem

GMO - Genetically Modified Organism

IAR - Institute for Agricultural Research

IART - Institute of Agricultural Research and Training

ICRAF - International Centre for Research in Agro-forestry

IITA - International Institute of Tropical Agriculture

INC - Inter-governmental negotiation Committee

IUCN - International Union for the Conservation of Nature

MAN - Manufacturers Association of Nigeria

NACB - Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative Bank

NACCIMA - National Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture

NCGRAB - National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology

NARP - National Agricultural Research Project

NBTE - National Board for Technical Education

NCF - Nigerian Conservation Foundation

NDIC - Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation

NEST - Nigerian Environment Study/Action Team

NGOs - Non-Governmental Organizations

NIFFR - Nigerian Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research

NIFOR - Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research

NIHORT - National Horticultural Research Institute

NIOMR - Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research

NPAN - Newspapers Proprietors Association of Nigeria

NRCC - Natural Resources Conservation Council

NSE - Nigerian Stock Exchange

NUC - National Universities Commission

PMAN - Performing Musicians Association of Nigeria

RRIN - Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria

SDFs - State Departments of Forestry

SEPA’s - State Environmental Protection Agencies

SMANRs - State Ministries of Agriculture and Natural Resources

UNAAB - University of Agriculture Abeokuta

UNCED - United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNDP - United Nations Development Programme

UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO - United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

WWF - World-Wide Fund (for nature)



FOREWARD
Provision for the protection and improvement of Nigeria’s environmental and safeguarding of its water, air and land, forest and wildlife is enshrined in the Nigeria’s constitution. It is in line with this that the country joined other members of the international community to prepare the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity that seeks to guarantee the conservation of species and habitats for posterity.
Biodiversity is essential in several aspects of human welfare, spirituality and culture, food security, health etc. For us in Nigeria, biodiversity is particularly important in the rural areas on which a large proportion of our people’s livelihood depends.
While best managed at the local level, is sustained biodiversity is subject to being affected by issues operating at global level. The challenges surrounding climate change have made the conservation of biodiversity more complex in its entirety. Successful biodiversity conservation therefore requires the participation of a variety of stakeholders.
National reporting within the framework of the CBD forms an important component of assessment of biodiversity and the level of compliance with CBD and NBSAP. Assessment involves measuring biodiversity abundance, distribution and variability, as well as its impacts on biodiversity.
This Fourth National Report provides both information on the status of biodiversity and presents the overall compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD), its targets and Nigeria National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan(NBSAP).
Nigeria is obliged in collaborating with other Parties of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in presenting its Fourth National Report to the global community as part of its obligations in the joint endeavour to conserve Biological Diversity and its utilization in a sustainable manner.

JOHN ODEY

Minister of Environment

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Federal Government of Nigeria would like to acknowledge the assistance it received from various stakeholders in the preparation of this document.


In producing this document, state government departments responsible for biodiversity were active participants and made valuable contributions. Constant review meetings were held with a variety of stakeholders, including NGOs active in Biodiversity conservation.
Finally, the Focal Point (the Federal Ministry of Environment) acknowledges all who have in one way or another contributed to the successful production and completion of Nigeria’s Fourth National Biodiversity Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.


Federal Ministry of Environment

Executive Summary
Nigeria occupies a unique geographic position in Africa and the variability in climate and geographic features endows her with one of the richest biodiversity in the continent. Its diversity of natural ecosystems ranges from semi-arid savanna to mountain forests, rich seasonal floodplain environments, rainforests, vast freshwater swamp forests and diverse coastal vegetation. Nigeria’s Niger delta contains the largest tract of mangrove in Africa.

The individual components of biodiversity – genes, species, and ecosystems provide our society with a wide array of goods and services.


A country report published in 1992 by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) indicated that Nigeria possesses more than 5,000-recorded species of plants, 22,090 species of animals, including insects and 889 species of birds, and 1,489 species of microorganisms. It estimated that 0.4% of the plant species are threatened and 8.5 % endangered, with 0.14% of the animals and insects threatened and 0.22% endangered. The country study listed 135 reptilian species, 109 amphibian species and 648 fish species and recognized the forests in Cross River State of Nigeria to be a hotspot for amphibian biodiversity. Nigeria is known as a global hotspot for primate species, with a great diversity found especially in the Gulf of Guinea forests of Cross River State. Some of the endemic species include three monkeys, the white-throated monkey (Cercopithecus erythrogaster), Sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) and the Niger Delta red colobus (Procolobus pennantii epieni) and four bird species, the Anambra waxbill (Estrilda poliopareia), the Ibadan malimbe, (Malimbus ibadanensis), the Jos Plateau indigo-bird (Vidua maryae) and the Rock Fire-Finch Lagonostica sanguinodorsalis. The most endangered gorilla subspecies on earth, the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) with an estimated population of less than 250 individuals is found only in a couple of protected areas in Cross-River State, south eastern Nigeria.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (i.e. of globally threatened species) includes 148 animals and 146 plants that are found in Nigeria. Of these, 26 animals and 18 plants are classified as endangered and another three animals and 15 plants are critically endangered worldwide.
Natural and man-made threats, socio-cultural problems as well as direct and indirect consequences of socio-economic development have contributed to the erosion of biodiversity at all levels. Within the last 25 years, it is believed that about 43% of the forest ecosystem has been lost through human activities. Nigeria, with a population of over 140 million people constitutes nearly a quarter of the total population of sub-Saharan Africa. A population growth rate of more than 3 % and increasing poverty (especially in rural areas) has put severe demand on the country’s natural resources, the institutional structures and the resources available to manage them. There has been a general institutional weakness and lack of technical capacity to effectively tackle the nation’s environmental issues, including threat to biological diversity.

Nigeria is a signatory to several international treaties and conventions for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, which demonstrates her commitment to the conservation of natural resources. Consequently, the country took active part in all the negotiation processes leading to the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity and was one of the 153 signatories to the Convention at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), commonly known as the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, 1992. Subsequently, the country ratified the convention in 1994 and thereafter, started the process of preparing her Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. In 1993, “A Country Study Report” prepared by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) documented the status of Nigeria’s biological diversity, policies, laws, and conservation programmes.

Nigeria launched her National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in 1997.

The goal of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan(NBSAP) is to develop appropriate framework and programme instruments for the conservation of Nigeria’s Biological Diversity and enhance its sustainable use by integrating biodiversity consideration into national planning, policy and decision-making processes. This strategy is part of our national commitments under the Convention to Biological Diversity and a testimony to our responsibilities to our future generations.

The NBSAP establishment an adaptive process that institutes national goals, sets priorities, and provides frameworks for addressing: Biodiversity conservation; Sustainable use of biological resources; Equitable sharing of benefits; Conservation of agro-biodiversity; Biosafety; and Biodiversity – Industry Interface.
The NBSAP addressed the following areas which have guided Nigeria’s various conservation priorities and actions

Biodiversity Conservation:
The Nigerian government recognizes the need to conserve its biological diversity and has made a commitment to conserve Nigeria’s 25% of total forest area. Emphasis is placed on in situ conservation of biodiversity within protected areas such as Forest Reserves, Game Reserves, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In situ conservation outside protected areas will is encouraged to complement conservation of biological diversity inside protected areas, to secure Nigeria’s biodiversity for future generations.
Priority attention is placed on conservation of unique ecological characteristics and ecosystems such as mountain, mangrove, wetlands, savanna and rain forests and transit sites for migratory species. The Plan also contains specific priority setting and actions for ex situ conservation of various species of plants and animals of economic importance, including re-introduction of locally extinct animals, lost crops, and conservation of threatened or endangered species. The administrative and policy reforms contained in the Plan provide a vehicle for achieving our biodiversity conservation goals and objectives.

Conservation of agro-biodiversity:

Due to the diversity of habitats in Nigeria and the tropical climate, there is great diversity of plant species, including several that have been domesticated. Nigeria’s plants include many species with traditional value as food items, medicines and for various domestic uses and a number of these have been catalogued in various specific areas of the country. Nigeria is also an epicenter for diversity of wild varieties of important crop plants. A number of these wild crops and their relatives although more adapted to the environment and climate are being replaced with new varieties/cultivars and are therefore threatened with extinction.

The NBSAP outlined a programme of work to encourage both the ex situ and in farm conservation of the country’s agricultural biodiversity.

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