Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth: Supplementary Information




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Means for Oneway Anova

Level

Number

Mean

Std Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

P. antiquus

23

1.99000

0.05261

1.8838

2.0962

P. cypriotes

4

1.18575

0.12614

0.9310

1.4405

P. falconeri

17

1.43088

0.06119

1.3073

1.5545


Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means of all pairs

q*

Alpha

2.43165

0.05



Abs(Dif)-LSD

P. falconeri

P. cypriotes

P. antiquus

0.36290

0.47191

P. falconeri

-

-0.09579

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.





Level







Mean

P. antiquus

A



1.9900000

P. falconeri



B

1.4308824

P. cypriotes



B

1.1857500

Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different.



S7.4 Relative Length Index






Rsquare

0.496198

Adj Rsquare

0.384242

Root Mean Square Error

52.47563

Mean of Response

425.8463

Observations (or Sum Wgts)

12


Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

Prob > F

Species

2

24409.156

12204.6

4.4321

0.0457

Error

9

24783.225

2753.7







C. Total

11

49192.381











Means for Oneway Anova

Level

Number

Mean

Std Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

P. antiquus

5

479.182

23.468

426.09

532.27

P. cypriotes

3

385.539

30.297

317.00

454.08

P. falconeri

4

389.406

26.238

330.05

448.76


Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means of all pairs

q*

Alpha

2.79201

0.05



Abs(Dif)-LSD

P. falconeri

P. cypriotes

P. antiquus

-8.51

-13.35

P. falconeri




-108.03

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.





Level




Mean

P. antiquus

A

479.18244

P. falconeri

A

389.40627

P. cypriotes

A

385.53942

Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different.


S7.5 Hypsodonty Index






Rsquare

0.324927

Adj Rsquare

0.240543

Root Mean Square Error

22.62825

Mean of Response

205.2458

Observations (or Sum Wgts)

19


Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

Prob > F

Species

2

3943.270

1971.63

3.8506

0.0431

Error

16

8192.600

512.04







C. Total

18

12135.870











Means for Oneway Anova

Level

Number

Mean

Std Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

P. antiquus

8

221.148

8.000

204.19

238.11

P. cypriotes

2

180.130

16.001

146.21

214.05

P. falconeri

9

196.692

7.543

180.70

212.68


Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means of all pairs

q*

Alpha

2.58033

0.05



Abs(Dif)-LSD

P. falconeri

P. cypriotes

P. antiquus

-3.915

-5.141

P. falconeri




-29.082

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.





Level




Mean

P. antiquus

A

221.14818

P. falconeri

A

196.69184

P. cypriotes

A

180.12954

Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different.


S8. ANOVA/HSD: DWARF ELEPHANTS
S8.1 Plate Count






Rsquare

0.285714

Adj Rsquare

0.081633

Root Mean Square Error

0.755929

Mean of Response

12.2

Observations (or Sum Wgts)

10


Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

Prob > F

Species

2

1.6000000

0.800000

1.4000

0.3080

Error

7

4.0000000

0.571429







C. Total

9

5.6000000











Means for Oneway Anova

Level

Number

Mean

Std Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

M. creticus

2

12.0000

0.53452

10.736

13.264

P. cypriotes

2

11.5000

0.53452

10.236

12.764

P. falconeri

6

12.5000

0.30861

11.770

13.230


Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means of all pairs

q*

Alpha

2.94498

0.05



Abs(Dif)-LSD

M. creticus

P. cypriotes

P. falconeri

-1.3177

-0.8177

M. creticus




-1.7262

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.





Level




Mean

P. falconeri

A

12.500000

M. creticus

A

12.000000

P. cypriotes

A

11.500000

Levels not connected by same letter are significantly different.


S8.2 Length (mm)






Rsquare

0.626096

Adj Rsquare

0.501461

Root Mean Square Error

13.66356

Mean of Response

107.855

Observations (or Sum Wgts)

9


Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

Prob > F

Species

2

1875.6845

937.842

5.0234

0.0523

Error

6

1120.1576

186.693







C. Total

8

2995.8421











Means for Oneway Anova

Level

Number

Mean

Std Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

M. creticus

1

145.000

13.664

111.57

178.43

P. cypriotes

3

111.421

7.889

92.12

130.72

P. falconeri

5

98.286

6.111

83.33

113.24



Tukey-Kramer HSD comparison of means of all pairs


q*

Alpha

3.06815

0.05



Abs(Dif)-LSD

P. cypriotes

P. falconeri

M. creticus

-14.828

0.790

P. cypriotes




-17.481
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