Европейская и средиземноморская организация по карантину и защите растений




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EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION

ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ

ORGANIZATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES

02/9196


Point 7.8

Solanum rostratum


IDENTITY



Name: Solanum rostratum Dunal

Synonyms: Solanum hexandrum hort., Androcera rostrata (Dunal) Rydb.

The name Solanum cornutum has been use erroneously for this species, which is distinct from Solanum cornutum Lamarck.



Taxonomic position: Solanaceae

Common name: buffalobur, Kansas thistle (English); паслён колючий, паслён клювовидный (Russian).

Bayer code: SOLRS

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION


Europe: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Czechia, Denmark, Moldova, Russia (Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria, Kalmykia and Northern Ossetia; Krasnodar and Stavropol’ territories, Rostov province) Slovakia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia,.

Asia: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan

Africa: South Africa

North America: Canada, Mexico, USA.

Oceania: Australia, New Zealand.
Remark: S. rostratum is native to North America and has spread from there to other countries. First found in Russia in 1918.
ON WHICH CROPS
All agricultural land may be infested by S. rostratum, especially cereals, orchards and gardens, as well as pastures, meadows and uncultivated land.

BIOLOGY



S. rostratum is an annual weed, reproducing by seeds. One plant may produce 200 to 8.000 seeds depending on growing conditions. Seeds may produce seedlings from the depth of 1 to 15 cm and remain viable for 10 years. Seedlings appear late (in May, when the soil reaches the temperature of 10-12oC) and continue to appear during all the growing season. Plants are able to regenerate rapidly after mowing.
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION
S. rostratum grows 30-100 cm tall, depending on growing conditions. The crown is about 70 cm in diameter. The stem is stout, upright, with many branches. The leaves are alternate, 5-10 cm long, bipinnately lobed, with long petioles. The stem, petioles, midrib and veins of leaves bear stout whitish-yellow spines 5-12 mm long. The whole plant is covered with dense stellate hairs. The flowers are formed at the end of short (2-3 cm) stalks, which later elongate as more flowers develop in a raceme. The corolla is composed of 5 yellow petals. Each flower has 5 yellow stamens, one of which is longer than the others and curved. The fruit is a round semi-dry berry surrounded by an enlarged calyx. The fruits split at maturity. One plant may develop up to 180 fruits, containing on average 70 seeds each. The seeds are elongated, flattened, brown to black, 2.5- 3 mm long, 1.7-2 mm wide and 1.0 – 1.3 mm thick. The weight of 1000 seeds is 3.0-3.6 g.
MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL
S. rostratum seeds are carried inside the dried berries, or individually, with harvested seeds of many crops, grain and hay, but also with other plant products.
PATHWAYS
Contaminated seed lots, grain, hay, fodder, soil and growing media, soil accompanying plants.
DAMAGE
S. rostratum is an annual weed, reproducing by seeds, which strongly competes with crops for water and nutrients. The weed may kill crops at a high level of infestation. It can seriously reduce yields and quality of harvested cereals and other field crops, fruits, etc. In pastures, the weed replaces other herbaceous plants reducing the quality of pasturage. Animals do not feed on S. rostratum, or on hay and straw infested by the weed, because of its spines. The weed is an alternative host for many pests of potatoes and tomatoes (Colorado beetle, viruses, etc.) and helps them to establish and to maintain their populations.
PHYTOSANITARY RISK
S. rostratum is an invasive weed, which continues to spread in areas where it has been introduced. However, it is not highly competitive and can readily be controlled with herbicides. It could present a risk for a large part of the EPPO region.
PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES
The movement of agricultural seeds, grain, forage, hay, straw, fodder and other materials infested with fruits and seeds of S. rostratum into pest-free areas should be restricted. Eradicative treatments with herbicides are possible.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Savotikov YuF, Smetnik AI (1995) Guide on pests, plant diseases and weeds of quarantine significance for the Russian Federation. Arnika, Nizhnii Novgorod (in Russian).

Shutova NN (ed.) (1970) Guide on quarantine and other dangerous pests, diseases and weeds. 2nd edition. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Vasyutin AS, Smetnik AI, Mordkovich YaB, Zinchenko VN, Yudin BI, Smirnov SA, Moskalenko GP, Shakhramanov IK, Maslyakov VYu (2001) Plant Quarantine in the Russian Federation. Kolos, Moscow (in Russian).

Whitson TD et al. (1996) Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science, Newark (US).

Entry date 2001-11

Fig. 1. Solanum rostratum: 1) seedling; 2 and 3) seeds; 4) above-ground parts of the plant with flowers; 5) flower (Shutova, 1970).





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