European and mediterranean plant protection organization




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EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION

ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE


POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES

07-13698 rev

P IAS Point 11.1

EPPO data sheet on Invasive Plants

DRAFT
Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum sosnowskyi and Heracleum persicum

Identity of Heracleum mantegazzianum
Scientific name: Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Synonyms: Heracleum asperum M. Bieb., Heracleum caucasicum Steven, Heracleum circassicum Manden, Heracleum giganteum Fischer ex Hornem., Heracleum grosshemii Manden., Heracleum lehmannianum Bunge, Heracleum panaces Willd. Ex Steven, Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer, H. pubescens (Hoffm.) M. Bieb., Heracleum sibiricum Sphalm, H. sosnowskyi Manden., Heracleum stevenii Manden, Heracleum speciosum Weinm., Heracleum tauricum Steven, Heracleum villosum Fischer ex Sprengel., Pastinaca pubescens (Hoffm.) Calest., Spondylium pubescens Hoffm.

Taxonomic position: Apiaceae

Common names: giant hogweed, giant cow parsnip, cartwheel flower (English), kæmpe-bjørneklo (Danish), berce du caucase, berce de Mantegazzi (French), herkulesstaude, riesenbärenklau, kaukasischer Bärenklau (German), kaukasianjättiputki (Finnish), reuzenberenklauw (Flemish), kjempebjønnkjeks (Norwegian), barszcz mantegazyjski (Polish), kaukasisk jättefloka (Swedish), hiid-karuputk (Estonian), tröllahvönn (Islandic), bjarnarkló (Islandic), mantegaci latvānis (Latvian), Mantegaco barštis (Lithuanian), reuzenberenklauw (Dutch), jättefloka, jättebjörnloka, kaukasisk jättefloka (Serbian) (Klingenstein, 2006), bolševník velkolepý (Czech).

EPPO code: HERMZ

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature:

Nomenclature is difficult due to unclear taxonomy. Heracleum mantegazzianum and related tall Heracleum species originate from the Caucasus region (one of two centres of diversity for Heracleum species, the other being China), synonymy therefore depends on botanical explorations in that region. Main sources of synonymy are (i) historical – before the taxonomic description of a full range of Heracleum species, plants were referred to as those described first (e.g. beginning of the 19th century); and (ii) modern – due to intensive taxonomical work by Russian botanists (in the 20th century), who generally accept a narrower species concept.


Historical synonyms include: Heracleum giganteum Fischer ex Hornem., Heracleum speciosum Weinm., Spondylium pubescens Hoffm. and Pastinaca pubescens (Hoffm.) Calest. – these were early names that are not in taxonomic use anymore and can be regarded as true synonyms. Heracleum pubescens (Hoffm.) M. Bieb. (now considered an endemic of Crimea, Ukraine) was the first tall Heracleum species to be described (in 1819), and thus many plants were later referred to as this species. Modern synonyms include: Heracleum grosshemii Manden (described in 1950) and Heracleum circassicum Manden (described in 1970). The other listed synonyms refer to species that are considered as distinct species (or are synonyms to such species) and thus are not strictly synonyms. This is also true for H. persicum and H. sosnowskyi that are naturalized in Europe. See Similarities to other species.

Phytosanitary categorization: EPPO List of invasive alien plants.

Identity of Heracleum sosnowskyi
Scientific name: Heracleum sosnowskyi Mandenova

Synonyms: H. pubescens (Hoffmann) Marschall von Bieberstein, H. wilhelmsii Fischer et Avé-Lallemant, H. mantegazzianum Sommier et Levier

Taxonomic position: Apiaceae

Common names: Sosnowskyi’s hogweed (English), борщевик Сосновского (Russian), Sosnovska latvānis (Latvian), Sosnovskio barštis (Lithuanian), Sosnovski karuputk (Estonian), barszcz sosnowskiego (Polish), Sosnowskyi Bärenklau (German), bolševník sosnowského (Czech).

EPPO code: HERSO

Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature:

H. sosnowskyi has been considered a synonym of H. mantegazzianum and of H. pubescens. Heracleum pubescens was described first in the Caucasus in 1819, followed by H. mantegazzianum in 1895, and finally H. sosnowskyi in 1944. The present concept of H. pubescens is limited to an endangered plant endemic to Crimea (Ukraine). The plants naturalized in western European countries have generally been known as H. mantegazzianum, without consideration of the possibility that H. sosnowskyi or other invasive Heracleum species (e.g. H. persicum Desfontaines ex Fischer) might also be present. In the former USSR, the three species were clearly distinguished (Jahodová et al., 2007).

Before the description of Heracleum sosnowskyi in 1944, plants of this species were recorded as some of the previously described Heracleum species. These include H. pubescens (described in 1819 from Crimea and Eastern Greater Caucasus, now considered as endemic of Crimea, Ukraine), H. wilhelmsii (described in 1841 from Georgia) and H. mantegazzianum (described in 1895 from Western Greater Caucasus) (Jahodová et al., 2007).



Identity of Heracleum persicum
Scientific name: Heracleum persicum Desfontaines ex Fischer

Synonyms: Heracleum laciniatum auct. scand., non Hornem, H. Panaces, H. Tromsoensis, H. Cf. Pubescens M. Bieb

Taxonomic position : Apiaceae

Common names : Bärenklau Persischer (German), Bereklauw, Perzische (Deutsch), Tromsøpalme (Norwegian), Persianjättiputki (Finish)

EPPO code: HERPO
Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature:
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