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Electronic supplementary material

Yusa et al. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles.



Table S1. Sexual systems (H = hermaphroditism; A = androdioecy; D = dioecy), proportions of solitary individuals and sources of ecological data and 18S rDNA sequences in pedunculate barnacles used

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17. Yusa, Y., Takemura, M., Miyazaki, K., Watanabe, T. & Yamato, S. 2010 Dwarf males of Octolasmis warwickii (Cirripedia: Thoracica): The first example of coexistence of males and hermaphrodites in the suborder Lepadomorpha. Biol. Bull. 218, 259-265.

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28. Tunnicliffe, V. & Southward, A. J. 2004 Growth and breeding of a primitive stalked barnacle Leucolepas longa (Cirripedia: Scalpellomorpha: Eolepadidae: Neolepadinae) inhabiting a volcanic seamount off Papua New Guinea. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 84, 121-132. (doi: 10.1017/S0025315404008987h)

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30. Buckeridge, J. S. 2000 Neolepas osheai sp. nov., a new deep-sea vent barnacle (Cirripedia: Pedunculata) from the Brothers Caldera, south-west Pacific Ocean. New Zealand. J. Mar. Fresh. Res. 34, 409-418. (doi: 10.1080/00288330.2000.9516944)



Figure S1. Sexual system placed on the maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of pedunculate barnacles assuming the GTR+I+G model of evolution. Bootstrap proportions (only values higher than 50%) are shown in the tree. Ibla cumingi and I. quadrivalvis were used as outgroups. H: hermaphroditic, A: androdioecious (males + hermaphrodites), D: dioecious (males + females).



Figure S2. Evolutionary transition rates between sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles estimated by maximum likelihood. qij refers to the transition rate from the ith to the jth sexual system, averaged over 100 randomly-resolved maximum likelihood trees. In parentheses, the presence (1) or absence (0) of dwarf males (left) and of females (right) is shown.


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