Electronic Supplementary Material Appendix 1




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Electronic Supplementary Material
Appendix 1. Data on cryptic species found in studies of helminth parasites (see text for details) followed by list of sources.


Parasite taxon

Higher taxon

Sequencing effort

Host sampling effort

No. cryptic species found

Marker used

Source

Neoechinorhynchus golvani

Acanthocephala

40

8

2

LSU, ITSs

Martinez-Aquino et al. 2009

Leptorhynchoides thecatus

Acanthocephala

150

6

5

CO1, ITSs

Steinauer et al. 2007

Ancylostoma caninum

Nematoda

164

1

1

CO1

Miranda et al. 2008

Hovorkonema variegatum

Nematoda

4

n/a

1

ITS-2

Krone et al. 2007

Teladorsagia circumcincta

Nematoda

33

1

1

Microsats

Grillo et al. 2007

Ternidens deminutus

Nematoda

10

2

1

ITS-2

Schindler et al. 2005

Teladorsagia spp

Nematoda

14

2

1

ND4

Hoberg et al. 1999

Cylicostephanus minutus

Nematoda

4

1

1

28S, ITSs

Hung et al. 1999

Necator americanus

Nematoda

4

1

1

ITS-2

Romstad et al. 1998

Cloacina petrogale

Nematoda

45

5

3

Allozymes

Chilton et al. 1997

Hypodontus macropi

Nematoda

12

3

2

IYS-2

Chilton et al. 1995

Crassicutis cichlasomae

Trematoda

225

12

6

CO1, ITS-1

Razo-Mendivil et al. 2010

Diplostomum spp.

Trematoda

632

8

9

CO1, ITS

Locke et al. 2010

Saccocoelium spp

Trematoda

21

4

1

28S, ITS-2

Blasco-Costa et al. 2010

Curtuteria australis

Trematoda

36

1

1

16S, ITS-1

Leung et al. 2009

Acanthoparyphium sp

Trematoda

78

1

3

16S, ITS-1

Leung et al. 2009

Flagellotrema spp

Trematoda

5

3

2

28S, ITS-2, ND1

Hall & Cribb 2008

Latuterus spp

Trematoda

6

1

1

28S, ITSs

Miller & Cribb 2007

Phthinomita spp

Trematoda

135

13

18

ITS-2

Nolan & Cribb 2006

Cercaria batillariae

Trematoda

84

1

7

CO1, ITS-1

Miura et al. 2005

Philophthalmid

Trematoda

23

1

2

CO1, ITS-1

Miura et al. 2005

Opecoelid

Trematoda

103

6

2

16S, ITS-2

Donald et al. 2004

Deropegus aspina

Trematoda

73

4

1

ND1, ITS-1

Criscione & Blouin 2004

Bolbophorus sp

Trematoda

21

2

1

18S, 28S, CO1, ITSs

Overstreet et al. 2002

Macvicaria crassigula

Trematoda

12

3

1

ITS-1

Jousson et al. 2000

Monorchis parvus

Trematoda

6

3

1

ITS-1

Jousson et al. 2000

Diphyllobothrium spp

Cestoda

27

3

1

CO1, ND3

Arizono et al. 2009

Taenia polyacantha

Cestoda

10

7

1

CO1, ND1

Lavikainen et al. 2008

Taenia taeniaeformis

Cestoda

3

2

1

CO1, ND1

Lavikainen et al. 2008

Ligula intestinalis

Cestoda

85

15

1

CO1, ITS-2

Bouzid et al. 2008

Didymobothrium rudolphii

Cestoda

24

1

1

lsrDNA, ITS-2

Marques et al. 2007

Monieza benedeni

Cestoda

11

2

1

Allozymes

Chilton et al. 2007

Progamotaenia ewersi

Cestoda

14

6

4

CO1

Hu et al. 2004

Progamotaenia macropodis

Cestoda

27

5

2

CO1

Hu et al. 2004

Progamotaenia zschokkei

Cestoda

19

9

4

CO1

Hu et al. 2004

Hymenolepis nana

Cestoda

25

2

1

CO1, ITS-1

Macnish et al. 2002

Pseudoleptobothrium aptychotremae

Monogenea

60

3

1

Cytb, ND4

Glennon et al. 2008

Gyrodactylus lotae

Monogenea

11

1

1

ITSs

Zietara & Lumme 2003

Gyrodactylus macronychus

Monogenea

6

1

1

ITSs

Zietara & Lumme 2003

Gyrodactylus rugiensis

Monogenea

15

4

1

18S, 28S, ITSs

Huyse & Volckaert 2002


Sources
Arizono, N., Shedko, M., Yamada, M., Uchikawa, R., Tegoshi, T., Takeda, K. & Hashimoto, K. 2009. Mitochondrial DNA divergence in populations of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and its phylogenetic relationship with Diphyllobothrium klebanovskii. Parasitology International 58, 22-28.

Blasco-Costa, I., Balbuena, J.A., Raga, J.A., Kostadinova, A. & Olson, P.D. 2010. Molecules and morphology reveal cryptic variation among digeneans infecting sympatric mullets in the Mediterranean. Parasitology 137, 287-302.

Bouzid, W., Stefka, J., Hypsa, V., Lek, S., Scholz, T., Legal, L., Hassine, O.K.B. & Loot, G. 2008. Geography and host specificity: two forces behind the genetic structure of the freshwater fish parasite Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae). International Journal for Parasitology 38, 1465-1479.

Chilton, N.B., Beveridge, I. & Andrews, R.H. 1997. An electrophoretic analysis of patterns of speciation in Cloacina clarkae, C. communis, C. petrogale and C. similis (Nematoda: Strongyloidea) from macropodid marsupials. International Journal for Parasitology 27, 483-493.

Chilton, N.B., Gasser, R.B. & Beveridge, I. 1995. Differences in a ribosomal DNA sequence of morphologically indistinguishable species within the Hypodontus macropi complex (Nematoda: Strongyloidea). International Journal for Parasitology 25, 647-651.

Chilton, N.B., O’Callaghan, M.G., Beveridge, I. & Andrews, R.H. 2007. Genetic markers to distinguish Moniezia expansa from M. benedeni (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) and evidence of the existence of cryptic species in Australia. Parasitology Research 100, 1187-1192.

Criscione, C.D. & Blouin, M.S. 2004. Life cycles shape parasite evolution: comparative population genetics of salmon trematodes. Evolution 58, 198-202.

Donald, K.M., Kennedy, M., Poulin, R. & Spencer, H.G. 2004. Host specificity and molecular phylogeny of larval Digenea isolated from New Zealand and Australian topshells (Gastropoda: Trochidae). International Journal for Parasitology 34, 557-568.

Glennon, V., Perkins, E.M., Chisholm, L.A. & Whittington, I.D. 2008. Comparative phylogeography reveals host generalists, specialists and cryptic diversity: hexabothriid, microbothriid and monocotylid monogeneans from rhinobatid rays in southern Australia. International Journal for Parasitology 38, 1599-1612.

Grillo, V., Jackson, F., Cabaret, J. & Gilleard, J.S. 2007. Population genetic analysis of the ovine parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta and evidence for a cryptic species. International Journal for Parasitology 37, 435-447.

Hall, K.A. & Cribb, T.H. 2008. Revision of Flagellotrema Ozaki, 1936 (Digenea, Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929), including the description of two species from acanthuroid fishes from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 1718, 1-35.

Hoberg, E.P., Monsen, K.J., Kutz, S. & Blouin, M.S. 1999. Structure, biodiversity, and historical biogeography of nematode faunas in holarctic ruminants: morphological and molecular diagnoses for Teladorsagia boreoarcticus n. sp. (Nematoda: Ostertagiinae), a dimorphic cryptic species in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Journal of Parasitology 85, 910-934.

Hu, M., Gasser, R.B., Chilton, N.B. & Beveridge, I. 2005. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within three species of Progamotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from macropodid marsupials. Parasitology 130, 117-129.

Hung, G.C., Chilton, N.B., Beveridge, I., Zhu, X.Q., Lichtenfels, J.R. & Gasser, R.B. 1999. Molecular evidence for cryptic species within Cylicostephanus minutus (Nematoda: Strongylidae). International Journal for Parasitology 29, 285-291.

Huyse, T. & Volckaert, F.A.M. 2002. Identification of a host-associated species complex using molecular and morphometric analyses, with the description of Gyrodactylus rugiensoides n. sp. (Gyrodactylidae, Monogenea). International Journal for Parasitology 32, 907-919.

Jousson, O., Bartoli, P. & Pawlowski, J. 2000. Cryptic speciation among intestinal parasites (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting sympatric host fishes (Sparidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13, 778-785.

Krone, O., Friedrich, D. & Honisch, M. 2007. Specific status and pathogenicity of syngamid nematodes in bird species (Ciconiformes, Falconiformes, Gruiformes) from Germany. Journal of Helminthology 81, 67-73.

Lavikainen, A., Haukisalmi, V., Lehtinen, M.J., Henttonen, H., Oksanen, A. & Meri, S. 2008. A phylogeny of members of the family Taeniidae based on the mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene data. Parasitology 135, 1457-1467.

Leung, T.L.F., Keeney, D.B. & Poulin, R. 2009. Cryptic species complexes in manipulative echinostomatid trematodes: when two becomes six. Parasitology 136, 241-252.

Locke, S.A., McLaughlin, J.D., Dayanandan, S. & Marcogliese, D.J. 2010. Diversity and specificity in Diplostomum spp. metacercariae in freshwater fishes revealed by cytochrome c oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer sequences. International Journal for Parasitology 40, 333-343.

Macnish, M.G., Morgan-Ryan, U.M., Monis, P.T., Behnke, J.M. & Thompson, R.C.A. 2002. A molecular phylogeny of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences in Hymenolepis nana (Cestoda) supports the existence of a cryptic species. Parasitology 125, 567-575.

Marques, J.F., Santos, M.J., Gibson, D.I., Cabral, H.N. & Olson, P.D. 2007. Cryptic species of Didymobothrium rudolphii (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea) from the sand sole, Solea lascaris, off the Portuguese coast, with an analysis of their molecules, morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny. Parasitology 134, 1057-1072.

Martinez-Aquino, A., Reyna-Fabian, M.E., Rosas-Valdez, R., Razo-Mendivil, U., Pérez-Ponce de León, G. & Garcia-Varela, M. 2009. Detecting a complex of cryptic species within Neoechinorhynchus golvani (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) inferred from ITSs and LSU rDNA gene sequences. Journal of Parasitology 95, 1040-1047.

Miller, T.L. & Cribb, T.H. 2007. Two new cryptogonimid genera (Digenea, Cryptogonimidae) from Lutjanus bohar (Perciformes, Lutjanidae): analyses of ribosomal DNA reveals wide geographic distribution and presence of cryptic species. Acta Parasitologica 52, 104-113.

Miranda, R.R., Tennessen, J.A., Blouin, M.S. & Rabelo, E.M. 2008. Mitochondrial DNA variation of the dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum in Brazilian populations. Veterinary Parasitology 151, 61-67.

Miura, O., Kuris, A.M., Torchin, M.E., Hechinger, R.F., Dunham, E.J. & Chiba, S. 2005. Molecular-genetic analyses reveal cryptic species of trematodes in the intertidal gastropod, Batillaria cumingi (Crosse). International Journal for Parasitology 35, 793-801.

Nolan, M.J. & Cribb, T.H. 2006. An exceptionally rich complex of Sanguinicolidae von Graff, 1907 (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) from Siganidae, Labridae and Mullidae (Teleostei: Perciformes) from the Indo-west Pacific region. Zootaxa 1218, 1-80.

Overstreet, R.M., Curran, S.S., Pote, L.M., King, D.T., Blend, C.K. & Grater, W.D. 2002. Bolbophorus damnificus n. sp. (Digenea: Bolbophoridae) from the channel catfish Icatlurus punctatus and American white pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos in the USA based on life-cycle and molecular data. Systematic Parasitology 52, 81-96.

Razo-Mendivil, U., Vazquez-Dominguez, E., Rosas-Valdez, R., Pérez-Ponce de León, G. & Nadler, S.A. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals a complex of cryptic species in Crassicutis cichlasomae (Digenea: Apocreadiidae), a parasite of Middle-American cichlids. International Journal for Parasitology 40, 471-486.

Romstad, A., Gasser, R.B., Nansen, P., Polderman, A.M. & Chilton, N.B. 1998. Necator americanus (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from Africa and Malaysia have different ITS-2 rDNA sequences. International Journal for Parasitology 28, 611-615.

Schindler, A.R., de Gruijter, J.M., Polderman, A.M. & Gasser, R.B. 2005. Definition of genetic markers in nuclear ribosomal DNA for a neglected parasite of primates, Ternidens deminutus (Nematoda: Strongylida): diagnostic and epidemiological implications. Parasitology 131, 539-546.

Steinauer, M.L., Nickol, B.B. & Orti, G. 2007. Cryptic speciation and patterns of phenotypic variation of a highly variable acanthocephalan parasite. Molecular Ecology 16, 4097-4109.



Zietara, M.S. & Lumme, J. 2003. The crossroads of molecular, typological and biological species concepts: two new species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae). Systematic Parasitology 55, 39-52.


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