Electronic Supplementary Material 1




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Electronic Supplementary Material 1

Table 1. Adult life expectancy of males and females in 30 long-lived vertebrate species, and duration of effective breeding for males and females in 15 long-lived vertebrate species.



Species

Breeding system

Mean number of females in breeding group

Life expectancy at reaching adulthood (years)

Ratio of Male life expectancy to Female life expectancy

Duration of effective breeding DEB (years)

Ratio of Male DEB to Female DEB

Sources










Male

Female




Male

Female







Cynomys ludovicianus

SP

2.7

1.74

2.80

0.62

3.68

5.31

0.69

Hoogland 1995

Castor canadensis

SM

1

2.75

2.93

0.94










Bergerud & Miller 1977

Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi

SP

1.9

9.16

8.85

1.03










Richard et al. 1991, Richard et al. 2002

Mandrillus sphinx

SP

10.5

12.70

22.23

0.57

11.89

20

0.59

Setchell et al. 2005, Wickings et al. 1993

Macaca mulatta

SP

18

5.51

9.44

0.58










Meikle & Vessey 1988, Berard et al. 1994

Macaca fuscata

SP

9

4.30

7.33

0.59










Fedigan & Zohar 1997, Mitani et al. 1996, Nunn 1999

Macaca sylvanus

SP

10.5










12.95

19.66

0.66

Kuester et al. 1995, Nunn 1999

Papio cynocephalus

SP

14

7.47

8.74

0.85

11.77

19

0.62

Altmann et al. 1988, Storz et al. 2002

Theropithecus gelada

SP

4.1

7.60

9.62

0.79










Dunbar 1980

Gorilla beringei

SP

3

18.84

23.57

0.80










Robbins & Robbins 2005

Crocuta crocuta

SP

26

5.99

6.86

0.87










Hofer & East 1995, East et al. 2003

Panthera leo

SP

5.5

4.71

7.80

0.60

8.35

12.43

0.67

Packer et al. 1988

Helogale parvula

SM

1

3.55

3.43

1.03

6.44

5.88

1.09

Waser et al. 1995

Suricata suricatta

SM

1










5.55

5.59

0.99

Clutton-Brock et al. unpublished data

Lycaon pictus

SM

1

3.66

3.29

1.11










Creel & Creel 2002

Mirounga angustirostris

SP

62.8










3.67

11

0.33

Le Boeuf & Reiter 1988, Hoelzel et al. 1999

Mirounga leonina

SP

42

3.12

4.18

0.75










Pistorius et al. 1999, Hoelzel et al. 1999

Table continued…













Species

Breeding system

Mean number of females in breeding group

Life expectancy at reaching adulthood (years)

Ratio of Male life expectancy to Female life expectancy

Duration of effective breeding DEB (years)

Ratio of Male DEB to Female DEB

Sources










Male

Female




Male

Female







Capreolus capreolus

SP




5.01

7.91

0.63










Loison et al. 1999

Rangifer tarandus

SP




2.18

4.63

0.47










Leader-Williams 1988

Cervus elaphus

SP

4.4

8.0

10.6

0.75

6.67

14

0.48

Clutton-Brock et al. 1988

Cervus elaphus (elk)

SP




7.64

16.05

0.48










Houston 1982

Tursiops truncatus

SP




9.74

12.34

0.79










Stolen & Barlow 2003

Equus caballus

SP

3.1










10.37

16.00

0.65

Berger 1986

Syncerus cafer

SP




7.38

7.36

1.00










Sinclair 1977

Ovis aries

SP




3.12

5.13

0.61

6.82

10

0.68

Coulson & Crawley 2004

Oreamnos americanus

SP




5.82

8.18

0.71










Festa-Bianchet et al. 2003

Tetrao tetrix

SP

1.8

2.53

3.81

0.66










Caizergues & Ellison 2000, Kruijt & de Vos 1988

Agelaius phoenicus

SP

3.9










4.65

5

0.93

Beletsky 1996

Turdoides squamiceps

SM

1

4.30

2.95

1.46










Zahavi 1989

Aphelocoma caerulescens

SM

1

4.52

4.82

0.94










Fitzpatrick & Woolfenden 1988

Melanerpes formicivorus

SP

1.2

4.30

3.08

1.39










Koenig & Mumme 1987, Koenig & Stacey 1990

Pandion haliaetus

SM

1

6.48

6.59

0.98










Postupalsky 1989

Rissa tridactyla

SM

1

5.24

6.56

0.80

14

14

1.00

Thomas & Coulson 1988

Cygnus columbianus

SM

1

6.94

5.60

1.24

11.74

11.78

1.00

Scott 1988

Branta leucopsis

SM

1

7.80

7.00

1.11

11.30

12.17

0.93

Owen & Black 1989



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