Effect of music on plant growth




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EFFECT OF MUSIC ON PLANT GROWTH

Maulik Gadani* and Darshi Mehta

Biology Department, St. Xavier’s College, Ahmedabad

*Author for correspondence : maulikgadani@yahoo.co.in
ABSTRACT
Music can greatly influence the growth of plants. In the present paper, the effect of music was studied on the growth of the selected plant – Mung (Phaseolus aureus) and it was found that seed germination as well as growth of the plant was enhanced as compared to control set. Two sets were selected – one treated with piece of music and second set untreated i.e. control. Amongst the two set, music treated plants shown better performance in terms of the seed germination and growth of plant. Number of seeds germinated, root length, plant height, number of leaves, leaf size was found to be more for the plants subjected to music and less for the control set.
Keywords : Music Therapy, plant growth, seed germination

Introduction:

A property of living things is that they respond to stimuli. Plants are complex multicellular organisms considered as sensitive as humans for initial assaying of effects and testing new therapies (Benford, 2002; Dossey, 2001; Kristen, 1997). Sound is known to affect the growth of plants and plants respond to music the same as humans do. Jagdish Chandra Bose made a number of pioneering discoveries in plant physiology. He used his own invention, the cresco graph, to measure plant response to various stimuli, and thereby scientifically proved parallelism between animal and plant tissues.


Music causes drastic changes in plants metabolism. Plants enjoy music, and they respond to the different types of music and its wave-length. Music containing hardcore vibrations could be devastating to plants (http://www.ehow.com/members/ds_sherry25515.html). There is a right and a wrong way to play music to plants. For example, the volume should be taken into consideration and also the type of music played eg. soft-melodious music or loud. Certain types of music can wreck havoc on plants. Other types of music can make your plants thrive. Heavy metal music should never be played around a plant. It can have devastating effects. Even played at a low volume, heavy metal music can be very damaging to a sensitive plant. Plants are not fond of pop music. Plants subjected to rock music become stunted. If they are continually exposed to rock music for more than 10 days, they will eventually die on the other hand classical or devotional music enhances the plant growth and increases yield has been observed.

Country music is well-favored by plants. In recent experiments that have been conducted, country music has beat out classical music by a slight margin. Classical music has a gentle vibration, and it's easy on plants. It is relaxing and has no hard beat. They will practically dance to it. The foliage will point upwards as if it is looking up to the heavens(http://www.ehow.com/members/ds_sherry25515.html).

Violin music significantly increases plant growth. Overall, the best options for a plant are country, classical and violin music. If farmers and gardener know what type of music, if any, helps plants grow more quickly, stronger, or more lush, it could affect the efficiency of their farming techniques. This could result in a much more successful business for farmers(http://www.ehow.com/members/ds_sherry25515.html).

However, the previous studies on plants using music and/or noise have been controversial (Galston and Slayman, 1979; Klein and Edsall, 1965; Retallack, 1973; Retallack and Broman, 1973; Tompkins and Bird, 1973; Weinberger and Das, 1972; Weinberger and Graefe, 1973; Weinberger and Measures, 1978). Thus, the present experimentation was done with the objective to study the effect of music on the growth of the selected plant.



Materials and Methods

The plant material used for the experiment here is mung beans. The mung bean is one of many species recently moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna, and is still often seen cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus radiatus. These variations of nomenclature have been used regarding the same plant species. Mung beans are light yellow in color when their skins are removed. Mung bean sprouts are germinated by leaving them watered with four hours of daytime light and spending the rest of the day in the dark. Mung bean starch, which is extracted from ground mung beans, is used to make transparent cellophane noodles.



Methodology:

• First two same sized pots(A,B) were taken in which mung seeds were grown.

• Equal number of seeds(20) were sown in each pot and were sown at the upper layer of the soil.

• Equal amount of water was poured in each pot.

• Placed under normal environmental conditions (e.g. light and temp.).

• First pot(A) was exposed to music for 1 hour each day by keeping them in a different room.

• Second pot(B) was placed under normal conditions and was not given any music considering it as control.

• After giving music to first pot(A) for a specific period of time(e.g. 1 hr.) it is placed along with the control pot and given the normal conditions.

• This experiment was carried out for 20 days and the following observations were made.

Results:

Following table shows growth-data of Phaseolus aureus saplings after 20 days of growth period



Set

No.



Type of conditions given

Number of seeds germinated

Plant height in cm

No. of leaves

Leaves size in cm

Internode elongation in cm

Length of root in cm

A

Music Treated

10 seeds

9.0cm

4-5

3.5cm

1.5cm

4.0cm

B

Control(Untreated)

6 seeds

6.0cm

2-3

3.0cm

0.5cm

2.0cm




  • It was observed that more number of seeds germinated in seeds treated with music. It was higher as compared to control set.

  • The height of the plant was also found to be more as compared to the control.

  • The number of leaves in the music treated plant differs largely than the untreated plant. The number of leaves were found to be least in control set.

  • The leaves size although doesn’t change much for both the sets but were found to be better in music treated set as compared to the control set.

  • Music treatment was found to be more effective in case of internode elongation as compared to control plant set.

  • Root length was also found to be best for music treated plants.


Discussion:

The above data indicates that overall plant growth was better in plants exposed to music as compared to the control set.


Creath and Schwartz (2004) have also reported significant effects of music on the germination of seeds when compared to untreated control plants. Similarly, there also have been other reports on the enhancement of physiological conditions of the plants as a result of exposure to sound and music. (Yi et al., 2003; Coglan, 1994)
Hence, it can be concluded that plants enjoy music and they have better effect when exposed to the appropriate style.

References :

Benford, M S (2002) : Implications of plant genome research to alternative therapies: A case for radiogenic metabolism in humans. J. Theoretics 4 : 1-14.

Coglan, A. (1994) : Good vibrations give plants excitations. New Scientist 142 : 10.
Creath, K. and G. E. Schwartz (2004) : Measuring effects of music, noise and healing energy using a seed germination bioassay. J. of Alt. and Comp. Med. 10(1) : 113-122.

Dossey, L. (2001) : Being green : On the relationships between people and plants. Altern Ther 7 : 12-16, 132-140.


Galston, A. W. and C L. Slayman (1979) : The not-so-secret life of plants.Am. Sci. 67 : 337-344.
Klein, R. M. and P. C. Edsall (1965) : On the reported effects of sound on the growth of plants. Bioscience 15 : 125-126.
Kristen, U. (1997) : Use of higher plants as screens for toxicity assessment. Toxicol In Vitro 11 : 181-191.
Retallack, D. (1973) : The sound of Music and Plants. Santa Monica, CA : De Vorss & Co.
Retallack, D. and F. Broman (1973) : Response of growing plants to the manipulation of their environment. In : The Sound of Music and Plants. Santa Monica, CA : De Vorss & Co. 82-94.

Teleweki, F. W. (2006) " A Unified Hypothesis of Mechanoperception in Plants" American Journal of Botany, Volume 93 (October) pages 1466-1476.


Tompkins, P. and C. Bird (1973) : The harmonic life of plants. In : The Secret life of plants. New York : Harper and Row 145-162.
Weinberger, P. and G. Das (1972) : The effect of an audible and low ultrasound frequency on the growth of synchronized cultures of Scenedesnus obtusiusculus. Can J. Botany 50 : 361-366.
Weinberger, P. and U. Graefe (1973) : The effect of variable-frequency sounds on plant growth. Can J. Botany 51 : 1851-1856.
Weinberger, P. and M. Measures (1978) : Effects of the intensity of audible sound on the growth and development of Rideau winter wheat. Can J. Botany 57 : 1036-1039.
Yi, J., B. Wang, X. Wang, D. Wang, C. Duan, T. Yoshiharu and S. Akio (2003) : Effect of sound wave on the metabolism of Chrysanthemum roots. Colloids and Surfaces. Biointerfaces. 29 : 115-118.

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