Early Hominids To be a hominoid




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Early Hominids
To be a hominoid


  • The word “hominoid” includes humans and apes

  • “Homo” meant “same” and “human being” in Latin

  • Distinct to hominoids is an ability known as brachiation

  • Brachiation is the way primates are capable of swinging through the trees

  • Brachiation required a new type of shoulder girdle, making for a longer clavicle and a scapula that rests more at the back rather than on the side of the animal

  • Due to this time spent in the trees, the arms tend to be more developed than the legs in apes

  • This relationship can be established through a ratio of the humerus to the femur of the animal (chimpanzee 102, humans 72)

  • With long arms, the best form of motion is quadrupedal locomotion which is the way gorillas and chimpanzees move on the ground on all fours

  • Bipedal locomotion is movement on two legs like humans

  • Babies are born with C-shaped spines like gorillas

  • Curvature of spine in humans is the result of bipedalism

  • Humans are animals, classified in the Linneus system as Kingdom: animalia; Phylum: chordata; Class: mammalia; Order: primates; Family: hominidae; Genus: homo; Species: sapien

Hominins



  • Hominins are specifically those creatures closest in relationship to humans that are bipedal

  • Modern skulls (teeth, sagittal crest, nuchal ridge, magnum foramen, platycephaly, zygomatic arch, brow ridge, prognathism)

  • Sahelanthropus tchadensis , magnum foramen

  • Central-west Africa, Chad, approx. 7 million years

  • Ardipithecus ramidus , pelvis , skull (diastema, dentition)

  • Middle Awash, 4.4 million years

Australopithecines




  • Australopithecus anamensis , teeth

  • About 4 million years

  • Australopithecus afarensis , skulls

  • About 3.5 million years

  • Laetoli footprints 3.5 million, arch?

  • Australopithecus africanus , skull/endomorph (age: 3.3)

  • About 3 million years

  • Australopithecus sediba , skull

  • About 1.9 million years

Paranthropus




King Kong?




  • Gigantopithecus blacki was the largest ape we have evidence of ever existing on earth, and it has only been a few thousand years since they went extinct


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