Draft online platform (Fact Sheet) Habitat type




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Does the habitat have a small natural range by reason of its intrinsically restricted area?

Please tick () one box only:

(A habitat has a small natural range by reason of its intrinsically restricted area if the underlying factors for the occurrence of the habitat occupy a very limited area and range)


YES :




NO:



UNKNOWN:





Justification:






3. Habitat condition and trends

Please describe the current quality of the habitat type, historical trends in quality and estimated future trends. Use and build on the information from the territorial data sheets and the quality indicators from the description.




The quality of the biotope has declined during the past 50 years, at least in some areas, but there are no consistent data to quantify the decline.



  • Average current trend in quality:




EU 28

Stable

Increasing

Decreasing

Unknown 

EU 28+

Stable

Increasing

Decreasing

Unknown 



4. Country/regional sea trends

Using the territorial data sheets please indicate at the country or regional sea levels if the trends in quantity and quality are increasing, decreasing, stable or unknown.







Current area of habitat (km2)

Recent trend in quantity (last 50 yrs)


Recent trends in quality (last 50 yrs)


Baltic Sea

No data

No data

No data






5. Pressures and threats
Indicate in the look-up table below (provided by Doug Evans and based on Article 17/MSFD) the five most significant threats affecting the habitat and whether these are of past, current or future importance.
In the accompanying text field below, indicate the main causes of the threats affecting the habitat and their scale of significance within the EU 28 and EU 28+. Use and build on the information from the territorial data sheets and other available information.

Past and Current Threats (Habitat directive article 17):

Eutrophication (H01.05), Epidemics (wasting disease; K03.03), Fishing (bottom trawling F02.02.01), Water traffic (D03, G01), Construction sand extraction C01.01, dredging J02.02.02, dumping J02.11.01, dykes, embankments and artificial beaches J02.12), Ditching (J02.01), Other threat factors (aquaculture F01)



Future Threats (Habitat directive article 17):

Eutrophication (H01.05), Fishing (bottom trawling F02.02.01), Epidemics (wasting disease; K03.03), Ditching (J02.01), Water traffic (D03, G01), Construction (sand extraction C01.01, dredging J02.02.02, dumping J02.11.01, J02.12, modification of hydrographic function J02.05, dykes, embankments and artificial beaches J02.12), Other threat factors (aquaculture F01), Climate change (M02), Oil spills (oil spills in the sea H03.01)

Observed declines of the spatial distribution of the subbiotopes AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’ and AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’ are mainly caused by increased eutrophication and connected effects. Decreasing light penetration depth, massive growth of ephemeral algae and increased siltation rates cause massive alterations in the biotopes of sheltered coastal areas. The enclosed characteristic of bays and lagoons intensify the eutrophication impacts. Coastal constructions (e.g. dredging for deepening of harbour access channels, ditching and construction of leisure facilities) and increased tourism has led to a further degradation of the biotope. The threat level is particularly high in the Western and Southern Baltic Sea. In the future climate change (increasing exposure levels, temperatures) or increasing aquaculture in bays may cause additional threats.

The main causes of the observed declines of the spatial distribution of the subbiotope AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’ are (1) the “wasting disease” that caused about 90% of the North European stock to disappear in the 1930 and also affected the Zostera beds in Danish waters (Möller 2008) and (2) eutrophication of the Baltic Sea that has resulted in significant decline of eelgrass meadows in mainly Danish, German, Swedish and Polish coastal areas (Möller 2008). Eutrophication has decreased the depth where Zostera dominated biotopes can receive enough light and may in addition cause a shift from eelgrass meadows to communities dominated by fast-growing macro-algae. Climate change is predicted to lower the salinity level in the northern parts of the Baltic Sea due to an increase of precipitation, which may threaten Zostera marina in the northernmost areas where it currently exists on the limits of its salinity tolerance (HELCOM 2013).



6. Conservation and management

Please describe the main (e.g. no more than 5) current approaches to conservation and management of this habitat type, and outline what additional actions are needed.



All actions to reduce eutrophication of the Baltic Sea are important for the conservation of the declining subbiotopes. For the subbiotopes that mainly occurs in bays with limited water exchange with the open ocean (subbiotopes AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’ and AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’), combatting local sources of eutrophication is essential. Conservation measures are also important, such as area protection and restrictions on coastal constructions and dredging in shallow coastal lagoons and archipelago areas.



Please tick the main essential and realistic conservation and management actions needed for the habitat type (following the description provided above). The actions should be selected only if they are relevant to the conservation of the particular habitat being assessed (the classification below is derived from the Habitats Directive Article 17 reporting)


Code 

Measure 

Examples 



No measures 

 

1.1 

No measures needed for the conservation of the 

habitat/species 



 

1.2 

Measures needed, but not implemented 

 

1.3 

No measure known/ impossible to carry out 

specific measures 



species migrations, habitat changes due to climate change,glacier retreat, monitoring changes without intervention

 


 

 

 



Measures related to agriculture and 

open habitats 

 

2.0 

Other agriculture‐related measures 

 

2.1 

Maintaining  grasslands and other open habitats 

mowing, burning, grazing, removal/control of shrubs and 

other woody plants 



2.2 

Adapting crop production 

adapting input of nutrients and pesticides/herbicides; 

adapting crop timing (advance/delay harvest dates) 



 

 

 



Measures related to forests and 

wooded habitats 

 

3.0 

Other forestry‐related measures 

 

3.1 

Restoring/improving forest habitats 

replanting with autochthonous species, enable/

promote natural re‐growth, removing non‐natives 

species, change single species and even‐aged stands 

into multi‐species and uneven‐aged stands, burning/maintaining a fire regime 



3.2 

Adapt forest management 

adapting harvesting cycles, adapting techniques and 

equipment 



 

 

 



Measures related to wetland, 

freshwater and coastal habitats 

 

4.0 

Other wetland‐related measures 

restoring alluvial situations, 

4.1 

Restoring/improving water quality 

reducing eutrophication 

4.2 

Restoring/improving the hydrological regime 

restoring river dynamics, removal of barriers and artificial 

margins, managing water levels (e.g. in bogs and mires) 



4.3 

Managing water abstraction 

managing periods and/or quantity of water abstracted for 

irrigation, energy production 



4.4 

Restoring coastal areas 

stabilisation of dunes, re‐establishing dune dynamics, 

removing coastal infrastructures 



 

 

 



Measures related to marine habitats 

 

5.0 

Other marine‐related measures 

 

5.1 

Restoring marine habitats 

Restoration can be a viable mesure for the subbiotope characterized by Zostera marina 

 

 

 



Measures related to spatial planning 

 

6.0 

Other spatial measures 

 

6.1 

Establish protected areas/sites 

 

6.2 

Establishing wilderness areas/ allowing 

succession 



no intervention after calamities, natural catastrophic events, succession where no management is 

necessary 



6.3 

Legal protection of habitats and species 

legal habitat type protection (regardless where they occur, also outside protected areas), strictly legally 

protected species including their habitats 



6.4 

Manage landscape features 

maintenance or creation of hedges, tree lines, 

corridors 



6.5 

Adaptation/ abolition  of military land use 

nature management on military training grounds, 

abolition of military use 



 

 


 

7

Measures related to hunting, taking and fishing and species management 

 

7.0 

Other species management measures 

 

7.1 

Regulation/ Management  of hunting and 

taking  


regulation of hunting (periods, species), collection 

permits for plants, berries etc., regulation of game 

density 


7.2 

Regulation/ Management  of fishery in limnic 

systems 


regulation of amount, fish species & catching 

methods  allowed, removal of certain fish species, 

control of measures for enhancing fish production, maintenance of traditional fish pond systems 


7.3 

Regulation/ Management of fishery in marine 

and brackish systems 



adapting fishing techniques and equipment 

7.4 

Specific single species or species group 

management measures 



 

 

 

 



Measures related to urban areas, 

industry, energy and transport 

 

8.0 

Other measures 

Management of coastal constructions (e.g. dredging for deepening of harbour access channels, ditching and construction of leisure facilities)

8.1 

Urban and industrial waste management 

 

8.2 

Specific management of traffic and energy 

transport systems 



measures to reduce collision, maintenance of semi 

natural roadsides, protection of birds on high voltage systems, regulations to manage traffic density 



8.3 

Managing marine traffic 

Prohibition of anchoring 

 

 

 



Measures related to special resource use 

 

9.0 

Other resource use measures 

 

9.1 

Regulating/Management exploitation of naturalresources on land 

management of quarries with amphibians, wind exploitation 

9.2 

Regulating/Managing exploitation of natural 

resources on sea 



managing oil, gas, gravel/sand, wind exploitation on sea 



  • Conservation status
    Please indicate the overall conservation status in the relevant biogeographical regions of all related Annex 1-types according to the Habitats Directive. For marine types, please also indicate the OSPAR or Helcom status if relevant.



The habitat has eight subhabitats which according to HELCOM Red List Assessment 2013 are given the following threat categories:

AA.J1B1 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus and/or Stuckenia pectinata)’: LC (A1)


AA.J1B2 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Zannichellia spp. and/or Ruppia spp. and/or Zostera noltii’: LC (A1)
AA.J1B3 Baltic photic sand dominated by watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum and/or Myriophyllum sibiricum)’: LC (A1)
AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’: NT (A1)
AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’: NT (A1)
AA.J1B6 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Ranunculus spp.’: LC (A1)
AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’: NT (A1)
AA.J1B8 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spikerush (Eleocharis spp.)’: LC (A1)




  • When severely damaged, does the habitat retain the capacity to recover its typical character and functionality?  Estimate the time taken for such recovery (1) naturally and (2) through intervention. Please fill in the matrix below.


Justification (please also describe the specific resources and actions required to recover the habitat, if possible):

The subbiotope AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’ can be slow to recover after strong decline (>20 yrs) and intervention may speed up the recovery. For the other subbiotopes natural recovery can probably occur within 10 years. (According to expert opinion by S.Wikström, 2014).













Effort required







None

Low

Medium

High

Time (years)

10 yrs













20 yrs













50+ yrs
















200+ years













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