Draft online platform (Fact Sheet) Habitat type




старонка1/3
Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер269.49 Kb.
  1   2   3
Draft online platform (Fact Sheet)

1. Habitat type

code & name



AA.J1B Baltic photic sand characterized by submerged rooted plants


Photo of habitat type

  • Please upload 1 or 2 photos of the habitat type

  • Photo description (describe habitat and location of the photo):


Photo has been added to the Habitat Definition.



Habitat definition

A description of the habitat’s distribution, characteristic native biota, abiotic features, key ecological processes and interactions.

Subheaders are:


  • Description

  • Characteristic species

  • European Vegetation Checklist alliances (only for terrestrial types)

  • Indicators of quality



Description

Baltic bottoms in the photic zone with at least 90 % coverage of sand. Sand has less than 20 % of mud/silt/clay fraction (<63 µm), and the proportion of sand (grain size 0.063–2 mm) exceeds 70% of the combined gravel and sand fraction. Submerged rooted plants, including plants with rhizoids (i.e. Charales) cover at least 10 % of the seabed and more than other perennial attached erect groups. Salinity range: all; Exposure: intermediate.


Eight sub-biotopes with different dominant (>50% of the biovolume) macrophyte taxa can be identified. The sub-biotopes differ in their distribution along gradients in salinity, depth and wave exposure. The sub-biotope AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’ has a restricted distribution at 0-1 m depth in extremely sheltered areas at low salinity (<4 psu). The sub-biotope AA.J1B8 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spikerush (Eleocharis spp.)’ is also found in shallow (0-2 m depth) and sheltered areas with low salinity (<5 psu).
The sub-biotope AA.J1B1 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus and/or Stuckenia pectinata)’ is found between 0.2-4 m depth in sheltered sites with up to 6 psu. The sub-biotope AA.J1B3 ‘Baltic photic sand dominated by watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum and/or Myriophyllum sibiricum)’ has a similar distribution but a more narrow depth range (0.2-2 m). AA.J1B6 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Ranunculus spp.’ is also found up to 6 psu but is restricted to extremely sheltered sites.
The sub-biotope AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’ is found in a wider range of salinity (2-15), depth (0.2-7 m) and wave exposure (low to moderate). Which species dominate depend partly on the salinity range, the kind of sediment but also on the growth season. The sub-biotope AA.J1B2 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Zannichellia spp. and/or Ruppia spp. and/or Zostera noltii’ is found at 0-4 m depth throughout the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea and in low to moderate exposure.
The sub-biotope AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’ differs most strongly from the other sub-biotopes in distribution, occuring mainly at moderate to high exposure and in salinities of 5 psu or higher. The sub-biotope is typically found deeper than the other sub-biotopes (1-6 m) and often marks the lower depth limit distribution of soft bottom vegetation. The sub-biotope is absent from areas with low salinity in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia.
The main threat to the biotope is eutrophication, through reduced light availability at the seabed, increased growth of opportunistic algae and increased sedimentation rate. Locally, disturbance and destruction of the biotope is also caused by physical disturbance from constructions, dredging and boat traffic.
Characteristic species

Stuckenia pectinata, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Zostera marina, Ruppia maritima, Zanichellia palustris, Myriophyllum spicatum, Najas marina, Chara tomentosa, Ranunculus peltatus subsp. baudotii, Eleocharis sp.
Indicators of quality

-



Classification

Please indicate equivalent classification types as relevant, including:



  • EUNIS type

  • Annex 1 type of the Habitats Directive

  • IUCN Habitats Classification Scheme

  • Emerald type

  • Marine Strategy Framework Directive type

  • EUSeaMap type

  • European Forest Type

  • MAES type (level 2)

  • Other types...



Annex 1 relationships The relationship between HUB biotopes and Annex 1 habitats has not yet been mapped by HELCOM.
MAES relationships

Marine - Marine inlets and transitional waters

Marine - Coastal
MSFD relationships

Littoral sediment

Shallow sublittoral sand
EUSeaMap relationships

Shallow sands


IUCN ecosystem relationships

9.4 Subtidal Sandy

9.9 Seagrass
Other relationships

Correspondence to EUNIS (2004) depending on subhabitat:

A5.53 Sublittoral seagrass beds

A5.534 : [Ruppia] and [Zannichellia] communities

A5.54 Angiosperm communities in reduced salinity

A5.542 Association with [Potamogeton pectinatus]

A5.543 Vegetation of brackish waters dominated by [Ranunculus baudotii]

A5.545 [Zostera] beds in reduced salinity infralittoral sediments


Level 5 of the HELCOM HUB classification (2013). This habitat has eight sub-habitats on HUB level 6;

AA.J1B1 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by pondweed (Potamogeton perfoliatus and/or Stuckenia pectinata)’

AA.J1B2 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Zannichellia spp. and/or Ruppia spp. and/or Zostera noltii’

AA.J1B3 Baltic photic sand dominated by watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum and/or Myriophyllum sibiricum)’

AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’

AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’

AA.J1B6 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Ranunculus spp.’

AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’



AA.J1B8 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spikerush (Eleocharis spp.)’



  • Does the habitat type present an outstanding example of typical characteristics of one or more biogeographic regions?

Please tick () one box only:

(A habitat represents an outstanding example of typical characteristics of one or more biogeographical regions, if it is especially characteristic of one or more biogeographic regions, in terms of area, species composition, structure or functioning).


YES :



NO:




UNKNOWN:







    • If Yes – please indicate the regions

For terrestrial types:

Alpine




Atlantic




Black Sea




Boreal




Continental




Macaronesia




Mediterranean




Pannonian




Steppic





For marine types:

Marine Atlantic




Marine Baltic



Marine Black Sea




Marine Macaronesia




Marine Mediterranean





Justification:

The biotope is common on photic sand in the entire Baltic Sea. Most of the subbiotopes have a very typical and characteristic species composition for the Baltic Sea with a dominance of species with freshwater origin.


2. Geographic occurrence and trends
Distribution map (in 10x10 km grids) of the habitat type in Europe (provided by Alterra/ NatureBureau)


  • For both terrestrial and marine types, please tick () the countries in which the habitat type is present based on the territorial data sheets (please select “Present” or “Presence Uncertain” as relevant)






EU 28

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Czech Republic

Cyprus

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

Finland mainland

Åland Islands

France

France mainland

Corsica

Germany

Greece

Greece (mainland and other islands)

Crete

East Aegean islands

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Italy mainland

Sardinia

Sicily

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Portugal (mainland)

Azores

Madeira

Savage Islands

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Spain (mainland)

Balearic Islands

Canary Islands

Sweden

United Kingdom

Great Britain

Northern Ireland

Gibraltar




EU 28+

Albania

Andorra

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Faroe Islands

Guernsey

Iceland

Isle of Man

Jersey

Kaliningrad

Kosovo

Liechtenstein

Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

Monaco

Montenegro

Norway

Norway (mainland)

Svalbard

Jan Mayen

San Marino

Serbia

Switzerland

Vatican City



  • For marine habitats, please tick () the MSFD region and subregion in which the habitat type occurs (please select “Present” or “Presence Uncertain” as relevant):




Mediterranean Sea

Adriatic Sea

Aegian-Levantine Sea

Ionian Sea and the Central Mediterranean Sea

Western Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

Black Sea

Sea of Marmara

North-East Atlantic

Bay of Biscay and the Iberian Coast

Celtic Seas

Kattegat

Greater North Sea

Macaronesia

Baltic Sea

Baltic Proper 

Belt Sea 

Gulf of Bothnia 

Gulf of Finland 

Gulf of Riga 

The Sound 




  • Is the list of countries/seas selected above in correspondence with the provided map? Please tick () the box confirming that a consistency check has been done:






  • For EU 28 and EU 28+:

    1. Using the distribution map, the Project Management Team will provide the value for Extent of Occurrence (extent of a minimum convex polygon enclosing all occurrences) and for Area of Occupancy (number of 10*10 km cells occupied by the habitat type).

    2. Using the territorial data sheets (along with additional information if relevant), please provide the estimated total area (actual area in km2 of the habitat), calculated by adding up the area of the habitat type in each country/sea.






Extent of Occurrence (EOO)

Area of Occupancy (AOO)


Current estimated Total Area (km2)

Comments

EU 28













EU 28+















  • How much of the current distribution of the habitat type lies within the EU 28?

Please estimate in percentage the proportion of the habitat type that the EU28 hosts in relation to the habitat type’s total worldwide distribution. For the marine types this is (by definition) compared to the total area within EU28+.

95%


Trends in quantity

Using the territorial data and any other relevant information, please describe the historical, recent and estimated future trends in quantity (extent, distribution).



Current: The biotope is common in most parts of the Baltic Sea. Most subbiotopes are present across the Baltic Sea coastline but the subbiotope AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’ is absent from areas with low salinity in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Bothnia.

Recent: The subbiotope AA.J1B4 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by Charales’ has declined by >25% during the last 50 years. The biotope has declined to a varying extent in different Baltic Sea regions with the strongest decline in the Western and Southern Baltic Sea. In some bays and lagoons conditions have changed so intensively that the biotope has disappeared completely.

The subbiotope AA.J1B5 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by spiny naiad (Najas marina)’ has exhibited a strong decline in the highly eutrophicated areas of the Southern Baltic Sea and it is even known to have disappeared. A comparison of the current with the historical distribution status of Najas marina within the German Bodden areas of Mecklenburg Western Pomerania (Southern Baltic Sea) resulted in a nearly total loss of the biotope. There are no data to support similar declines in other Baltic Sea areas but the biotope is largely restricted to lagoons which is an endangered biotope complex.

The subbiotope AA.J1B7 ’Baltic photic sand dominated by common eelgrass (Zostera marina)’ has declined >25% during the last 50 years. The biotope has declined to varying extents in the different Baltic Sea regions, with the largest decline recorded in the Southern Baltic Sea.

The remaining subbiotopes have declined less than 25% during the last 50 years.



Historical: No data available.

Future: No estimates available.



  • Average current trend in quantity (extent):




EU 28

Stable

Increasing

Decreasing

Unknown 

EU 28+

Stable

Increasing

Decreasing

Unknown 



  • Does the habitat type have a small natural range following regression?

Please tick () one box only:

(The habitat has a small natural range following regression if the EOO ≤ 50,000 km² and the habitat has undergone an important decline during the last 50 years)

YES :




NO:



UNKNOWN:




Justification (please indicate whether the decline is ongoing or has stopped, and provide any additional supporting information):





  1   2   3


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка