Draft Import Risk Analysis Report




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Longan and lychee fruit from the People’s Republic of China and Thailand



Draft Import Risk Analysis Report

Part B





August 2003


Foreword

© Commonwealth of Australia 2003

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved.

Requests for further authorisation should be directed to the Commonwealth Copyright Administration, Intellectual Property Branch, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, GPO Box 2154, Canberra ACT 2601 or by email to commonwealth.copyright@dcita.gov.au.


CONTENTS

1

CONTENTS 5

Appendix 1 – pest categorisation for longan and lychee from china and thailand 7

references – appendix 1 65

Appendix 2 – potential for establishment and economic consequences 79

references – appendix 2 91

appendix 3 – pest categorisation for fresh longan and lychee fruit from thailand 95

APPENDIX 3A: Pest categorisation for fresh longan fruit from Thailand (occurrence in Australia) 95

APPENDIX 3B: Pest categorisation for fresh longan fruit from Thailand (pathway association) 107

APPENDIX 3C: Pest categorisation for fresh lychee fruit from Thailand (occurrence in Australia) 119

APPENDIX 3D: Pest categorisation for fresh lychee fruit from Thailand (pathway association) 131

references – appendix 3 141

Appendix 4 – pest data sheets 147

arthropods 147

Scarab beetles 147

References: 151

Fruit flies 160

Mealybugs 170

References: 182

Soft scales 189

Stink bugs 203

Fruit borers 209

Litchi fruit borer 213

Leaf rollers 216

pathogens 222

Cylindrocladiella disease 222

Litchi brown blight 226

Fruit blotch 230

References: 232

Phytophthora fruit and rot 233

References: 235

Longan witches’ broom disease 236


Appendix 1 – pest categorisation for longan and lychee from china and thailand


NB. Pests in bold are additional to the pests listed in Appendices 1-5 in the Technical Issues Paper


Pest

Common name

Distribution

Present in Australia

Host

Pathway association – Comment/ Reference

Consider further

INVERTEBRATA

ACARI (mites)

Abacarus euphoriae Keifer

[Acari: Eriphyidae]



Longan erineum mite

Thailand

(DOA, 2003a)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves

(DOA, 2003a)



No

Acaspina litchii Huang, Huang & Hong

[Acari: Phytoseiidae]



Mite

China

(Hong & Zhang, 1996)



No

No records found



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves

(Huang et al., 1989)

CIQ (2000) claims not in China


No

Aceria dimocarpi Kuang, 1997= Eriophyes dimocarpi Kuang

[Acari: Eriophyidae]



Longan gall mite

China

(He, 2001)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with shoots, spikes and flowers. Has been recorded on developing, but not mature fruit.

Possible vector of longan witches’ broom disease

(He, 2001; AQSIQ, 2003b)


No

Aceria litchii (Keiffer) = Eriophyes litchii (Keiffer)

[Acari: Eriophyidae]



Litchi erinose mite, litchi hairy mite, litchi gall mite, litchi rust mite

China

(Hong & Zhang, 1996)

Thailand

(Schuetz et al., 2002)



Yes

(Halliday, 1998)

Not in WA

(DAWA, 2003a)



Longan

Lychee


Yes – Feeds on leaves, twigs, foliar flushes and flower panicles. Has been recorded to feed on fruit causing visible damage and malformation

(Waite & Hwang, 2002; Kumar, 1992; Waite, 1999)



Yes

Aceria longana Boczek & Knihinicki

[Acari: Eriophyidae]



Longan erineum mite

Thailand

(Waite & Hwang, 2002)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves, flowers and growing points

(Waite & Hwang, 2002; Ungasit et al., 1999)



No

Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez-Rodriguez

[Acari: Stigmaeidae]



Stigmaeid mite

China

(PDI, 2000)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Lychee

No – Predatory mite

(Hong & Zhang, 1996; Huang et al., 1989)



No

Amblyseius similiovalis Liang & Ke

[Acari: Phytoseiidae]



Phytoseiid mite

China

(Liang & Ke, 1983)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Lychee

No – Predatory mite

(Liang & Ke, 1983)



No

Disella litchii Kuang & Feng

[Acari: Nothopodinae]



Mite

China

(Kuang & Feng, 1990)



No

No records found



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves

(Das & Chakrabati, 1982; Kuang & Feng, 1990)



No

Echinopsis fukiensis Fan & Chen

[Acari: Raphignathidae]



Mite

China

(Fan & Chen, 1996)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with bark

(Fan & Chen, 1996)



No

Epitrimerus dimocarpi Kuang & Hong 1989

[Acari: Eriophyidae]



Longan gall mite

China

(Hong & Zhang, 1996)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(Hong & Zhang, 1996)



No

Neoepitrimerus (Neoleipothrix) alocasiae Wei & Kuang, 1993

[Acari: Eriophyidae]



Gall mite

China

(He et al., 1996)



No

(Halliday, 1998)



Longan

No – Associated with buds, flowers and leaflets

(He et al., 1996)



No

Oligonychus biharensis Hirst

[Acari: Tetranychidae]



Cassava red mite

China

(USDA, 1999)

Thailand

(CABI, 2002)



Yes

(Halliday, 2000)

Not present in WA (DAWA, 2003b)


Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(DOA, 2003a,b)



No

Panonychus citri (McGregor)

[Acari: Tetranychidae]



Citrus red mite, citrus red spider mite, red spider mite, purple mite

China

(He, 2001)



Yes

(Halliday, 1998)

Not present in WA

(AICN, 2001)



Lychee

No – Has been recorded as a minor pest in lychee orchards in China by He (2001), but no records of presence on lychee fruit

(CABI, 2002; CIQ, 2000, Tan et al., 1998)

Australia does not consider this mite to be a pest of lychee (BA, 2002, 2003)


No

Tetranychus spp.

[Acari: Tetranychidae]



Mite

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

No records found



Longan

No – Not associated with fruit

(USDA, 1999)



No

INSECTA (insects)

Coleoptera (beetles)

Adoretus complexus Burmeister

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Root grub

China

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



Yes

(Houston, 1992)

Not present in WA

(DAWA, 2003a)



Lychee

No – Associated with roots

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



No

Adoretus compressus Weber

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Rose beetle

Thailand

(Waterhouse, 1993)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves

(DOA, 2003a)



No

Adoretus hirsutus Ohaus

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



White root grub

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1997, 1998)



No

Adoretus sinicus Burmeister

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Chinese rose beetle, root grub

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with roots and leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1997, 1998)



No

Adoretus tenuimaculatus Waterhouse

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]






China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Adults feed on leaves, larvae feed on roots

http://www.kcn.ne.jp/~tkawabe/kon-koganekoitya.htm

No

Anomala antiqua (Gyllenhal)

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Groundnut chafer

China

(Tan et al. 1998)



Yes

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

Lychee





No

Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Beetle

China

(Waite, pers. comm., 2001)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(Waite, pers. comm., 2001)



No

Anomala cuprea (Hope)

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Cupreous chafer

China

(Waite, pers. comm., 2001)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(Waite, pers. comm., 2001)



No

Anomala cupripes Hope

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Large green chafer beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1998)



No

Anomala ebenina Fairmaire

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Chafer beetle

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(USDA, 1999)



No

Anomala exoleta Faldermann

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Chafer beetle

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Lives underground. Associated with soil

(USDA, 1999; Xue & Guo, 1991; Sun, 1991)



No

Anomala expansa Bates

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Chafer beetle

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Not associated with fruit

(USDA, 1999)



No

Anomala pallida Fabricius

[Coleoptera: Scarabaediae]



Beetle

Thailand

(Waterhouse, 1993)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves

(DOA, 2000b)



No

Anomala varicolor Gyllenhal

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Beetle

China

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



No

Anoplophora almora Maulik

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Beetle

China

(CIQ, 2000)



No

(CABI, 2002)



Longan

No – Associated with new stems

(CIQ, 2000)



No

Anoplophora chinensis (Forster)

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Black and white citrus longicorn beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

(CABI, 2002)



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with roots, stems, trunks and branches

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1997, 1998)



No

Anoplophora malasiaca (Thompson)

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



White-spotted longicorn beetle

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(CABI, 2002)



Longan

No – Associated with stems, bark, leaves, petioles and roots

(CABI, 2002)



No

Apogonia cribricollis Burmeister

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Chafer beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves, stems and roots

(CABI, 2002)



No

Aristobia approximator

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Long-horned beetle

Thailand

(DOA, 2003a)



No

(AICN, 2001)



Longan

No – Associated with branches

(DOA, 2003a)



No

Aristobia horidura

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Long-horned beetle

Thailand

(DOA, 2003a)



No

(AICN, 2001)



Longan

No – Associated with branches

(DOA, 2003a)



No

Aristobia testudo (Voet)

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Litchi longicorn beetle

China

(Waite & Hwang, 2002)



No

No records found



Longan

Lychee


No - Associated with bark and stems

(Ho et al., 1990; Waite & Hwang, 2002; Zhang, 1997)



No

Aspidomorpha sanctaecrucis Fabricius

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Tortoise beetle

Thailand

(DOA, 2000b)



No

(AICN, 2001)



Longan

No – Associated with leaves

(Verma & Shrivastava, 1985)



No

Astathes episcopalis Chevrolet

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Beetle

China

(USDA, 1999)



No

(AICN, 2001)



Longan

No – Not associated with fruit

(USDA, 1999)



No

Aulacophora almora Maulik

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

No records found



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with new stems and new leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1998)



No

Aulacophora cattigarensis Weise

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

No records found



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1997, 1998)



No

Aulacophora femoralis (Motschulsky)

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Cucurbit leaf beetle, orange broom galerucid

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

No records found



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1997, 1998)



No

Auloseryca migrorubra Busk.

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Beetle

China

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



No

(Houston, 1992)



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves and new growth

(Sauco & Menini, 1989)



No

Ceresium spp.

[Coleoptera: Cerambycidae]



Longhorn beetle

China

(Cavey, 1998)



No (1 record of Ceresium spp. In QLD)

(Pollock, unpubl.)



Lychee

No – Associated with branches

(Cavey, 1998)



No

Chrysochus chinensis Baly

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

No records found



Longan

Lychee


No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1998)



No

Clitea fulva Chen

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Beetle

China

(Tan et al., 1998)



No

No records found



Lychee

No – Associated with leaves

(CIQ, 2000; Tan et al., 1998)



No
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