Distance: 290 and 42 million light-years




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Name: Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92)

Sky position: constellation - Pegasus

Distance: 290 and 42 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: July and August 2009

Exposure time: 23 hours

Diameter: 345 000 light-years (3 263 952 trillion km).
A group of four galaxies that interact with each other and projected the fifth one (bottom left) which does not belong to the group because it is seven times closer to Earth than the others. Brown-pink colour corresponds to hydrogen radiation and a blue colour corresponds to a hot objects transmitting ultraviolet radiation. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble SM4 ERO Team)




Name: Active galaxy Cigar (NGC 3034. M82)

Sky position: constellation - Ursa Major

Distance: 12 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: March 2006

Exposure time: 13.7 hours

Diameter: 28 000 light-years (264 900 trillion km).
Active galaxy with a total mass of 10 billion of Sun masses. Filamentary structures of hydrogen (red) expands at 3 600 000 km/h. It is the result of a massive explosion that occurred millions years ago. Galaxy is a source of strong radio and X-rays emissions. (Credit: NASA, ESA and Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA))




Name: Carina Nebula (HH 901, HH 902)

Sky position: constellation Carina

Distance: 7 500 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: February 2010

Exposure time: 9.3 hours

Diameter: 3.1 light-years (29 328 billion km).
The Nebula is the birthplace of stars. It consists of cold hydrogen and dust. The entire body is illuminated by light from nearby bright star. Radiation and particle jets from newly formed stars compress the entire pillar of dust and thus accelerate the formation of other stars. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Livio and Hubble 20th Anniversary Team (STScI))
N
ame: Nebula (NGC 3606)


Sky position: constellation Carina

Distance: 20 000 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: December 2005

Exposure time: 34 minutes

Diameter: 17 light-years (160 832 billion km).
The Nebula is a cluster of thousands of young blue stars surrounded by red hydrogen gas-dust cloud. Strong radiation and fast particle flux of the hottest young stars formed big bubble spreading into the environment. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))



Name: Supernova Remnant (LMC N 49)

Sky position: constellation Dorado

Distance: 160 000 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: November 1998, April 1999, July 2000

Exposure time: 3.1 hours

Diameter: 91 light-years (860 926 billion km).
Fine threads of the supernova remnant were created by enormous explosion of massive star thousands years ago. There in the center remained compact, incredibly rapidly rotating neutron star N 49 with rotational period of 8 seconds. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))





Name: Double Cluster of Stars (NGC 1850)

Sky position: constellation Dorado

Distance: 160 000 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: April 1994, February 1996

Exposure time: 2 hours in total

Diameter: 96 light-years (908 230 billion km).
The brightest cluster in a neighboring galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud. In fact, there are two clusters at the photo. One big in the middle of the image, 50 million years old and a small, compact (bottom right) only 4 million years old. Blue gas on the outskirts of the Cluster is a remnant of explosions of massive stars in the Cluster that occurred millions years ago. (Credit: NASA, ESA and ESO)




Name: Galaxy Sombrero (NGC 4594)

Sky position: constellation Virgo

Distance: 28 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: May, June 2003

Exposure time: 10.2 hours

Diameter: 82 000 light-years (775 780 trillion km).
Galaxy turned aside on Earth offers a view of the bright core surrounded by the dark gas-dust envelope and the number of globular clusters. Globular clusters which astronomers have counted over 2000 are old from 10 to 13 billion years. The center of the galaxy radiates strongly in X-rays and bears a black hole with mass equal to billions of Sun masses. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))




Name: Cone Nebula (NGC 2264)

Sky position: constellation Monoceros

Distance: 2 700 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: April 2002

Exposure time: 3.4 hours

Diameter: 4 light-years (37 843 billion km).
The dark Cone Nebula is composed of molecules of hydrogen and captures radiation from the other nebula behind. The nebula behind radiates as a consequence of illumination by the brightest star S Monoceros which is visible at the top of the photo. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))
N
ame: Hourglass Nebula (MyCn18)


Sky position: constellation Musca

Distance: 8 000 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: July 1995

Exposure time: 1 hour

Diameter: 0.66 light-year (6 225 billion km).
The young planetary nebula is a remnant of slow death of a star similar to our sun. The shape of the nebula was created by interesting way. Envelope ejected from the star was denser in the equatorial plane. Therefore, the fast stellar wind particles can easily "blow" the envelope in the directions to the poles giving rise to the observed final shape. (Credit: NASA, ESA, JPL and Hubble Heritage)



Name: Cluster of Galaxies (1E0657-556)

Sky position: constellation Carina

Distance: 3.4 billion light-years

Instrument: Hubble Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Magellan Telescope

Date of observation: October 2004 (HST), August 21, 2006 (CHANDRA)

Exposure time: 252 hours (10.5 days) in total, Hubble + CHANDRA + Magellan

Diameter: 5.2 million light-years (49 370 000 000 000 000 000 km).
Collision of two galaxy clusters shows the greatest release of energy in the Universe observed from the Big-Bang. The image is a composition of observations in the optical region (brownish orange), in X-rays (pink) and there is shown also the calculated area of so-called dark matter (blue). This is a unique observation of remote deep space as is evidenced also by the incredibly long exposure times of frames. (Credit: NASA/CXC, Hubble Heritage (STScI), CXC, ESO WFI, Magellan Uni. Arizona)

N
ame: Emission Nebula (NGC 2074)


Sky position: constellation Dorado

Distance: 170 000 light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: August 2008

Exposure time: 1.33 hours

Diameter: 76.8 light-years (726 087 billion km).
Dust-gaseous nebula where is ongoing star formation due to explosion of a near supernova. Its name was given by the spherical cluster of bright young stars in its vicinity. Nebula is located in the neighboring galaxy Large Magellanic Cloud. The red green and blue colours correspond to radiation of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen respectively. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble STScI)



Name: Nebula (NGC 604)

Sky position: constellation Triangulum

Distance: 2.7 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: July 1994, January 1995, December 2001

Exposure time: 4 hours

Diameter: 1 500 light-years (14 181 trillion km).
One of the biggest and very young nebulae in the nearby spiral galaxy M33 - big birthplace of stars. It was formed 3 million years ago. It contains more than 200 young blue stars and is 100 times greater than very good known great Nebula in Orion which is located in our Milky Way and contains only 4 bright blue stars. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))




Name: Comet McNaught

Sky position: constellation Perseus

Distance: 170 million kilometers

Instrument: 8-inch f/2.8 astrograph (CCD KAF 6003)

Date of observation: June 2000

Exposure time: -

Diameter: Core 15 km, tail 400 000 km.
When the comet is approaching the Sun the surface of the comet is heated and it will begin releasing gas and dust particles forming a long tail pointing away from the Sun. The colours in the picture are real and reveal the presence of various compounds and molecules in the comet. Cyanogen (CN) and diatomic carbon (green), ions of carbon monoxide and dioxide (blue). (Credit: Michael Jaeger, Australia)
N
ame: Dwarf irregular galaxy (NGC 1427A)


Sky position: constellation Fornax

Distance: 62 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope

Date of observation: January 2003

Exposure time: 2.4 hours

Diameter: 51 000 light-years (482 100 trillion km)
This dwarf galaxy runs into the intergalactic gas in the cluster of galaxies Fomax with speed of 2.2 million km/h. This resulted in a compression of gas within the dwarf galaxy, and there began formation of millions of hot, young, blue stars. The galaxy will not survive the passage through the cluster of galaxies. For the next billion years it will be completely destroyed, and the stars will be spread out into the surrounding intergalactic space. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble Heritage STScI)





Name: Three red spots on Jupiter

Sky position: Jupiter

Distance: 778 million km (average)

Instrument: Hubble telescope, Keck telescope

Date of observation: May 2008

Exposure time: 1 178 seconds

Diameter: 81 230 km
Detail of three red spots in Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere. There is to the right the "Great Red Spot", in the middle the "Red Spot Jr." and to the left the youngest “Red spot”. The Great Red Spot "lives" on Jupiter for at least 350 years. Junior appeared in 2006 and the smallest member of the family in the year 2008, however, after a few months disappeared. Spots are a sign of the huge tornados in Jupiter's atmosphere. (Credit: NASA, ESA, HST, University of California, Berkeley)

N
ame: Active galaxy (NGC 1275), Perseus A


Sky position: constellation Perzeus

Distance: 235 million light-years

Instrument: Hubble telescope, NRAO Very Large Arra, Chandra X-ray Observatory

Date of observation: November 1995, November 2001 (HST), august 2002 (Chandra)

Exposure time: 4 hours (HST), 58 hours (Chandra)

Diameter: 61 000 light-years (57 670 trillion km)
The galaxy contains a large central black hole and it is in the center of Perseus cluster of galaxies. It is very active and radiates also in radio (pink) and X-ray (violet) radiation. Rest of the colours corresponds to visual observations of the Hubble telescope where we can recognize dust filaments, star-forming regions, hydrogen regions and stars and galaxies in the background. (Credit: NASA, ESA, and Hubble STScI)

N
ame: Coronal mass ejection


Sky position: Sun

Distance: 150 million km

Instrument: SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), LASCO 2

Date of observation: January 2002

Exposure time: 100 seconds

Diameter: 1.4 million km
Coronal mass ejection from the Sun. There was ejected 10 billion tons of solar plasma with velocity of 3.2 million km/h and a temperature of 100 000 degrees Celsius. Coronal mass ejections frequently hit also the Earth and the way from the Sun to Earth takes them about 3 days, although the fastest (in 1859) came from the Sun after 17 hours. (Credit: SOHO/LASCO/EIT (ESA & NASA))

N
ame: Nebula Carina (NGC 3372)


Sky position: constellation Carina

Distance: 7 500 light-years

Instrument: Very Large Telescope array (VLT) ESO

Date of observation: January 2008

Exposure time: 2100 seconds in total

Diameter: 32.6 light-years (308 trillion km)
Unique colour-composite image of the large Carina Nebula recorded in infrared light by "battery" of four huge telescopes with a diameter of mirrors 8.2 meters each. The final picture was constructed as a combination of hundreds of individual photos. The Nebula is located in the Milky Way and contains the most massive and brightest stars, among which stands out Eta Carinae that will probably explode as a supernova in the near future. There are seen in the Nebula detailed structures of dust and gas from which the stars are formed. (Credit: ESO/T. Preibisch)
N
ame: Water on Mars, Frozen Lake in Crater


Sky position: Planet Mars

Distance: 65 million km

Instrument: High Resolution Stereo Camera on the Mars Express Orbiter

Date of observation: February 2005

Exposure time: 0.6 milliseconds

Diameter: 35 km (crater) 12 km (frozen lake)
Mars Express explorer took a picture of ice cap in the crater located beyond the Martian "Arctic Circle" (70.5 degrees north Martian latitude). The thickness of the ice is 200 m. The walls of the crater are 2 km high. A small hill in the crater is about 300 m high and it shades the incident sunlight allowing thus a persistence of ice cover. Other traces of ice are seen on the walls of the crater. The colours are true. (Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin)


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