Declared Plant Policy under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004




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Declared Plant Policy

under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004

salvinia (Salvinia adnata)


Salvinia is a floating aquatic fern that has been spread by its use in ornamental garden ponds and aquaria. It has been the subject of a major control program in NT and Qld, but is only known as a cultivated plant in ponds, dams or aquaria in South Australia.


Management Plan for Salvinia




Outcomes





  • Maintain waterways free of blockages and keep streams and wetlands free of major weed threats.


Objectives





  • Prevent the establishment of salvinia in waterways and wetlands in South Australia.


Implementation








  • Any infestation of salvinia discovered to be treated as an incursion and destroyed by NRM authorities.




  • All sale and movement to be prohibited.




  • NRM authorities to inspect waterways and wetlands for the presence of waterweeds.


Regional Implementation

Refer to regional management plans for further details.




NRM Region

Actions

Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

Alinytjara Wilurara

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

Eyre Peninsula

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

Kangaroo Island

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

Northern and Yorke

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

South Australian Arid Lands

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

South Australian Murray Darling Basin

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected

South East

prevent entry or sale; destroy if detected


Declaration

To implement this policy, salvinia is declared under the Natural Resources Management Act, 2004 throughout the whole of the State of South Australia. The movement or transport of the plant on a public road by itself or as a contaminant, its entry to South Australia, or sale by itself or as a contaminant are prohibited. Notification of infestations is necessary to ensure these are destroyed. Land owners are required to destroy any salvinia plants growing on their properties.


Salvinia is declared in category 1 under the Act, for the purpose of setting maximum penalties and for other purposes. Any permit to allow its movement or sale can only be issued by the Chief Officer pursuant to section 188.
The following sections of the Act apply to salvinia throughout each of the NRM regions noted below:


Region

Sections of Act



AMLR

AW

EP

KI

NY

SAAL

SAMDB

SE

175(1) Prohibiting entry to area

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

175(2) Prohibiting movement on public roads

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(1) Prohibiting sale of the plant

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(2) Prohibiting sale of contaminated goods

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

180 Requiring notification of infestations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

182(1) Landowners to destroy the plant on their properties

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

182(2) Landowners to control the plant on their properties

























185 Recovery of control costs on adjoining road reserves



























Review

This policy is to be reviewed by 2020, or in the event of a change in the status of salvinia as a Weed of National Significance.



Weed Risk
Invasiveness
Movement of salvinia depends on human intervention, especially by the dumping of aquarium contents into water bodies. Its high growth rate under ideal conditions would allow it to rapidly increase while these conditions last and spread downstream by fragmentation and movement of floating fragments.
Impacts
Where it has established in other States, salvinia forms continuous mats over the surface of lakes and streams that impact on native submerged plants, algae and animals by shading and eutrophication of the water as they decay. In South Australia it would be seasonal, with the mats building up over summer and dying off in winter.
Potential distribution
Salvinia could grow in the River Murray system and in streams, dams or ponds across the southern part of South Australia.

Feasibility of Containment
Control costs
As all the foliage is above water level, salvinia can be controlled by herbicides such as glyphosate and diquat. Booms or fences are used to contain large infestations and prevent their downstream movement until they can be killed. However, control of large infestations would be labour-intensive and may be limited by risks of off-target damage to native species.
Persistence
In South Australia, salvinia may persist over winter in sheltered habitats, or may depend on new releases from illegal cultivation each year. Occurrences in the wild have so far been small and short-lived, but are expected to re-appear as long as the species is in cultivation.
Current distribution
Salvinia is not naturalised in South Australia, but is still sometimes grown in ornamental ponds and offered for sale illegally. It has become naturalised in water bodies in NSW, Queensland and the Northern Territory.


State Level Risk Assessment

Assessment using the Biosecurity SA Weed Risk Management System gave the following comparative weed risk and feasibility of containment scores by land use:




Land use


Weed Risk

Feasibility of control

Response at State Level


Aquatic

medium

91


very high

2


contain spread

alert



Considerations

Salvinia is one of the Weeds of National Significance, which are subject to a uniform prohibition on sale in all jurisdictions as agreed by the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council. In line with the national strategy on salvinia, sale of the plant is prohibited in South Australia as in other jurisdictions.


Risk assessment indicates containment as a management action; since salvinia is not naturalised in South Australia, containment is best implemented by preventing its establishment or further entry to the State. Due to its medium weed risk, presence only as a rare cultivated plant and very high feasibility of control, salvinia is regarded as a State Alert Weed and a high priority surveillance target to increase the likelihood of early detection.
Synonymy
Salvinia adnata Desv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 6(2): 177 (1827)
Taxonomic synonym: Salvinia molesta D.Mitch., Brit. Fern Gaz. 10: 251 (1972).

References
Agriculture & Resource Management Council of Australia & New Zealand Australia & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (2003) 'Weeds of National Significance Salvinia (Salvinia molesta) Strategic Plan.' (National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee: Launceston)
van Oosterhout, E. (2006) ‘Salvinia Control Manual’. (NSW Department of Primary Industries: Orange)


Hon Ian Hunter MP

Minister for Sustainability, Environment and Conservation
Date: 28 July 2014


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