Court Rye Market Research




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Court Rye

Market Research

Nintendo DS – Marketing Strategy
Problem/Situation Description: Ten years ago Nintendo dominated both the console and handheld gaming industry. Today the gaming industry has grown so much that it is competing directly with the movie industry! Growth in this industry is occurring in the demographic of 18-34 year olds. Nintendo is primarily focused on 5-17 year old gamers with its first party software, especially in the handheld gaming market. As the industry expands Nintendo is struggling to retain market share percentages as their primary market of young male gamers is already saturated.

Marketing Objectives: Increase Nintendo’s market share and boost sales without losing touch with the current market of 5-17 year old males.

Target Audience: The suggested target audience for Nintendo to expand towards is 5-17 year old females.

Budget: The three tools suggested for reaching the target consumer most effectively are TV commercials, movie theater pre-show trailers, and the actual casing and packaging of the product. A high quality 30 second commercial is estimated to cost $100,000 to $350,000 dollars. Movie trailer slides are estimated to start at $1500+ for a four week period. Casing and packaging redesign costs are unknown but estimated to be relatively small when spread over the number of units being produced. Total costs for the Nintendogs Pink DS promotion would be nearly $30 Million dollars over the span of four months.

Strategy: By combining packaging and targeted advertisements in Television and pre-movie ads Nintendo will be able to attract young females age 5-17. This demographic has not traditionally participated in video gaming outside of cell phone games and digital “pets” however the interactive DS platform combined with female targeted software such as Nintendogs offers a winning strategy to tap into this market. It is important not to alienate the young male demographic that is Nintendo’s primary market. Ads will be strategically placed and limited in their feminine content for certain listings.

Results: The Nintendogs title is currently under development by Nintendo and is only offered in Japan (it was not yet released at the time of this report). Nintendo also does not currently offer special edition colored DS units. Our research is ongoing and because of the nature of this being an academic piece it may be hard to test the results of the strategy without the release of Nintendogs in the US and a promotional effort by Nintendo to target females.

Nintendo DS – Marketing Strategy
Integrated Marketing Communications Plan


4/15/2005

Court Rye, Ross Nudelman, Kimberly Fillnow, Ashley Andrus, Ryan Schick

Advertising and Promotions MKTG 4550

Executive Summary


Nintendo’s DS (Dual Screen) gaming system is the newest in a line of portable handheld gaming systems offered by Nintendo. Since 1989, when it launched the first Game Boy, Nintendo has dominated the handheld gaming market and focused on a demographic of five to 17 year old males. Over the past 15 years Game Boy has been challenged by Neo Geo (Neo Geo Pocket), Sega (Game Gear and Nomad), and more recently Nokia (N-Gage). None of these offerings have been successful at stealing market share from Nintendo who has continued to improve its offerings with newer more powerful systems to challenge competitors as well as backwards compatibility for its’ previously released titles1. On March 24th 2005 Sony introduced the PSP (PlayStation Portable) gaming device aimed at the growing demographic of 18 to 34 year old gamers. The PSP is still relatively new as of this report but already there has been a shift in handheld gaming as over 500,000 PSP units were sold within the first two days of the US launch2.

Sony has been incredibly successful working with third party software designers in gaining support for its previous gaming platforms (the PlayStation 2) which has put pressure on Nintendo and decreased their market share for the Game Cube system3. When Sony entered the console gaming market with its PlayStation 2 in the United States on October 26, 2000 the pressure was so intense between Nintendo, Sega and Sony that Sega was forced to exit the marketError: Reference source not found. Just as Sony was able to enter the console gaming market in the early 2000’s and rise to the top, dominating Nintendo and forcing Sega out, the PSP is currently threatening Nintendo in the handheld gaming marketError: Reference source not found. So this prompts our research question, how will Nintendo be able to continue to increase their market share in such a competitive market place?

Faced with huge competition from the PSP in the 18 to 34 year old demographic, primary and secondary data indicates that Nintendo should reinforce itself as the primary offering for young adults age 5 to 17. Nintendo will continue to expand into the entertainment industry outside of gaming to increase its intellectual property with the PoKeMoN franchise and strong ties to Nickelodeon and Disney. This gives Nintendo leverage and a competitive advantage in younger demographic. New products such as GameBoy ADVANCE video have expanded the feature set of the original GameBoy and Nintendo needs to communicate this competitive advantage to its consumers.

Since Nintendo has not traditionally contracted with third party software developers as strongly as Sony, Nintendo has a distinct opportunity to market itself as the original…first and only in the market. Furthermore, Nintendo has avoided violence in its’ games (the majority of which are rated E for Everyone) which has pleased parents and maintained its image as being a kid-friendly brand. With Nintendo’s kid friendly background, the company has a unique opportunity to penetrate a growing market of female gamers age 5 to 17 with offerings such as PoKeMoN and the soon to be released Nintendogs4. Communicating these advantages and positioning itself as a kid friendly brand using “scuba” communications will increase market share for Nintendo and allow the company to dominate in an increasingly competitive market.

Table of Contents


Executive Summary 3

Situation Analysis 6

The death of GameBoy… not so fast 9

Primary Research 15

Strategy based on primary and secondary research and analysis 19

Television Advertisements 20

Movie Theater Pre-show Advertising 21

Packaging/Product Casing 23

Summary 27

Works Cited 29


Situation Analysis


Industry The video game market comprises an intricate assortment of participants from a wide range of businesses, including major computer software publishing firms, video game hardware and software companies, publishing houses, motion picture companies, television production companies and education content providers. Underlying this complex network of contrasting industry cultures is a substructure of small and medium-sized software developers, product design houses, distributors and retailers. These participants are constantly attempting to combine their talents and strong points, to mix and match their offerings and achieve an optimum blend of profit-making activities. The end result is that the video game market is highly dynamic and strongly subject to corporate changes and technology development collaborations. Naturally occurring cycles are enhanced and magnified as the interactive entertainment industry rapidly evolves producing and releasing new and improved gaming devices.

The video game phenomenon of the early 1980’s began with a huge increase in demand and has continued with steady increases in the following years. Consumers have grown away from “passive” entertainment products characteristic of television broadcast and CD audio entertainment. The ability to interact with a device capable of responding to real-time inputs from the user is a technology that consumers now demand. The gaming industry today supports a worldwide market of almost $24.5 billion and a US market of nearly $13 billion5.

There is a direct correlation between the rise in demand over the last couple of years and the introduction of next-generation video game hardware. Video game console manufacturers, through technological upgrading, have progressively moved from 8-bit to 16-bit to 32-bit to 64-bit platforms, resulting in continued improvement in performance and game quality. For the user, higher performance translates to better video imaging, faster interactive responses and smarter artificial intelligence. For the manufacturer, the increase translates to growing markets and economies of scale.

Traditionally, videogame users have been required to “tether” themselves to a television set in order to play, however in recent years lifestyles have changed and daily gaming activities have come to include the ability to play games “on the go.” The dream of widespread affordable portable gaming became a reality when Nintendo invented the GameBoy in 1989. Prior to the launch of the PSP, Nintendo dominated in handheld gaming, taking considerable shelf space (approximately 25%6 of the total video cartridge shelf space) allotted to hand-held game cartridges in big box retailers like Toys "R" Us. This statistic has shown decline upon release of the PSP.

In many cases hand held video gaming has remained a male dominated adolescent stereotyped activity. These groups continue to comprise a dominant segment of the large and lucrative market, however, the introduction of the Sony PSP has considerably broadened the market from being solely focused on youth. It has brought in the “twenty-somethings” and “forty-somethings” of both genders. This broader range of consumers reflects traditional targeting by Sony games including the PS2; 18 to 34 year olds. Sony is currently leading in market share of US gaming consoles with 56.4% share followed by Microsoft with 24.9% share and then Nintendo in third with 18.7%7.

Company Nintendo of America, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Nintendo Co. of Japan (J.NTD, NYSE), is based in Redmond, Washington, the headquarters of Nintendo Co.'s western hemisphere operations8. Once the undisputed global leader of the video game category, Nintendo now competes with Sony for the number-one spot in the industry. Nintendo manufactures and markets hardware and software for its home video game systems, including the hand-held Nintendo DS, which controlled roughly 90% of the U.S. hand-held market in 20039, the 16-bit Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), and the performance-driven GameCube, the fastest-selling video game system in history. The GameCube’s superior 3-D graphics and well-known games (50% of Nintendo's profits derive from software) have enabled it to remain in the thick of the video game competition. Worldwide sales for Nintendo in fiscal year 2004 were $4,869.4 million, a 15.8%Error: Reference source not found increase over the previous year.



The death of GameBoy… not so fast


To extend the product life-span of Game Boy, launched in 1989, Nintendo gave its hand-held blockbuster a slimming-down makeover as Game Boy Pocket in 1996, which doubled unit sales in the United States to over 2 million. By that point, Game Boy had pushed hand-held competitors from Atari, NEC, and Sega out of the running, despite their color monitors and more advanced technology. As summarized by Jim Willcox, senior editor of consumer electronics trade journal TWICE, "Nintendo stuck to its guns ... they released killer applications like Tetris, kept the price point low and demonstrated that the technology was really subservient to the games or applications10." Nintendo marked the 10 anniversary of it hand-held blockbuster with 60 million sold worldwide, and a library of 450 games. Through such efforts, Nintendo doubled Game Boy sales in the United States.
According to the official Nintendo website the “Nintendo DS, dual screens and touch-screen technology allow you to interact with games like never before. Wireless communication allows you to experience real-time multiplayer gameplay, while built-in PictoChat software gives you the power to draw, write and send messages wirelessly. Nintendo DS revolutionizes the way games are played. With impressive 3D rendered graphics, Nintendo DS delivers cutting-edge portable games for fans of any genre. Plus, you can play all your favorite Game Boy Advance games in a single-player mode.11
Competitors Nintendo’s primary gaming competitors are Sony and Microsoft however, neither of these two companies target five to 17 year old gamers as consistently and effectively as Nintendo. Nintendo remains unchallenged in the segment of younger gamers and low price handhelds. Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), based in Foster City, California, is a division of Sony Corp. of America, Inc., which markets and distributes PlayStation in North America, develops and publishes software for the PlayStation, and manages third-party licensing. Sony Corp. of America is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corp. of Japan (NYSE), the giant global electronics firm, which has in part organized its video gaming operations as an affiliated entity, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) 12. For fiscal 2002, Sony Corp.'s sales revenue reached $50.7 billion, an 11% increase over 1997. The global PlayStation business accounted for $5.5 billion, or approximately 10% of Sony's total, and $886 million in operating income, almost 23% of Sony's totalError: Reference source not found.
Customer According to Simmons13, among households owning video games attached to televisions (hand held are similar and will be discussed later), family characteristics and age are the most important demographic markers. Among households with children, those with children ages 1217 account for 38% of users, and those with children 611 for another 33%. Conversely, households of 1 or 2 persons (generally meaning those without children) strongly resist ownership. The Simmons data clearly underscore that the purchase and ownership of video games attached to televisions is driven by the household presence of children.

The portable gaming market used to be all about the 8 year old male demographic owning GameBoys, but with Nintendo's new DS, launched in November 2004, and Sony's PlayStation Portable, launched March 2005, both companies are gunning for a broader audience of teens and adults who have grown up playing video games and want something portable.


Trends The primary gamer for all age groups has traditionally been male but in recent years females have begun entering the market. Nearly all traditional Nintendo games dating back to the original Game Boy in 1989 have featured some form of female influence (Zelda in the Legend of Zelda, Princess in the Super Mario Brothers series) but until recently female characters were not widely playable (with the exception of Peach in Super Mario World 2 for SNES). The release of PoKeMoN Red and Blue for the GameBoy Color during the holiday season of 1997 marked the beginning of Nintendo’s push to include females in its primary market focus. Looking forward Nintendo is continuing to back its support for females and follow the trend of offering games that cater to the female demographic. Nintendogs, is one such an example from Nintendo of an game concept aimed at female gamers age five to 17.

Perceptions Nintendo is viewed as a kid-safe brand. Primary research indicates that of the 26 titles having been announced for release on the DS, 22 of them were rated E for everyone and only three were rated T for teen by ESRB14. When this is compared to the launch lineup of the Sony PSP which had 24 games in production, 6 of which were rated T for teen and one of which was rated M for mature, it becomes clear that Nintendo is more focused on a younger audience than Sony.

System

Everyone

Teen

Mature

Not Yet Rated

Nintendo DS

22

3

0

1

Sony PSP

15

6

1

2

Perceptions of game ranking is particularly important to Nintendo because many of the purchase decisions made for buying its products are made by adults who are buying for kids. Our primary research shows that adults who purchase games for children prefer games ranked E for Everyone or lower. The availability of ≤E ranked games also plays into the purchase decision for buying a gaming system. Game systems are becoming more expensive and adults are playing an increasingly active role in providing the income for buying these systems for gamers age five to 17.





Behavior/Decision Making With the price of video game systems and software titles growing; more consideration is being put into each purchase. One of the most important decisions around purchasing video games is which platform to invest in because this determines the compatibility of software titles that can be played. Nintendo has identified its core users as being younger gamers who cannot afford expensive games or systems. Nintendo has also studied the lifestyle of younger gamers and realized a need exists for sturdy design which can tolerate being tossed around and beaten up. To address the behaviors of its target market, Nintendo has designed handheld gaming systems which are consistently affordable and resilient. In today’s market for handheld games the Nintendo DS is the least expensive system available, starting at $149.99 compared to Sony’s PSP at $249.99.

The DS has also done much better in stress testing and battery life comparisons15. Our primary research shows a trend towards battery life and affordability being two of the leading factors when ranking a handheld gaming system for five to 17 year old gamers.





Primary Research


Reasons/Goals To increase the market share of Nintendo products, specifically the Nintendo DS in the younger demographic, expanding to include females. The five to 17 year old female gamer market is not yet saturated and still has potential for growth.
Methods Nintendo has always focused its handhelds on younger gamers and only targeted older gamers through nostalgia. Although Nintendo is currently ranked third in the console race, it is still ranked number one in the handheld market which is more affordable and accessible to younger gamers. Handheld games include everything needed to play a game whereas consoles require a television (and control over watching the television) to be used.

Nintendo should continue marketing to younger gamers through television and product placement in novelty toy items. These methods have been most effective in the past and all of these channels are still currently available to Nintendo. There is already an established infrastructure for Nintendo to use in marketing its products and Nintendo is a key media producer in this channel.


Findings Nintendo has worked closely with the Warner Brothers and Buena Vista Networks through the delivery of many hit kids television show including PoKeMoN. This has afforded Nintendo the opportunity to franchise and cross promote its intellectual properties. Nintendo has done promotions with McDonalds16, Burger King17 and Wendy’s18 in the past along with SEGA and it has established the necessary contacts to continue this effort in the future.

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning

Position Statement: For five to seventeen year old girls our product is the brand of handheld gaming system that will provide them with a unique gaming experience. Relative to the PSP and other mobile gaming devices such as cell phones, the Nintendo DS will offer quality games that cater to the interest of girls.

Essentially, Nintendo should continue to target the five to 17 year old segment of gamers and a new focus should be included on the potential of the five to 17 year old female gamer demographic in the US. Traditionally Nintendo has targeted, through advertisements and products available, generally to the males in this age category. On average girls spend 70% less time than boys gaming19. This creates an open space for gaming companies to expand their product range and increase their market share. Because of the age of the primary target (largely because of the fact that when they are at this age they are driven primarily by their wants which are influenced greatly by their peers) it is important to avoid targeting specifically to girls when moving into this new target. Instead, efforts should be made so that Nintendo appears to be appropriate for everyone.

Nintendo should continue to position itself as a kid-friendly brand by limiting the number of T for Teen ranked games which has afforded it this recognition in the past. Nintendo’s strong relationship with Nickelodeon has grown from sharing a similar target market and Nintendo should maintain this strong relationship20. If Nintendo is able to maintain to relationships with Nickelodeon and Buena Vista, it will be able to solidify its image as being the product that dominates the handheld gaming market for kids. As new gaming systems come into the market Nintendo should remember that the younger segments are the ones that are keeping them at the top. Just as Toys-R-Us has not grown to include “toys” for older people such as high end electronics and cars, Nintendo should not outgrow its primary customer, the five to 17 year old boy or girl.




Strategy based on primary and secondary research and analysis


As shown in the image below the gaming industry is expanding for certain age groups. The handheld market is currently dominated by Nintendo and there is potential for growth in the five to 17 year old market where there is a gap in gaming as a whole. This gap represents female gamers and those who cannot afford a gaming system.


Recommended Tools Primary research has indicated the following tools to be the best for reaching Nintendo’s target consumer. The following Communication Briefs clearly define the roles that media will play in Nintendo’s IMC.

Television Advertisements


    • Problem to Solve: Nintendo’s market share is slipping, and the 5-17 year-old segment of the market is an area for potential growth.

    • Overall Objective: To create and strengthen awareness of and preference for the Nintendo DS within the 5-17 year-old target market.

    • Target: 5-17 year-old video game players

      • New attention given to female gamers

    • Specific Communication Objective: Increase the target perceptions of the DS as the premier handheld gaming device

      • Build perceptions of the DS as being fun and interactive.

      • Increase target perceptions of the DS by 20% in the next six months

    • Key Benefit: The DS is a fun, portable, kid-oriented gaming device that is perfect for children of all ages, races, and genders.

    • Reasons Why (to believe key benefit): The DS has a wide variety of games suitable for all children. The unit is ideal because of its ease of use, durability, and long battery life.

    • Intended Reaction-Single Thought: The DS is so much fun! I’ll ask my parents for it for my birthday!

    • Mandatories:

      • Nintendo DS

      • Bright colors

      • Female characters

      • Close-ups of character (instead of screen shots, as characters are what draw children into games)

      • Simple text that is easy to read

Movie Theater Pre-show Advertising


    • Problem to Solve: Nintendo’s does not efficiently capitalize on the female gamers in the market.

    • Overall Objective: To create awareness of and preference for the Nintendo DS with female gamers between the ages of 5 and 17 years old.

    • Target: 5-17 year-old female video game players

    • Specific Communication Objective: Specifically target females by choosing female specific titles. Use this opportunity to communicate the pricing, hardware, and software benefits to a majority female audience.

      • Increase target perceptions of the DS by 25% in the next six months

    • Key Benefit: The DS is a fun, portable, kid-oriented gaming device that is perfect for girls of all ages.

    • Reasons Why (to believe key benefit): The DS has a wide variety of games many of which target young females. The unit is ideal because of its ease of use, durability, and long battery life.

    • Intended Reaction/Single Thought: The DS the only gaming system that has games I like! The characters are cute, non-violent, and I can afford to try it!

    • Mandatories:

      • Nintendo DS

      • Bright colors

      • Female characters

      • Close-ups of character (instead of screen shots, as characters are what draw children to games)

      • Simple text that is easy to read

      • Website clearly displayed

      • Movie targets same 5 to 17 year old female demographic

Packaging/Product Casing


    • Problem to Solve: The Nintendo DS does not have packaging or product casing that could be viewed as “special edition” or that is linked to a specific game, which would generate more sales.

    • Overall Objective: To create a new casing for the DS, with images on it that link it to a particular game and would distinguish it as “special edition”.

      • Link the game to “Nintendogs”, a new interactive game that features various types of dogs who are virtual pets and playmates to game players.

    • Target: 5-17 year-old video game players. Attention given to female gamers

    • Specific Communication Objective: Differentiate the DS as adevice with special offerings for female gamers.

      • Increase sales by 15% over the next 6 months

    • Key Benefit: The DS is a fun, portable, kid-oriented gaming device that is perfect for children of all ages, races, and genders.

      • The DS looks unique with Nintendogs on its casing, and it is truly one of a kind

    • Reasons Why (to believe key benefit): The DS is brand new, and the Nintendogs theme is the first of its kind

    • Intended Reaction/Single Thought: The new Nintendogs game looks awesome! I like the special edition pink and now I am willing to buy a DS.

    • Mandatories:

      • Nintendo DS

      • Silver metallic pink edition

      • Pictures of Nintendogs

      • Simple text that is easy to read

Planning and Scheduling According to the FCB Planning model we would classify the Nintendo DS a high involvement thinking product (informative). Specific information and demonstrations are needed on an ongoing basis to provide knowledge to those interested in entering the handheld gaming market. Products in the informative category are purchased on the learn-feel-do hierarchy where rational thinking and economic considerations are necessary. Considering the previous, a continuous pattern of advertising would be the most appropriate for the Nintendo DS with occasional pulsing promotions such as Nintendogs special edition pink.
Measurement Plan Sales are often used to measure the success of a product, but that does not always describe what demographics are buying the product. One way to benchmark the Nintendo DS would be to offer rebates or warranty cards included in the package. The rebates would have to offer something of value, such as a free game or an extended warranty, to entice redemption. On the rebate or warranty form there would be three to four simple questions including age and gender. Additionally there would be questions pertaining to where the purchaser learned about the product, which would give Nintendo feedback measuring the effectiveness of the ads. When redeemed, the rebates would show which games were desired by the varying demographics of gamers.

Another method of measurement would be monitoring website activity. When particular movies are released, such as The Princess Diaries Two which is aimed toward a female demographic, or Robots which is geared toward a general audience, ads will be displayed before hand. Examining website activity during the release dates of such movies would show the effectiveness of the promotional strategy.



Budget The most effective budgeting strategy for Nintendo would be to use an objective and task method. We have already established that the key thing that we want to communicate to consumers is that the Nintendo DS is a premier handheld gaming system that is acceptable for everyone to use. The three tools that would reach our target consumer most effectively would be TV, movie theater pre-show trailers, and the actual casing of the product. When looking at the costs associated with an ad on T.V. Nintendo has to consider both costs of producing as well as airing the commercial.

Also, as quality and complexity increase, the price will typically follow suit. For Nintendo, the quality will be top notch, so an average between $100,000 to $350,000 dollars would be needed to produce a thirty second national T.V. commercial21. When considering that the average American child aged 2-17 watches 3.5 hours of television a day22, the costs of a television commercial are outweighed greatly by the benefit of the number of kids reached.

Another tool for reaching the target is through the movie theater pre-shows. Nintendo ran ads by cinema advertising in November and December on more than 6000 screens nationwide in 200223. One way to advertise in theaters is called rolling stock where sight, sound and motion are used. Researchers have found this to have an 80% recall. Slides start as low as $100 to $1500 for four weeks and go up from there. But since rolling stock ads are more effective than just plain slides and catch the attention of the audience members, these are more pricy and tend to be shown just before the actual previews start24.

Our final tool, packaging, includes the costs of designing a new casing and should be figured into the cost of the system. This tool communicates the unique individualistic focus of the product. New package designs attract attention and encourage exchange of older systems which bring new customers into the market. Since our strategy only incorporates the color of the casing and outer packaging, it is less expensive than a complete redesign.



Summary


Nintendo has dominated handheld gaming for the past 15 years which has given it brand recognition, loyalty, and an opportunity to identify its target market. Although the PSP offers a new angle on handheld gaming, Nintendo still has the overall advantage and the upper hand with the younger demographics. In order to grow its market share Nintendo should focus on expanding its current market, five to 17 year old gamers. Although males have been the traditional customer, females are becoming increasingly interested in video games and handheld entertainment. Nintendo can grow its share with females, continue to attract younger gamers, and broaden its scope of entertainment all while maintaining a kid-friendly image and competing with the PSP. Nintendo is on the right track and with the new possibilities of games like Nintendogs it will continue to dominate into the next millennium.



Works Cited


About.com (2005). Handheld Wars: Sony PSP vs. Nintendo DS. Retrieved February 23, 2005 from http://nintendo.about.com/od/editorials/a/pspvsds.htm

Children Now. (Winter 2000.) Girls and Gaming: Gender and Video Game Marketing. . Retrieved March 13, 2005 from http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnwinter2001.html

Edwards, Cliff, et al. "Game Wars." BusinessWeek 28 Feb. 2005: 59-66.



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Gentile, Douglas A. and David A. Walsh. A normative study of family media habits. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.mediafamily.org/research/report_g_w2002.pdf

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Hoover’s Online. (February 2005). Sony Electronics, Inc.- Fact Sheet. Retrieved on February 28, 2005 from http://premium.hoovers.com/subscribe/co/factsheet.xhtml?ID=112902

http://www.nesplayer.com/database/merchandise/



IGN Insider. (n.d.) Sony PSP vs. Nintendo DS Retrieved March 14, 2005 from http://gear.ign.com/articles/599/599454p1.html

ING. (n.d.). Nintendo DS US Box Art. Retrieved March 16, 2005 http://ds.ign.com/articles/558/558353p1.html

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Nintendo. (n.d.) Nintendo History Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://www.nintendo.com/corp/history.jsp

Nintendo.- Fact Sheet- (2005, February). Hoover’s Online. Retrieved on February 20, 2005 from http://premium.hoovers.com/subscribe/co/factsheet.xhtml?ID=41877

Puget Sound Business Journal, June 15, 1998.

Rocsearch. ( 2005). Video Game Industry. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from http://www.rocsearch.com/pdf/Video%20Game%20Industry.pdf

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Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2002). Simmons national consumer survey. New York.

System Nintendo DS. (n.d.) Nintendo Retrieved April 24, 2005 from http://www.nintendo.com/overviewds

Velocity Cinema Advertising. (N.D.) Rolling Stock Advertising. Retrieved on April 15, 2005 from http://www.movieadvertising.com/rollingstock.html

Williams Martyn. “Let the Handheld Games Begin: Nintendo, Sony ready rival portable gaming devices. Which one will gamers go for?” November 2004. PC World. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,118604,00.asp



Yahoo Finance. (2004, August 3).

Yahoo News (April, 2005.) Sony Sold 500,000 PSPs in Two Days in N. America. Retrieved April 9, 2005 from http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/nm/20050407/tc_nm/tech_sony_psp_dc

Yahoo! Finance. (August 2004.) Form 10-Q for ACTIVISION INC /NY Retrieved on March 20, 2005 from http://biz.yahoo.com/e/040803/atvi10-q.html

1Nintendo. (n.d.) Nintendo History Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://www.nintendo.com/corp/history.jsp

2.Yahoo Ne.s (April, 2005.) Sony Sold 500,000 PSPs in Two Days in N. America. Retrieved April 9, 2005 from http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/nm/20050407/tc_nm/tech_sony_psp_dc

3Williams Martyn. “Let the Handheld Games Begin: Nintendo, Sony ready rival portable gaming devices. Which one will gamers go for?” November 2004. PC World. Retrieved February 14, 2005 from http://pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,118604,00.asp

4Children Now. (Winter 2000.) Girls and Gaming: Gender and Video Game Marketing. . Retrieved March 13, 2005 from http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnwinter2001.html

5Rocsearch. ( 2005). Video Game Industry. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from http://www.rocsearch.com/pdf/Video%20Game%20Industry.pdf

6 Lexisnexis. (March 2005.) Video Game Market Share. http://www.lexisnexis.com/

7 Edwards, Cliff, et al. "Game Wars." BusinessWeek 28 Feb. 2005: 59-66.

8 Hoover’s Online. (February 2005). Nintendo.- Fact Sheet-. Retrieved on February 20, 2005 from http://premium.hoovers.com/subscribe/co/factsheet.xhtml?ID=41877

9About.com (2005). Handheld Wars: Sony PSP vs. Nintendo DS. Retrieved February 23, 2005 from http://nintendo.about.com/od/editorials/a/pspvsds.htm

10 Puget Sound Business Journal, June 15, 1998.

11 System Nintendo DS. (n.d.) Nintendo Retrieved April 24, 2005 from http://www.nintendo.com/overviewds

12 Hoover’s Online. (February 2005). Sony Electronics, Inc.- Fact Sheet. Retrieved on February 28, 2005 from http://premium.hoovers.com/subscribe/co/factsheet.xhtml?ID=112902

13 Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2002). Simmons national consumer survey. New York.

14ING. (n.d.). Nintendo DS US Box Art. Retrieved March 16, 2005 http://ds.ign.com/articles/558/558353p1.html

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16McDonalds Happy Meal Toy List 1990. (n.d.) Retrieved March 18, 2005 from http://www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/6176/mcd1990.html

17Gamecubicle.com( January, 2002). Nintendo Burger King Promotion (bk mario zelda link). Retrieved March 12, 2005 from http://www.gamecubicle.com/news-nintendo_superstars_burger_king_bk_meal_toy.htm

18 http://www.nesplayer.com/database/merchandise/

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20 Yahoo! Finance. (August 2004.) Form 10-Q for ACTIVISION INC /NY Retrieved on March 20, 2005 from http://biz.yahoo.com/e/040803/atvi10-q.html

21Gaebler Ventures. (n.d.) How Much Do Television Ads Cost? Retrieved April 12, 2005 from http://www.gaebler.com/Television-Advertising-costs.htm

22Gentile, Douglas A. and David A. Walsh. A normative study of family media habits. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.mediafamily.org/research/report_g_w2002.pdf

23Gamecubicle.com (October, 2002). Nintendo GameCube Holiday. Retrieved April 17 from http://www.gamecubicle.com/news-nintendo_gamecube_marketing_holiday_2002.htm

24Velocity Cinema Advertising. (n.d.) Rolling Stock Advertising. Retrieved April 15 from http://www.movieadvertising.com/rollingstock.html



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