Course: Earth/Environmental Science I. Grade Level/Unit Number: 9 12 Unit 8 II: Unit Title: astronomy




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COURSE: Earth/Environmental Science
I. Grade Level/Unit Number: 9 - 12 Unit 8
II: Unit Title: ASTRONOMY

  • Part 1 – Tools of the Astronomer

  • Part 2 – Celestial Motions

  • Part 3 – The Solar System

  • Part 4 – Stars

  • Part 5 – Deep Sky Astronomy


III. Unit Length: 2-2.5 weeks (on a 90 min per day block schedule)


  1. Major Learning Outcomes:

The student will gain an understanding of planetary motion and the physical laws that explain that motion including rotation, revolution, apparent diurnal motions of the stars, sun and moon, and the effects of the tilt of the earth’s axis. They will also gain knowledge in analyzing current theories of the formation of the universe and solar system and how they have evolved into the theories of today.





  1. Content Objectives Included (with RBT Tags):




Objective Number

Objective

RBT Tag

6.01

Analyze the theories of the formation of the universe and solar system.


B4

6.02

Analyze planetary motion and the physical laws that explain that motion:

  • Rotation.

  • Revolution.

  • Apparent diurnal motions of the stars, sun and moon.

  • Effects of the tilt of the earth's axis.




A3, A4, B2, B4, C4

6.03

Examine the sources of stellar energies.

  • Life cycle of stars.

  • Hertzsprung - Russell Diagram.

A3, C3, C4

6.04

Assess the spectra generated by stars and our sun as indicators of motion and composition (the Doppler effect).


B5, C4

6.05

Evaluate astronomers' use of various technologies to extend their senses:

  • Optical telescopes.

  • Cameras.

  • Radio telescopes.

  • Spectroscope. Identify questions and problems in the earth and environmental sciences that can be answered through scientific investigations

C4, D4,

1.01

Identify questions and problems in the earth and environmental sciences that can be answered through scientific investigations.

A5


1.02

Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer questions related to earth and environmental science.

  • Create testable hypotheses

  • Identify variables.

  • Use a control or comparison group when appropriate.

  • Select and use appropriate measurement tools.

  • Collect and record data.

  • Organize data into charts and graphs.

  • Analyze and interpret data.

  • Communicate findings.




C6

1.04

Apply safety procedures in the laboratory and in field studies:

  • Recognize and avoid potential hazards.

  • Safely manipulate materials and equipment needed for scientific investigations.




A3




  1. English Language Development Objectives (LEP) Included (See Appendix for summary of LEP Standard Course of Study):

Suggestions for modified instruction and scaffolding for LEP students and/or students who need additional support are embedded in the unit plan and/or are added at the end of the corresponding section of the lessons. These suggestions are presented in italics in a text box. The amount of scaffolding needed will depend on the level of English proficiency of each LEP student. Therefore, novice level students will need more support with the language needed to understand and demonstrate the acquisition of concepts than intermediate or advanced students.



LEP Accommodation Considerations
The following are general suggestions for accommodating English second language:


  1. Assess the prior knowledge of your LEP student and make sure that he or she has adequate background information in order to execute this activity.

  2. Provide graphic organizers or roadmaps illustrating the specific procedures and expectations of each activity.

  3. Provide highlighted text which target key vocabulary and concepts. Review this text prior to activity.

  4. Elicit verbal response of understanding from student. For, example, “Explain to (or show me) me what you need to do next.”

  5. Include marginal notes in activity outline to re-emphasize terms and concepts.

  6. Provide visual demonstration in conjunction with verbal instructions

  7. Provide immediate feedback and or assessment in order to reinforce objectives.

  8. Provide for alternate forms of assessment such as concept maps, graphic organizers, verbal explanations, written explanations, or actual performance rather than strictly pen and paper tests.

  9. Provide LEP students the opportunity to peer tutor, pairing those who are on different proficiency levels.

  10. Provide opportunities to demonstrate effective test- taking strategies, regularly exposing students to sample questions.







  1. Materials/Equipment Needed:




Activity

Materials

Tools of the Astronomer

FINDING THE SIZE OF THE SUN AND THE MOON

1 - sheet of cardboard


1 - sheet of white paper
1 - piece of aluminum foil approximately 1 x 1 -inch (3 x 3 centimeters).
1 - pin or sharp point
1 - roll of tape
1 - pair of scissors
1 - ruler
1 - candle




MAKING AND USING A SIMPLE ASTROLABE

1 - piece of cardboard, manila file folder, or other stiff paper 1 - piece of dark thread or string 12 inches (30 centimeters) long.

1 - small weight, such as a metal washer

1 - plastic drinking straw

1 - copy of an astrolabe drawing
1 - container of glue or paste

1 - pair of scissors

1 - roll tape

1 - paper hole puncher






THE SPECTROMETER

spectrometer

incandescent light bulb (bulb with a glowing filament)

mercury fluorescent light

miscellaneous light sources





USING THE SUNSPOTTER
2 sheets of stiff white paper

A pin


A sunny day

Perhaps a friend to help




Celestial Motions

SHADOW DANCE and WHERE IS THE SUN?

1 - tube of glue or roll of tape

1 - large piece of poster board

1 - small piece of cardboard or Styrofoam

1 – toothpick

1 - flashlight







MOON PHASE ACTIVITY

Light bulb on a stand or clamp (or lamp with its shade removed)

Extension cord

Styrofoam balls or light-colored spheres

Pencils





OBSERVING MOON PHASES AND FEATURES

Moon phase tables

Moon phase data collection sheets





EARTH’S MOTIONS LAB (Web Quest)

Computers with Internet access






LAB ON THE SUN’S PATH (Web Quest)

Computers with Internet access






IMAGINARY PLANET CHARACTERISTICS

Car


polystyrene balls

dowels


light source




KEPLER’S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

computers with Internet access

Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion applet

Quick fact data sheets

Planetary data table


The Solar System


THE ORDER OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Clue cards

Planet printouts





THE SIZE AND DISTANCE OF THE PLANETS

1 - set of clue cards

1 - set of planet image cards

1 - glue stick



1 - pair scissors

1 - piece of construction paper






PROJECTING AN IMAGE OF THE SUN

2 sheets of stiff white paper (index cards or card stock)

A pin

A sunny day






USING THE SUNSPOTTER

Sunspotter

Copy of recording sheet




SOLAR SYSTEM PROJECT

Project outline sheet

Students will need to have access to the library and Internet for research

Stars

HOW OLD ARE THE JEWELS?

these instructions,

print of the Jewelbox Cluster (Provided by LCD Projector)

StarGauge (Provided by LCD Projector)

graph sheet,

student answer sheet






STELLAR CHARACTERISTICS

Computers with Internet access






LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

Computers with Internet access



Deep Sky Astronomy

COSMIC CALENDAR

Twelve monthly calendars

Clothesline and clothespins (optional - to string the calendar across the classroom)

Cosmic Cards for each major event with the date of the event written on the back (covered with a piece of paper).





HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE?

Calculator






GALAXY SORTING

Student sets of galaxy cards






HOW OLD ARE THE JEWELS?
print of the Jewelbox Cluster (Provided by LCD Projector)

StarGauge (Provided by LCD Projector)

graph sheet,

student worksheet and answer sheet






IDENTIFYING GALAXIES

Set of transparencies






CLASSIFYING GALAXIES USING HUBBLE’S FORK DIAGRAM

Diagram of Hubble’s fork

Set of transparencies

IDENTIFYING UNUSUAL GALAXIES

Student worksheet






OPEN CLUSTERS VS. GLOBULAR CLUSERS

Student worksheet of Venn diagram

Set of transparencies





EVIDENCE FOR HIDDEN MASS

Student worksheet






WEIGHING A GALAXY

Student worksheet

Calculators





THE UNIVERSE AS SCIENTISTS KNOW IT

Copy of concept map


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