The chapter now begins with a “word task” that was widely circulated via the web/e-mail, and which is later used to illustrate the importance of critical thinking and the pervasiveness of misconceptions about behavior. The former “Ray—Kira” opening vignette has been shortened and moved to the section on “Perspectives on Behavior”, where it then continues to be used to illustrate each of psychology’s major historical perspectives.
The chapter’s first main section, “The Nature of Psychology,” now includes descriptions of 8 major psychological subfields to give students a better and more immediate understanding of psychology’s breadth.
A new main section on “Psychology’s Scientific Approach” then describes psychology’s empirical approach, identifies pitfalls in everyday thinking that can lead to misconceptions about behavior, and discusses how a scientific approach seeks to minimize these pitfalls.
Building upon this discussion of “psychology as a science,” a new main section on “Thinking Critically About Behavior” uses the chapter opening jumbled word exercise to emphasize the importance of critically evaluating conclusions and thinking about alternative explanations for behavior. Potential costs of “uncritical thinking” and pseudoscience are discussed.
A new Myth or Reality feature critically examines the popular belief that when it comes to changing answers on multiple-choice and true-false, students typically should stick with their first instinct. Research by Kruger, Wirtz, & Miller (2005) is featured.
A separate section on “Basic and Applied Research” now follows the discussion of “Goals of Psychology.” In both sections, Kruger et al.’s (2005) research provides the focal example and replaces the previous examples of the Robber’s Cave study and cooperative learning/jigsaw groups. (Cooperative learning is discussed in the section on prejudice reduction in Chapter 17).
Coverage of psychology’s historical perspectives has been shortened slightly (by about 5 percent) but is still a prominent component of the chapter. In discussing the sociocultural perspective, the social psychological approach is now explicitly described in a separate section and precedes the discussion of cultural psychology.
In the section on psychology as “A Global Science and Profession”, the table that describes psychological subfields has been shortened. Subfields now described in the narrative at the beginning of the chapter have been deleted to avoid redundancy and two new subfields (health psychology, forensic psychology) have been added.
The section on “Psychology and Your Life” has been changed to “Psychology, Society, and Your Life” and adds two new examples to the already existing discussion of “Psychology and Public Policy”: how psychological research has improved airline safety, and President Obama’s formation of a “behavioral dream team” to provide consultation during the 2008 Presidential election campaign.
The discussion of "Defining and Measuring Variables" now describes how researchers can use multiple measures within a single study to operationally define a variable.
The new example used to illustrate unobtrusive measurement states more explicitly why a measure is or is not unobtrusive.
The Myth or Reality feature reports findings from the most recent (2005) Gallup poll on American's paranormal beliefs and provides examples of paranormal media content. Possible reasons for widespread belief in the paranormal are cited, along with the disagreement about the standard of proof. The description of the Ganzfeld procedure is improved. Additional meta-analytic results and research findings are noted.
Chapter 3: Genes, Environment, and Behavior
New content on epigenetics, the ways in which internal and external environmental factors can influence genotypic expression and be carried across generations (Masterpasqua, 2009).
New content on evolution, including the recent discovery of Ardipithecus ramidus, the earliest bipedal hominid on whom we have extensive fossil evidence.
Updated information on evolution, culture, and sex roles, including evidence that financially independent women, like men, choose younger attractive romantic partners rather than older affluent ones (Bower, 2009).
Updated treatment of genetic and environmental influences on intelligence and personality development.
A Myth or Reality? feature that analyzes the proposition that “Evolution is Part of Nature’s Plan.”
Chapter 4: The Brain and Behavior
The Applying Psychological Science feature presents updated information on the psychopharmacology of psychoactive drugs and how they affect neurotransmitter systems and brain functioning.
A new Research Close-Up feature on Sperry’s pioneering split brain research and its implications for understanding the brain.
New information on sex differences in the cerebral lateralization of language.
Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
A new Myth or Reality? Feature considers the question of whether (and to what extent) subliminal stimuli can program our behavior, affect, and thinking.
Much of the basic information on pain previously presented in the “Health and Well-being chapter (14) has been updated and moved into this chapter. The applied information on pain control methods remains in the Health and Well-being chapter.
The Applying Psychological Science feature on sensory prosthetics contains a description of the recently developed SmartHand that provides amputees with both sensory input and precise motor control.
New evidence (Lin et al., 2009) that humans have a special visual system that processes threatening information, as suggested in the George W. Bush shoe-ducking incident in Iraq.
The discussion of the emotional unconscious no longer includes the case of the amnesiac patient reported by Claparéde (1911).
In describing how dreams play a key role in the social fabric of some traditional cultures, the reference to the Timiar (Senoi) of Malaysia has been replaced by a more recent study of the indigenous inhabitants of Dominica in the Carribean Islands (George-Joseph & Smith, 2008). Cross-cultural findings on dream content have been added, along with an accompanying table.
The discussion of dream theories now includes findings (and a Figure) from a recent cross-cultural study examining how college students in America, South Korea, and India view the validity of various dream theories (Mowewedge & Norton, 2009).
The coverage of drug-induced states now includes the most recent available national prevalence data (Johnston et al., 2009) on American college students' use of specific drugs.
Hypnosis is now defined as a procedure rather than as a state, in accordance with APA's (2005) recommended definition.
A new Myth or Reality feature examines whether hypnosis enhances eyewitness memory. This feature replaces the former Beneath the Surface discussion of "When Dreams Come True", which has been dropped.
The discussion of the "hypnotized brain" has been streamlined and now mentions findings concerning the brain's response to pain-reducing hypnotic suggestions.
Chapter 7: Learning: The Role of Experience
The chapter now opens with two rather than three brief vignettes (a classically conditioned fear of cars; the operant conditioning of prosocial and gambling behaviors). The vignette about the teenage boys who wrestle has been dropped.
The discussion of classically conditioned allergic reactions now notes that such reactions not only can be acquired, but also reduced in strength via pairing procedures (Goebel et al., 2008). To reduce length, the 1956 "case of the asthma patient and the goldfish" has been dropped.
The Myth or Reality feature on "Spanking is a Necessary Evil" substantially updates the previous Beneath the Surface discussion of "spare the rod, spoil the child." It includes more current information on the prevalence of spanking, new citations on spanking outcomes, and specifically notes the argument that other forms of discipline also can have negative developmental outcomes.
Shaping is illustrated in detail with a new and more current example involving the production of speech in a boy with selective mutism (Facon, 2008). The Figure presenting data from this study now directly illustrates the shaping process whereas the Figure based on the previous study did not. Moreover, the Figure now is placed to accompany the narrative description whereas in prior editions it was located in a later section on applied behavior analysis.
The discussion of the role of awareness in operant conditioning has been streamlined by dropping coverage of Spielberger & DeNike's (1966) on verbal conditioning.
Chapter 8: Memory
The separate Levels of Analysis figures for “Remembering” and for “Forgetting” have been combined into one figure on Levels of Analysis in Studying Memory.
The Myth or Reality feature explores the relation between memory confidence and memory accuracy, focusing primarily on the topic of flashbulb memory. Recent findings on flashbulb memories of 9/11, based on a nationally representative sample of Americans, are discussed (Conway et al., 2009).
The discussion of implicit memory no longer includes the case of the amnesiac patient reported by Claparéde (1911).
The discussion of memory construction includes recent findings on memory distortion in college alumni’s recollections of their college grades (Bahrick et al., 2008). The Research Close-Up, which examines false memories on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott critical lure task by people with memories of alien abduction, now describes a successful conceptual replication involving people who claim memories of past lives (Meyersburg et al., 2009).
Updates have been added to the coverage of children’s recall of traumatic events to the recovered memory controversy (Goodman et al., 2010).
The discussion of Culture and Memory mentions two studies that replicate earlier findings on cross-cultural differences in the age of earliest autobiographical memories (Fiske & Pillemer, 2006; Wang, 2006).
Chapter 9: Language and Thinking
A new chapter opening vignette ties the themes of language and decision-making into the “Miracle on the Hudson” (the successful 2009 ditching of U.S. Airways Flight 1549 in the Hudson River).
The concept of double entendre is added to the discussion of the surface and deep structure of language.
In the section on Acquiring a First Language, the description of Chomsky’s position has been simplified. The key terms “language acquisition device” and “language acquisition support system” (Bruner, 1983) have been deleted.
The discussion of bilingualism now mentions not only potential benefits of learning a second language (L2) on cognitive skills, but also potential negative effects on vocabulary size (Bialystok & Feng, 2009).
New findings are reported about the bilingual brain and the relation between the age of L2 learning and fluency. A recent study and new figure are highlighted, addressing the question of whether late L2 learners can achieve full native-like L2 proficiency (Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, 2009).
An entirely new section on learning to read discusses the concept of phonological awareness, describes findings how we recognize words, and presents a figure that illustrates how the “reading network” involves regions of each lobe of the brain (Pammer, 2009).
The new Myth or Reality feature examines the belief that dyslexia is a “reading-backwards” disorder and discusses other misconceptions about dyslexia.
A new example involving medical diagnosis is used to illustrate the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.
The discussion of the representativeness heuristic, the availability heuristic, and confirmation bias include new secondary or primary examples to help students better grasp these concepts.
The discussion of “The Nature of Expertise” now uses the Miracle on the Hudson vignette to illustrate the role that schemas play in expertise, and also mentions how experts’ schemas can sometimes interfere with optimal problem-solving.
A Figure that illustrates the major components of wisdom (Baltes & Smith, 2008) has been added to the section on “What is Wisdom?”
Chapter 10: Intelligence
A section on multiple intelligences includes new content on the nature and measurement of personal intelligence (Mayer, 2009).
The Myth or Reality feature considers the relations that have now been found between brain size and intelligence, plus new findings regarding neural efficiency and IQ.
New information on how Blacks and Whites differ in their conceptions of intelligence and its genetic, environmental, and personal choice causes (Jayaratne et al., 2009).
New evidence is reviewed on how sex hormones activated by stereotype threat and stereotype lift conditions can affect cognitive performance of men and women.
Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion
The chapter opens with the inspiring story of The Three Doctors, African-American youth from the inner city who made a pact to become doctors and succeeded in doing so.
A new section on Self-Determination Theory reviews the causes and consequences of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, including 2009 studies by Deci, Ryan, and others.
The Applying Psychological Science feature reviews the evidence for the efficacy of systematic goal-setting procedures and shows students how to apply these principles in their own lives.
The Myth or Reality? Feature is titled, “The Lie Detector Can Tell if You’re Guilty or Innocent.”
The Research Close-Up presents the classic studies of Lazarus and Schachter exploring causal relations between cognition and emotional arousal.
Chapter 12: Development Over the Life Span
"Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders"has been added as a key term and defined. "Fetal alcohol syndrome" is retained as a key term and is identified as a disorder within the spectrum.
In discussing childhood, a new section on Social Skill Development (Berry & O'Connor, 2010) now follows the discussion of "Early Emotions and Emotion Regulation and relates emotional and social skill development to socialization.
In Figure 12.23 on parenting styles, the label "Neglectful" replaces "Neglicting" in order to match the key term used in the narrative and reflect the term in more common use today.
The Myth or Reality feature is titled "The Brain is Like a Muscle: Use it or Lose it". It includes recent scientific references and adds examples of how the "mental exercise hypothesis" has generated popular products that claim to build mental power.
Following the Research Close-Up on "What Does it Take to be an Adult" a new section titled "Emerging Adulthood Beliefs across Cultures" discusses cross-cultural similarities and differences in beliefs about the criteria deemed necessary for attaining adulthood.
Chapter 13: Personality
As before, the chapter opens with a historical description of mass killer Charles Whitman. Following treatment of the biological, psychodynamic, phenomenological-humanistic, trait, and social-cognitive perspectives, the Applying Psychological Science feature uses concepts and propositions from each of these perspectives to piece together a coherent personality description of Whitman and the likely causal factors in his murderous acts.
This chapter’s Myth or Reality? feature challenges the proposition that trained psychological profilers are helpful in solving crimes and analyzes the reasons they have such credibility in the mass media and law enforcement domains. Part of this discussion introduces clinical vs. actuarial prediction and the operation of cognitive heuristics.
Chapter 14: Health and Well-Being
Thoroughly reorganized and revised, this chapter has a positive psychology orientation in focusing on physical and psychological wellness and the factors that influence it.
The Myth or Reality? feature tackles the misconception of many college students that binge drinking is harmless fun.
A new section on resilience follows the material on stress and its effects on physical and psychological well-being. The Research Close-Up presents a recent study of coping strategies that influenced the relation between life stress and illness in young athletes.
A new updated section on happiness has been moved from the Motivation and Emotion chapter. The Applying Psychological Science feature presents research-derived guidelines for increasing one’s subjective well-being.
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
This chapter has been extensively restructured and updated, moving from a treatment of the major psychological disorders of adults and children to an analysis of scientific and social issues in psychiatric diagnosis.
Our levels-of analysis-approach considers each class of disorders from a biological, psychological, and environmental analysis of causal factors.
The Myth or Reality? feature explores the proposition that people with psychological disorders are especially dangerous.
The Research Close-Up presents a recent study by Adrian Raine’s group on differences in prefrontal brain characteristics between successful (not apprehended) and unsuccessful (imprisoned) psychopaths.
A restructured section on psychiatric diagnosis considers the differences between categorical and dimensional approaches to description and diagnosis, considers the changes coming in DSM-V, and shows how the newly-proposed (February, 2010) DSM-V revision makes use of dimensional rating scales to diagnose personality disorders.
Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
This chapter, like all others, is completely updated, including nearly 40 new citations from 2008-2010.
A new section on “third-wave” cognitive-behavioral therapies describes mindfulness approaches, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy, reviewing the evidence for their efficacy.
Costantino et al’s (2009) research on how cultural congruence (between treatment and cultural beliefs) influences treatment outcomes for minorities is reviewed.
The Myth or Reality? feature considers the efficacy and safety of antidepressant medications for depression, including the 2010 Fournier et al study that showed that only the most depressed patients showed drug effects that exceeded placebos.
An expanded section on treatment research methods applies scientific principles to this high-interest topic.
Chapter 17: Social Thinking and Behavior
In the section on "Norms, Conformity, and Obedience", the brief discussion of social norms governing personal space has been deleted.
In the Research Close-Up on Milgram's obedience research, the content of "Research Design" box has been simplified by focusing solely on his overall program as "experimental," and deleting mention of the "descriptive" nature of each individual study.
In the section on "Detecting and Resisting Compliance Techniques", the norm of reciprocity is still covered but the accompanying example and photo pertaining to the Hare Krishna Society's use of this norm in the 1970's has been deleted.
In the section on "Behavior in Groups", the description of Ringelmann's rope-pulling experiment has been dropped from the social loafing section. New findings related to social loafing and groupthink are noted (e.g., Pearsall et al., 2010; Troyer & Youngreen, 2009).
A recent study on speed dating (Luo & Zhang, 2009) is now discussed in the section on "Initial Attraction"; Walster et al.'s (1966) classic study is described more briefly.
The section on "Media Violence" and the Myth or Reality feature on video game violence contain many new references (e.g., Anderson et al., 2010). New meta-analytic and longitudinal findings on video game violence are described. While retaining the conclusion that exposure to violent media and video games increases the risk of aggression, dissenting viewpoints are noted (e.g., Ferguson, 2010).