Calicioid Lichens and Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park




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Calicioid Lichens and Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

(Second and Final Investigation)


Thirty-three species in seven genera of calicioid lichens and fungi are

reported for Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Twelve of these

are new records for the park, bringing the total for the park to 43. Of

these twelve, two, Chaenothecopsis amurensis and Chaenothecopsis

resinicola, are new records for North America.

Principal Investigator

Steven B. Selva, PhD

University of Maine at Fort Kent

23 University Drive

Fort Kent, ME 04743

Phone: 207-834-7617

Email: sselva@maine.edu

Supported financially, and with in-kind contributions, by

The University of Maine System’s Trustee Professorship Fund and

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

(Study #GRSM-00370; Permit #GRSM-2008-SCI-0016)


March 21, 2009
Table of Contents

page


Introduction 3

Methods 5

Results and Discussion 6

Acknowledgements 7

Literature Cited 8

Tables


I. List of Species Collected in 2008 (by Collection 10

Number), with substrate and GPS coordinates

II. List of All Calicioid Lichen and Fungi Species 19

Known for Great Smoky Mountains National

Park, with authorities

III. List of All Calicioid Lichen and Fungi Species 20

Known for Great Smoky Mountains National

Park, with substrates



Introduction and Previous Work
The current investigation follows, by three years, my first investigation of the calicioid lichens and fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. As a lichenologist specializing in the lichens of old-growth forests, one group of species that has captured my attention more than any other is the calicioid lichens and fungi. Characterized as an extremely heterogeneous assemblage of saprophytic, parasitic and lichenized fungi, most species in the group can be distinguished by their tiny (1-2 mm tall) stipitate apothecia. They colonize a variety of substrates, including the bark and lignum of numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species, as well as bryophytes and rock. Most species show clear substrate preferences and a few have a rather narrow choice of substrates. Like Tibell (1980), who noted that “Chaenotheca and other Caliciales species seem very sensitive to changes in forest climate, and most species indeed seem to depend on the occurrence of mature forests containing trees of different ages and a varied light and humidity regime”, I, too, have recorded similar trends, where many of the rarer calicioid species are restricted to ancient and old-growth forest sites (e.g., Selva 1988, 1994, 1996, 2003). Further, given the fact that the diversity of microhabitats can be expected to increase over time in an aging forest and that the calicioid lichens and fungi can be found growing in more of these microhabitats than any other group of lichen species, it is argued that an index based on the total number of calicioid species collected at a site (Selva 2002, 2003) provides a more accurate assessment of continuity than do those methods following Rose (1974, 1976).

With over 40,000 hectares of old-growth forests (Ciegler et al. 2003), one would expect Great Smoky Mountains National Park to be a haven for calicioid lichens and fungi. But as a group of organisms sensitive to changes in forest climate, as well as to disturbances in the structural integrity of the forest, their biodiversity has been threatened by a variety of problems over the years. Ninety years ago, for example, the most common tree in what is now Great Smoky Mountains National Park was the American chestnut, Castanea dentata: One in every three trees was a chestnut! Today, you can find only stumps and a few snags of what once was a formidable species. William MacDonald, a professor of plant pathology at West Virginia University wrote that “the devastation of the American chestnut by the chestnut blight represents one of the greatest recorded changes in natural plant populations caused by an introduced organism” (MacDonald 1978). Today, less than a century later, park managers are bracing themselves for an equally devastating upheaval in the forest ecosystem—the loss of the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, by yet another introduced organism, a scale insect called the hemlock woolly adelgid. And if this weren’t enough, the introduced balsam woolly adelgid has already eliminated most of the Fraser fir—the fir of the spruce-fir forest, a non-native fungus-scale insect complex threatens the survival of the American beech, and the gypsy moth is expected to threaten oak forests with total destruction. To add to the structural disturbances that these problems bring, Great Smoky Mountains National Park has been found to be the most polluted of the national parks, based on haze, ozone, and acid precipitation.

In January of 2004, I was invited by Dr. Harold Keller of Central Missouri State University to participate in an NSF-sponsored research project entitled “Biodiversity and Ecology of Tree Canopy Biota in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park” (Keller 2003). As a member of a multidisciplinary research team responsible for identifying and curating organisms collected in the forest canopy, my specific responsibility was for the calicioid lichens and fungi that might be found.

My first opportunity to introduce prospective student climbers/collectors and other interested parties to this group of organisms and their microhabitat preferences was over the weekend of June 19-20, 2004 at an event billed as the first “Lichen BioQuest in Great Smoky Mountains National Park” (Keller et al. 2007). Held at the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont, near Knoxville, Tennessee, the weekend included lectures, hands-on activities and demonstrations by me and fellow lichenologist Thorston Lumbsch from the Field Museum in Chicago, as well as field trips to several locations in the park where participants were invited to collect specimens for identification later in the day. Of the seven calicioid lichens that I collected that afternoon, I was surprised to learn that four were new park records. Equally surprising were the facts that only two species—Chaenothecopsis pusilla and Sphinctrina turbinata—were known from published sources (Ciegler et al. 2003), while these plus an additional three species—Chaenotheca chrysocephala, Cyphelium lucidum, and Phaeocalicium compressulum—were represented on an internal, unpublished park list prepared from Martin and Martin (1998).

Insofar as one of the objectives of Dr. Keller’s NSF-sponsored canopy investigation was to “compare the assemblages of tree canopy organisms with those found on ground sites” (Keller 2003), it was clear that, after finding four new calicioid records for the park over the course of an afternoon, our understanding of the calicioid flora on ground sites within Great Smoky Mountains National Park had much to be desired and also needed to be addressed. To that end, collecting permits were obtained, funds were secured, and itineraries prepared and carried out for two 2-week ground assault investigations, one over the summer of 2005, the other over the summer of 2008.

A summary of the results of the 2005 investigation are as follows:


Thirty species in 8 genera of calicioid lichens and fungi are reported for

Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Twenty-six of these are new

records for the park, bringing the total for the park to 31. Several of

these species are also new records for the states of Tennessee and North

Carolina, as well as for the Southeastern United States as a whole, and

one, Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala, is a new record for the Americas— previously known only from the Russian Far East. As perhaps our most

sensitive indicators of forest ecosystem health, twenty-six species of

calicioid lichens and fungi were collected in the northeastern region of

the park and only 15 species were collected in the southwestern region, a reflection, it appears, of the severity of the damage that the forests in each

region have experienced as a result of air pollution and insect infestations.



Methods
An accurate assessment of the ecological continuity of any stand is predicated on the compilation of as complete an inventory of the lichen species of the survey area as possible. Since many of these species are rare even at ancient forest sites, the Relevé Analysis for Classification approach to sampling (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974), a form of “intelligent meander”, is preferred. While mindful of the disadvantages of preferential sampling—that of “being biased by subjectivity and of not allowing statistical inferences from the data”, the advantage of “allowing the highest sampling intensity” with “less likelihood of missing localized rich areas” (Nimis 1991) makes this the sampling option of choice. Numerous replicates increase the chances that rarer species—many of which are not visible with the naked eye, let alone identifiable in the field--would be captured (Selva 1994).

Depending on the relative age and size of the stand to be sampled, one or two days of sampling is the protocol. Since a younger forest will have fewer microhabitats than an older forest and a smaller site will have less terrain to cover than a larger one, it usually becomes apparent after a six- to eight-hour day of meandering from one potential microsite to the next whether or not you have exhausted the available pool. If the stand is larger and/or older, a second day of sampling may be warranted. Every effort is made to collect specimens from each tree species represented at the site, regardless of condition. Epiphytes growing on both bark and wood are collected from standing as well as fallen trees, whether intact or at some stage of decomposition. Specimens on standing trees are collected from as high on the trunk as could be reached, downward to the soil, and from accessible branches. All surfaces and edges of substrate fragments are examined in the lab, where specimens are identified using standard techniques and following nomenclature according to Esslinger (2008).



Results and Discussion
Thirty-three species in seven genera of calicioid lichens and fungi are reported for Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 2008. Twelve of these are new records for the park, two of which, Chaenothecopsis amurensis and Chaenothecopsis resinicola are also new records for North America.

Chaenothecopsis amurensis Titov, which has also been collected by me in New Brunswick, was first described from the Russian Far East by Titov and Tibell (1993). Rikkinen (2003) has reported Chaenothecopsis cf amurensis in Oregon.

Chaenothecopsis resinicola Tibell & Titov is a resinicolous species described in 1995 from the Russian Far East (Tibell & Titov 1995). It was collected growing over resin on Tsuga canadensis in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

When the twelve new records for 2008 are added to the thirty-one calicioid species recorded for the park after our 2005 investigation, the total number of calicioid lichens and fungi known for Great Smoky Mountains National Park rises to forty-three.

With the exception of wanting to collect from Pinus pungens along the Baskins creek Trail in Tennessee, all of the calicioid specimens collected in 2008 came from Swain and Haywood Counties in North Carolina. This was based, in part on the fact that, in 2005, fifteen of the species collected in the eastern half of the park were not collected in the western half, as compared to having collected only 3 calicioid species in the western half of the park that were not collected in the eastern half.

Based on the fact that many of the specimens collected over the course of this investigation were difficult to find and “few and far between” in occurrence, it suggests to me that the integrity of the forests at Great Smoky Mountains National Park have been compromised. As a group of species that don’t tolerate disturbance--either in the form of pollution or disruptions in stand structure, the calicioid lichens and fungi are under threat. This investigation will serve as a baseline for similar studies in the future.



Acknowlegements
I take this opportunity to thank both the faculty and administration at the University of Maine at Fort Kent for their support of my successful efforts to secure a University of Maine System Trustee Professorship, which has enabled me to proceed with this project. I would also like to thank Keith Langdon and Paul Super and their staffs at Great Smoky Mountains National Park for helping us secure permission to collect specimens within the park, as well as to stay at the Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center at Purchase Knob. And, finally, I’d like to thank my wife Marcy, who accompanied me on most of the fieldtrips and helped make the often tedious work of collecting lichen specimens more enjoyable.

Literature Cited:
Ciegler, A., U. H. Eliasson, & H. W. Keller. 2003. Tree canopy lichens of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Evansia 20:114-131.
Esslinger, T. L. 2008. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming,
lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota
State University: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (First
Posted 1 December 1997, Most Recent Version (#14) 8 October 2008), Fargo, North Dakota.
Hawksworth, D. L. and D. J. Hill. 1984. The lichen-forming fungi. Blackie & Son, Ltd., Glasgow.
Keller, H. W. 2003. RUI: Biodiversity & ecology of tree canopy biota in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. A proposal submitted to (and subsequently funded by) the National Science Foundation. NSF Proposal Number 0343447.
Keller, H. W., J. S. Ely, H. T. Lumbsch, & S. B. Selva. 2007. Great Smoky Mountains National Park’s first Lichen Bio-Quest. Southeastern Naturalist Special Issue 1:89-98.
MacDonald, W. L. 1978. Foreward. P. v in Proc. Of the American chestnut symposium, MacDonald, W. L., et al. (eds.). West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, WV.
Martin, J., & L. Martin. 1998. Lichen inventory and monitoring at Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Kings Mountain National Military Park and Shiloh National Military Park. Part I, II, III. CEIP, Bowling Green State University, ICEB, US. DI National Park Service, Cooperative Agreement No. CA-5000-3-9025. 567p.
Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology, Wiley, New York, NY. 380 p.
Nimis, P. L. 1991. Developments in lichen community studies. Lichenologist 23:215-225.
Rikkinen, J. 2003. Calicioid lichens and fungi in the forests and woodlands of western Oregon. Acta Bot. Fennica 175:1-41.
Rose, F. 1974. The epiphytes of oak. In M. G. Morris and F. H. Perring, eds. The British oak: Its history and natural history. Faringdon, London. Pp. 250-273.
Rose, F. 1976. Lichenological indicators of age and environmenal continuity in woodlands. In D. H. Brown, D. L. Hawksworth, and R. H. Bailey, eds. Lichenology: Progress and Problems. Academic Press, New York, NY. Pp. 279-307.
Selva, S. B. 1988. The Caliciales of northern Maine. The Bryologist 91:2-17.

Selva, S. B. 1994. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of northern New England and western New Brunswick. The Bryologist 94:424-428.


Selva, S. B. 1996. Using lichens to assess ecological continuity in northeastern forests. In M. B. Davis, ed. Eastern Old-growth Forests. Island Press, Washington, D. C. Pp. 35-48.
Selva, S. B. 1999. Using lichens in the Order Caliciales to assess ecological continuity in the forests of Baxter State Park, Maine. An unpublished report submitted to Sweet Water Trust, Boston, MA.
Selva, S. B. 2002. Indicator species – Restricted taxa approach in coniferous and hardwood forests of northeastern America, pp. 349-352. In Nimis, P. L., C. Scheidegger, & P. A. Wolseley (eds), Monitoring with lichens – Monitoring lichens. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
Selva, S. B. 2003. Using calicioid lichens and fungi to assess ecological continuity in the Acadian Forest Ecoregion of the Canadian Maritimes. The Forestry Chronicle 79:550-558.
Tibell, L. 1980. The lichen genus Chaenotheca in the Northern Hemisphere. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 23: 1-65.
Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 79:597-713.
Tibell, L. and A. Titov. 1995. Species of Chaenothecopsis and Mycocalicium (Caliciales) on exudates. The Bryologist 98:550-560.
Titov, A. and L. Tibell. 1993. Chaenothecopsis in the Russian Far East. Nordic Journal of Botany 13:313-329.

Table I. List of Calicioid Lichen and Fungi Species Collected in 2008 (by Collection Number), with Substrates and GPS Coordinates


North Carolina, Swain County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Beech Gap Trail from its junction with Balsam Mountain Road, toward the Balsam Mountain Trail. With March Selva. August 1, 2008.
10114 Phaeocalicium polyporaeum Corticolous, over polypore, on Betula alleghaniensis
10115 No calicioid specimens
10116 Chaenothecopsis amurensis Corticolous on Acer saccharinum

Chaenothecopsis sp.
10117 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on Acer rubrum
10118 Mycocalicium albonigrum Corticolous on Quercus prinus

Chaenothecopsis sp.
10119 Chaenotheca chlorella Lignicolous on Quercus prinus

0299982/3944948


10120 Chaenothecopsis debilis Lignicolous on Quercus alba

0299662/3944879


10121 No calicioid specimens
10122 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0299736/3945207


10123 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0300516/3945385


10124 Chaenotheca hygrophila Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Chaenotheca brunneola

0300011/3944767


10125 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0299736/3945207


10126 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Castanea dentata



Chaenothecopsis pusilla

0299736/3945207


10127 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis

10128 Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

0299736/3945207
10129 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Microcalicium ahlneri

0299736/3945207


10130 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Chaenothecopsis sp.
10131 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

10132 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Caldwell Fork Trail from its Cataloochee Road trailhead (between the Cataloochee Campground and Ranger Station), toward its junction with the McKee Branch Trail. August 2, 2008.
10133 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0310076/3942955


10134 Chaenothecopsis savonica Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

0310076/3942955


10135 Chaenotheca laevigata Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

Calicium lenticulare

Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala over resin

0310076/3942955


10136 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

0310076/3942955


10137 Chaenotheca hispidula Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

Mycocalicium subtile

0310076/3942955

10138 Microcalicium ahlneri Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

Chaenothecopsis savonica

Chaenotheca sp.

0310156/3943017

10139 Chaenothecopsis sp. Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

0310156/3943017


10140 Chaenotheca furfuracea Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis

0310017/3942253


10141 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

0310050/3942908


10142 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0310050/3942908


10143 Chaenothecopsis resinicola Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

Chaenothecopsis edbergii (over resin)

Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala (over resin)

Chaenotheca trichialis

0310050/3942908


10144 Microcalicium ahlneri Lignicolous on Betula alleghaniensis

0309935/3942277

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Boogerman Trail from its junction with the Caldwell Fork Trail, which was accessed between the Cataloochee Campround and Ranger Station. With Marcy Selva. August 4, 2008.
10145 Phaeocalicium polyporaeum Corticolous, over polypore, on Betula alleghaniensis

0310908/3943644


10146 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis

0310908/3943644


10147 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

Chaenotheca trichialis

0310923/3943612


10148 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0310923/3943612

10149 Chaenotheca chrysocephala Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

0310990/3943730


10150 Microcalicium ahlneri Corticolous on Pinus strobus

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0310908/3943644


10151 Calicium parvum Corticolous on Pinus strobus

Chaenotheca sp.

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311102/3944020


10152 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Pinus strobus

0311082/3944053


10153 Calicium parvum Corticolous on Pinus strobus

0311082/3944053


10154 Calicium parvum Corticolous on Pinus strobus

0310937/3943958


10155 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Pinus strobus

0311114/3943964


10156 Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on Pinus strobus

Chaenotheca brunneola

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311079/3944055


10157 Chaenotheca ferruginea Corticolous on Pinus strobus

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311114/3943964


10158 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on Pinus strobus

0311133/3943919


10159 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on an unidentifiable conifer

0310908/3943644


10160 Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

0311088/3944091


10161 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on an unidentifiable species

Chaenotheca sp.

0311088/3944091

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Baxter Creek Trail from its trailhead near Big Creek Picnic Area towardsits junction with the Mt. Sterling Trail. August 5, 2008


10162 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308528/3956111


10163 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308528/3956111


10164 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308528/3956111


10165 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308528/3956111


10166 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308528/3956111


10167 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

0308505/3955704


10168 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata

Chaenotheca sp.

0308505/3955704


10169 Chaenotheca laevigata Corticolous on Acer rubrum

0308528/3956111


10170 Chaenotheca laevigata Corticolous on Acer rubrum

0308528/3956111


10171 Chaenothecopsis rubescens Corticolous on Acer saccharum

Chaenotheca furfuracea

0308528/3956111


10172 Chaenothecopsis debilis Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana

0308528/3956111


10173 Chaenothecopsis debilis Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana

0308454/3956167


10174 Chaenotheca hispidula Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana

Calicium viride

0308528/3956111


10175 Chaenothecopsis debilis Lignicolous on Liriodendron tulipifera
10176 Chaenothecopsis rubescens Corticolous on Prunus serotina

0308528/3956111


10177 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

Chaenothecopsis edbergii (over resin)

0308497/3955964


10178 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0308484/3955928
10179 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0308484/3955928


10180 Chaenotheca hispidula Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis

Chaenothecopsis debilis

0308497/3955964


10181 Chaenotheca furfuracea Saxicolous

Tennessee, Sevier County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Baskins Creek Trail from its junction with the Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, toward its junction with Baskins Creek. With Marcy Selva. August 6, 2008.


10182 Phaeocalicium matthewsianum Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis

0275754/3950954


10183 Mycocalicium subtile Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana

0275846/3950881


10184 Calicium abietinum Lignicolous on Pinus pungens

0275770/3950971


10185 Calicium abietinum Lignicolous on Pinus pungens

0275712/3951026


10186 Calicium abietinum Lignicolous on Pinus pungens

0275675/3951133


10187 Calicium abietinum Corticolous on Pinus pungens

0275758/3951174

North Carolina, Swain County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Cabin FlatsTrail, including that portion of the Bradley Fork Trail from Smokemont Campground. August 7, 2008.
10188 Mycocalicium albonigrum Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera

0288912/3943520


10189 Chaenothecopsis sp. Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera

0288852/3943416


10190 Chaenothecopsis debilis Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera

0288738/3943387


10191 Chaenothecopsis sp. Corticolous on Betula sp.

0288872/3943319


10192 Chaenothecopsis sp. Corticolous on Betula sp.

0288872/3943319


10193 Calicium salicinum Lignicolous on Betula sp.

Chaenothecopsis debilis

Chaenothecopsis

0288872/3943319


10194 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

0288625/3942902


10195 Chaenothecopsis nana Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

0288715/3942915


10196 Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Lignicolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis

0288625/3942902
10197 Chaenotheca chrysocephala Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

0288880/3943380

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Forest along the edge of the lawn on the western side of the Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center at Purchase Knob. August 8, 2008.
10198 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on Aesculus flava

0312108/3939846

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the trail from the Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center at Purchase Knob toward the Cataloochee Divide Trail. With Marcy Selva. August 8, 2008.
10199 Chaenotheca savonica Lignicolous on Prunus serotina

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Microcalicium ahlneri

0312010/3939926


10200 Mycocalicium subtile Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

0312010/3939926


10201 Mycocalicium fuscipes Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

0311853/3939961

North Carolina, Haywood County, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Along the Cataloochee Divide Trail from near the Appalachian Highlands Science Learning Center toward Double Gap. With Marcy Selva. August 8, 2008.
10202 Chaenotheca trichialis Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis

Chaenothecopsis nigra

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311830/3940293


10203 Chaenotheca trichialis Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Chaenothecopsis debilis

Mycocalicium fuscipes

0311830/3940293


10204 Sphinctrina turbinata, over Pertusaria consocians, on Betula alleghaniensis

0311766/3940275


10205 Chaenotheca trichialis Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis

Chaenothecopsis nigra

0311830/3940293


10206 Chaenothecopsis nigra Lignicolous on Betula alleghaniensis

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

Microcalicium ahlneri

0311766/3940275


10207 Chaenotheca ferruginea Lignicolous on Castanea dentata fencepost

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311766/3939697

10208 Chaenothecopsis pusilla Lignicolous on Castanea dentata fencepost

0311784/3939619


10209 Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on Castanea dentata fencepost

Chaenothecopsis sp.

0311827/3940027


10210 Chaenotheca ferruginea Lignicolous on Castanea dentata fencepost

Chaenotheca stemonea

Chaenothecopsis pusilla

0311890/3939953


10211 Mycocalicium fuscipes Corticolous on Robinia pseudoacacia

0311779/3939793


10212 Mycocalicium fuscipes Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

0311684/3940047


10213 Mycocalicium fuscipes Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

0311779/3940189


10214 Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

Mycocalicium fuscipes

0311835/3940047


10215 Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood

Mycocalicium fuscipes

0311707/3940225



Table II. Calicioid Lichens and Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Calicium abietinum Pers.

Calicium adspersum Pers.

Calicium glaucellum Ach.

Calicium lenticulare Ach.

Calicium parvum Tibell

Calicium salicinum Pers.

Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach.

Calicium viride Pers.

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg.

Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Mull. Arg.

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Chaenotheca cinerea (Pers.) Tibell

Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig.

Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell

Chaenotheca gracilenta (Ach.) J.-E. Mattsson & Middelborg

Chaenotheca gracillima (Vain.) Tibell

Chaenotheca hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.

Chaenotheca hygrophila Tibell

Chaenotheca laevigata Nadv.

Chaenotheca stemonea (Ach.) Mull. Arg.

Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.

Chaenotheca xyloxena Nadv.

Chaenothecopsis amurensis Titov

Chaenothecopsis debilis (Sm.) Tibell

Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Titov

Chaenothecopsis edbergii Selva &Tibell

Chaenothecopsis nana Tibell

Chaenothecopsis nigra Tibell

Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A. F. W. Schmidt

Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vain.

Chaenothecopsis resinicola Tibell & Titov

Chaenothecopsis rubescens Vain.

Chaenothecopsis savonica (Rasanen) Tibell

Chaenothecopsis viridireagens (Nadv.) A. F. W. Schmidt

Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.

Microcalicium ahlneri Tibell

Mycocalicium albonigrum (Nyl.) Fink

Mycocalicium fuscipes (Tuck.) Fink

Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szatala

Phaeocalicium compressulum (Szatala) A. F. W. Schmidt

Phaeocalicium matthewsianum Selva & Tibell

Phaeocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell

Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.:Fr.) De Not.
Table III. The Calicioid Lichens and Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Calicium abietinum Lignicolous on Pinus pungens
Calicium adspersum Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis

Calicium glaucellum Lignicolous on Abies fraseri and an unidentifiable conifer
Calicium lenticulare Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis and Picea rubens; Lignicolous on Abies fraseri, Picea rubens, exposed heartwood of living Picea rubens, and an unidentifiable conifer
Calicium parvum Corticolous on Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, and Tsuga canadensis
Calicium salicinum Lignicolous on an unidentifiable hardwood
Calicium trabinellum Lignicolous on Pinus strobus, Castanea dentata, and an unidentifiable species
Calicium viride Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana
Chaenotheca brunneola Lignicolous on Castanea dentata, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, Abies fraseri, Picea rubens, and an unidentifiable conifer
Chaenotheca chlorella Lignicolous on Quercus prinus and on the heartwood of living Tsuga canadensis



Chaenotheca chrysocephala Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis and Picea rubens



Chaenotheca cinerea Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera
Chaenotheca ferruginea Corticolous, over polypore, on Abies fraseri; Corticolous on Pinus strobus, Picea rubens, and Tsuga canadensis; Lignicolous on Castanea dentata and an unidentifiable hardwood
Chaenotheca furfuracea Corticolous and lignicolous on Betula alleghanien- sis; Lignicolous on Tsuga Canadensis; Saxicolous


Chaenotheca gracilenta Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis; Lignicolous on Betula alleghaniensis, Tsuga canadensis, and an unidentifiable conifer
Chaenotheca gracillima Corticolous on Acer rubrum; Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis, and the exposed heartwood of living Tsuga canadensis
Chaenotheca hispidula Corticolous on Diospyros virginiana and an unidentifiable species; Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis and an unidentifiable species
Chaenotheca hygrophila Lignicolous on Castanea dentata and an unidentifiable species
Chaenotheca laevigata Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis, Acer rubrum, and Liriodendron tulipifera

Chaenotheca stemonea Lignicolous on Castanea dentata, Tsuga canadensis, and an unidentifiable conifer
Chaenotheca trichialis Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis and Betula alleghaniensis
Chaenotheca xyloxena Lignicolous on Tsuga canadensis
Chaenothecopsis amurensis Corticolous on Acer saccharum



Chaenothecopsis debilis Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, Betula alleghaniensis, Diospyros virginiana, and Quercus prinus; Lignicolous on Liriodendron tulipifera, dead branch of living Liriodendron tulipifera, Tsuga canadensis, and an unidentifiable conifer
Chaenothecopsis dolichocephala Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, and Picea rubens



Chaenothecopsis edbergii Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga Canadensis
Chaenothecopsis nana Corticolous on Tsuga Canadensis
Chaenothecopsis nigra Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis


Chaenothecopsis pusilla Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis and Betula alleghaniensis; Lignicolous on Castanea dentata, Prunus serotina, Betula alleghaniensis, unidentifiable species
Chaenothecopsis pusiola Lignicolous on Tsuga Canadensis
Chaenothecopsis resinicola Corticolous, over resin, on Tsuga canadensis
Chaenothecopsis rubescens Corticolous on Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Prunus serotina, Liriodendron tulipifera, and an unidentifiable species
Chaenothecopsis savonica Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis; Lignicolous on Prunus serotina and an unidentifiable conifer
Chaenothecopsis viridireagens Lignicolous on an unidentifiable conifer
Cyphelium lucidum Corticolous on Prunus serotina
Microcalicium ahlneri Corticolous on Tsuga canadensis, and Pinus strobus; Lignicolous on Betula alleghaniensis, Prunus serotina, and an unidentifiable conifer
Mycocalicium albonigrum Corticolous on Quercus prinus and Liriodendron tulipifera
Mycocalicium fuscipes Corticolous on Robinia pseudoacacia; Lignicolous on Betula alleghaniensis and an unidentifiable hardwood
Mycocalicium subtile Corticolous on Liriodendron tulipifera and Diospyros virginiana ; Lignicolous on Picea rubens, exposed wood of a living Acer rubrum, Prunus serotina, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Aesculus flava, and an unidentifiable species



Phaeocalicium compressulum Included on park checklist, but not collected during the current investigation
Phaeocalicium matthewsianum Corticolous on Betula alleghaniensis



Phaeocalicium polyporaeum Corticolous, over the polypore Trichaptum pergamenum, on Fagus grandifolia, Liquidambar styraciflua, Betula alleghaniensis, Betula lenta, and an unidentifiable species

Sphinctrina turbinata Corticolous, over Pertusaria macounii, on Fagus grandifolia; Corticolous, over Pertusaria consocians, on Betula alleghaniensis




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