Bmw group1 overwiew




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BMW GROUP1
OVERWIEW
BMW was founded in 1916 as an aircraft-engine factory in Munich. In 1923 BMW builds first motorcycle. In 1928 BMW bought the car factory at Eisenach, Thuringia with the license to build a small car called the Dixi. This first BMW car was developed in Munich, like all other BMW products. In 1932 BMW 3/20 was developed in Munich, in 1933 - 6 cylinder's BMW 303. Until second World War BMW showed active growth in all three branches: automobile, aero engine and motorcycles industries.

In 1973 the first BMW subsidiaries were created in France and North America. In 1979 BMW developed first digital engine electronics and began R&D on hydrogen engines. In 1984 the first European models with catalytic converters appear. Computers and robots revolutionize work in planning and production. In 1989 in the year the Iron Curtain fell, BMW has another first by producing half a million cars. The company also has a turnover of DM 20.000 million, and acquires Kontron GmbH, a specialist in process engineering.

Nowadays BMW Group Company is powerful international company represented all over the world with more than 94.000 employees and over one million vehicles sold every year. Importers in 120 countries represent the BMW and worldwide sales organization comprised 24 sales subsidiaries. BMW has worldwide subsidiaries and manufacturing plants in Germany, Austria, the UK, the USA, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam.

The activities of the business fields of the BMW Group are broken down into the segments BMW automobiles, Rover Automobiles, BMW motorcycles and Financial Services.2

BMW automobiles and Rover automobiles account for the larger part of activities within Group. These business fields manufacture, assemble and sell automobiles, spare parts and accessories.

The BMW Motorcycles segment develops, manufactures, and sells motorcycles as well as spare parts and accessories.

The Financial Segment focuses on the leasing of automobiles and financing credit for customers and dealers.

Miscellaneous and consolidated companies segment include Aero Engines business, Software and other intra-segment activities.


BMW GROWTH POLICY

The fundamental objective of the BMW Group is to continue the process of profitable growth by concentrating on high-profit market segments. Precisely, this is why the BMW group will use the potential of the BMW brand to an even greater success in a future.

In the first half of the year 2000 BMW has already achieved best sales results ever in the history of the company. Worldwide deliveries have increased by almost 9% to 421 000 units; the turnover was approximately 15% above the corresponding figure in the first half of previous year.

The production of BMW Group is developed to satisfy different customer’s needs, providing a variety of models for luxury, middle and low segments of market. Company constantly works out new technological decisions and improvements and nowadays sets new standards in production.

BMW has already achieved in individual requests fulfilling. Now it’s ambiguous objective is to provide every customer with his individual, personalized car on a defined date agreed in advance. Moreover, BMW Group is setting a new benchmark to process the time required for a new car in distribution and production to 10 days.

BMW Company continues to develop the concept of hydrogen engine automobile which according specialists’ estimations will dominate in the future automotive market because of the limited natural resources. First experimental cars with hydrogen engines already exist.

In the future BMW heavily relies on the big E-commerce project, which supposed to increase the number of employees and customers five times within the next three years.

BMW Group will bundle its e-business activities in a new company named nexolab. With nexolab, BMW Group creates a platform that will support the entire process chain - from the buying to the sales process for the manufacturing industry.

Company has well-defined personnel policy. BMW treats people who works for the company not like corporate funds, but rather the key to its’ success. This concept leads to lower cost and economic growth.

Nevertheless, the commonwealth of big multinational company strongly depends on successful performance of all its’ segments and divisions.


Therefore, the next analysis of the BMW Group can not be presented without a short overview of one of the BMW segments, the Rover automobiles.




ROVER STORY

Rover Company entered BMW Group in 1994. This bargain was widely discussed in mass media and the big part of leading manager’s staff had to leave this company protesting against this acquisition. Extending the share of BMW Group in automobile market Rover Group’s entry of also significantly affected the financial position of company. The constant decrease of demand in UK market, inefficient cost and production policies in Rover’s enterprises were among the reasons of Rover failure. Constant growth of British pound against DM, later against Euro made the Rover production noncompetitive against others European car-manufactures.


FIGURE 1 Rover market share 1994-1999

Big investments made in order to cut cost and increase the productivity of Rover plants were useless. Starting from 1994, Rover market share in Great Britain has been dropped from 11.3% to 4.6% , nearly 3 times (See Figure1).


In the course of 1999 Rover despite having its’ cost significantly cut continued to loss the sales volume and profitability. British pound continued to increase against Euro. Therefore automobile makers in the Euro currency area continued to have a substantial competitive advantage which can not be set off even by an additional increase in productivity with Rover.

The BMW Group had to set aside substantial provisions for the process of restructuring and other risks with Rover. In all, this extraordinary expenditure totaled to 3.150 million euro and produced net loss of 2.487 million euro (See profit and loss account).


In the course of the first half of the year 2000, the BMW Group completed its reorientation and on 9 May 2000 British Phoenix Consortium takes over responsibility for the development, production and sale of Rover Cars. Phoenix has taken over approximately 7000 associates of the former Rover Group, the Birmingham Plant and accordingly production of the Rover 25, 45, the MGF and Mini Classics.


On June 2000, Land Rover together with Freelander, Defender, Discovery and Range Rover models was sold to Ford Motor Company for a purchase price of euro 3 billion.

The BMW Group remains supplier for Phoenix and the Ford Motor Company with certain engines, parts, and components.



FINANCIAL DATA

As was already mentioned, the BMW Group entered the 2000-year with the net loss of 2.487 million euro. The main indicators of BMW financial performance in two year prospective are listed in the Exhibit 1.


The automobile production by BMW Group in 1999 was down by 5%, more than 1 147 400 units, compared to the previous year because of Rover’s stocks reduction. Deliveries by the BMW Group remained at the same level, with total sales of BMW, Rover, Land Rover, MG, and MINI automobiles amounting to more than 1 180 400 units.

Due to the growing sales of BMW Automobiles segment sales of the BMW Group in fiscal 1999 increased by 6.6 % to 34 402 million euro.

Cost of production was up over the previous year’s figure by 6.1% to 28 757 million euro. The share of production costs in sales was down by 0.4%. The cost of sales and general administration increased by a total of 13.4%.

Despite of the declining result in the Rover Automobiles segment, the result of the BMW Group’s ordinary business was up by 4.7% to 1 111 million euro. After deduction of profit-related and other taxes the BMW Group’s annual surplus before the extraordinary result was 663 million euro, 43.5% over the previous year.

Investments by the BMW Group amounted to 2.155 million euro, remaining at almost exactly the same level as the year before. These funds were invested in the preparation of new models, the modernization and production facilities. These investments were financed fully trough the Group’s cash flow. The BMW Group continues to rank at the top of the automotive industry in investment value.

Representing ROE into the chain of factors (See Figure 2) we can conclude in a favor of highly positive and increasing financial leverage in the analyzed period which means very efficient and profitable use of the debt by the company.



FIGURE 2 Du Pont analysis







Computed finance leverage

1999

2.7% X 0.92 X 1.19 X 9.54 X -2.24

11.35

1998

3.8% X 1.05 x 0.86 x 4.75 x 0.44

4.09



THE BMW SEGMENTS PERFORMANCE (See Figures 3,4)

The result of ordinary business activity in the BMW Automobile segment was up by 5.1% to 2.106 million euro. Generated by BMW automobile ROI has increased from 20.46% in 1998 to 20.83% in 1999. This branch also generates the highest earnings on sales 8.56% in 1999.

Sales in BMW Motorcycles segment rose significantly by 17.8% to 769 million euro. This allowed an improvement of the operating result up by 12.5% comparing to the previous year.

Sales in the Rover Automobiles was up by 2% over the previous year to 8 368 million euro. The losses in the Rover Automobiles due to the market conditions and currency effects were up by 250 million euro to 1 207 million euro or 26.1%. The ROI drops from –16.77 % in 1998 to – 19.23% in 1999. The return on sales declines from -11.30% in 1998 to -13.97% in 1999.


FIGURE 3 The BMW segments performance




assets,

sales

result from ordinary

BMW segment

million euro

million euro

bus. activities, mil. euro




1999

1998

1999

1998

1999

1998

BMW automobiles

10108

9792

24610

21980

2106

2003

Rover automobiles

6277

5705

8638

8466

-1207

-957

BMW motorcycles

313

303

769

653

18

16

Financial Services

20530

15287

6153

5771

316

298



FIGURE 4 The BMW segments ratios3




return

return

BMW segment

on investment, %

on sales,%




1999

1998

1999

1998

BMW automobiles

20.83%

20.46%

8.56%

9.11%

Rover automobiles

-19.23%

-16.77%

-13.97%

-11.30%

BMW motorcycles

5.75%

5.28%

2.34%

2.45%

Financial Services

1.54%

1.95%

5.14%

5.16%

The Financial Services division was successful; sales increased by 6.6% to 6 153 million euro. The result in this segment of the BMW Group increased by 6% to 316 million euro.


COMPARISON WITH THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY


The main competitor of BMW Group takes the greater share of automobile market.

The total balance sheet value of Ford Motor Company exceeds 7 times correspondent value of the BMW Group. Sales of Ford Motor Company counted 7220 thousand of vehicles (136973 million of dollars) against 1187 thousand of vehicles (34677 million of dollars) sold by BMW Group in 1999.4 See Exhibit 2 to compare financial performance of the companies.


INVESTMENT OVERVIEW


The BMW ordinary share is listed since 1926. After the currency reform BMW shares were traded as shares with a par value of DM 50, DM 100 and DM 1000. In 1989 BMW introduced preferred shares – traded with a par value of DM 50. The preferred shares are in contrast to ordinary shares non-voting shares, but bear an extra dividend. In 1999 BMW Group introduced the 1 Euro per value share. As of December 31, 1999 the subscribed capital of BMW AG amounted to EUR 670,687,730 and comprised of 622,227,918 ordinary shares and 48,459,812 preferred shares.

Now BMW shares are listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Group index for companies applying principles of sustainability. The 200 companies making up the index have been selected from more than 2000 international companies basing on the survey conducted by Swiss investment and rating agency SAM Sustainability Group. The rating is based on benchmark criteria such as technological leadership, social and environmental compatibility, personnel management, management culture, productivity, growth. The company is accordingly recognized as the worldwide leader in the automobile sector.



FIGURE 6


During 1999 BMW ordinary and preferable share trends kept with market trends (See Figure 6). Uncertainty about development at Rover decreased the share price in the first half of the year. Then the successful development of the BMW brand and the market’s growing confidence in successful outcome of the restructuring measures at Rover pushed up the price. On the last day of the month year-end price was 30.65 euro and the BMW ordinary share lay 22 % above the price quoted in the previous year, beating CDAX automobile index. While the BMW preference share in contrast was enable to turn in the same result as the ordinary share. The closing price of 14 euro put the preference share 5% bellow the previous year price.

In the course of a decade, investors who bought shares at the beginning of 1990 have achieved an average annual return of nearly 19 %. Over the past 5 years yields have been high as 24 % (yields on federal bonds only reached 7 % respectively).

In the first half of the year 2000, BMW common stock showed a better development than the shares of any other German car manufactures. Compared with the value of 25.42 on 30 June 1999, stock value has increased in the meantime 24.7% to euro 31.70.


QUESTIONS:


  1. What do you consider to be the main strengths and weaknesses of the BMW from the economic and financial side?

  2. Give your intuition about 2000 performance of Ford Motors Company and BMW Group.

  3. Would you invest in BMW preference share and why?

  4. Evaluate the contribution of BMW Group segments on overall company performance.

EXHIBIT 1 THE BMW GROUP FINANCIAL ANALYSIS – MAIN RATIOS AND INDICATORS








1999

1998

LIQUIDITY

Current ratio (current assets/current liabilities5)

2.13




ACID TEST (liquid funds/current liabilities)

0.16




DEBT6

Quantity







debt/(debt + equity)

89%

80%

Quality (current liabilities/debt)

39%




Cost of debt (interest paid/debt)

6%

7%

ASSET MANAGEMENT

ASSET TURNOVER







sales/assets

0.92

1.05

sales/fixed assets

3.92

4.13

DAYS

collection period (trade receivables/sales x 365)

25.64

22.91

credit period (trade payables/sales x 365)

23.74

20.64

EXPENSES

production cost/sales

83.59%

83.96%

marketing and administration cost/sales

13.66%

12.84%

total expenses/sales

97.25%

96.80%

PERFORMANCE

(sales 98 - sales 99)/sales 98

6.6%




results from ordinary business activities, mil.euro

1111

1061

net income/loss, mil.euro

-2487

462

cash flow, mil.euro

2807

2479

MARGIN AND PROFIT

ROS (profit/sales)

2.71%

3.82%

gross profit/sales

16%

16%

ROI (EBIT7/assets)

2.48%

4.02%

ROE net profit/equity (after extraordinary result)

-63.25%

7.17%

KEY DATA PER SHARE

dividend in euro ordinary share

0.4

10.23

preference share

0.42

10.74

Cash Flow Per Share

4.19

3.71

shareholders equity

5.47

9.28


EXHIBIT 2 SELECTED BMW AND FORD RATIOS IN COMPARISON , 1999






BMW

FORD

LIQUIDITY

Current ratio

2.13

1.98

DEBT8

Quantity (total liabilities/total funds)

89%

90%

Quality (current liabilities/debt)

39%

17%










ASSETS MANAGEMENT

ASSET TURNOVER (sales/assets)

0.92

0.50

DAYS

collection period

25.64

10.04

credit period

23.74

38.51

SALES

(sales 99 - sales 98)/sales 98*100%

6.6%

15.0%

EXPENSES

production cost/sales

83.59%

86.91%

marketing and administration cost/sales

13.66%

6.97%

total expenses/sales

97.25%

93.88%

MARGIN AND PROFIT

ROS (profit/sales)

2.71%

6.12%

GROSS PROFIT (gross profit/sales)

16%

13%

ROI (EBIT/assets)

2.48%

3.03%

DUPONT ANALYSIS /ROI

(EBIT/sales x sales/assets)

2.71% X 0.92

6.12% X 0.50

ROE (net profit/equity) before extraordinary result

16.86%

26%

ROE (after extraordinary result)

-63.25%







1 This case study has been written by Kasperskaya Yulia , with the collaboration of Oriol Amat, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona).

2 The 1999 BMW Group´ structure is given.

3 The segment ratios are calculated respect to result from ordinary business activities

4 The figure are given in million of dollars, the exchange rate 1 euro = 1.008 USD.

5 There is not available information to distinguish current liabilities in 1998 in BMW notes to balance sheet. In 1999 a group of liabilities up to 1 year without pension and other provisions is considered as “current liabilities”.

6 Debt is considered as liabilities without pension provisions.

7 EBIT IS calculated like: Gross earnings from sales – Sales and marketing cost – General administration cost + Other operating income – Other operating expenses.

8 In order to provide uniform base for comparison BMW and FORD companies for debt quantity estimation ratio “total liabilities/total funds” has been chosen.





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