Basic Botany Final Exam Study Guide




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Basic Botany Final Exam Study Guide
Be able to answer all the questions on our four quizzes correctly. In addition, be prepared for the following:
Cladogram:
Review your lecture notes, the handout “Trends in Plant Evolution” and Raven et al.. Make a cladogram showing the phylogenetic relationships between Coleochaete, liverworts, mosses, seedless vascular plants, pines, and flowering plants based on the presence of at least ten characters.
Short Answer and Fill in the Blank:


  1. Given a diploid cell with clearly illustrated chromosomes, be able to illustrate all the combinations possible for haploid cells derived from said diploid cell.




  1. Be able to explain the difference between a haploid and diploid cell.




  1. Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis.

4. List diagnostic characters of the following phyla: Bryophyta (mosses),

Pterophyta (ferns), Lycophyta (club mosses), Sphenophyta (horsetails),

Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (ginkgo),

Coniferophyta (conifers), Gnetophyta and Anthophyta (flowering plants).
5. Given a flower specimen or sketch, be able to identify the following parts:
bract stamen carpel stigma

sepal filament ovary style

petal anther ovule

receptacle pollen grain

6. In double fertilization, what is fertilized? What is endosperm and what is its function?
7. What is a fruit? Are fruits unique to angiosperms? Why? Explain the

evolutionary significance of fruits.



Essay Questions:
1. Discuss bryophyte features that are adaptations to a land environment and features that reveal an aquatic ancestry. Briefly explain the evolutionary

relationship between bryophytes and vascular plants.

2. When did seed plants first arise? When did they become dominant? What

environmental change led to their radiation? Explain why the presence of

ovules, pollen grains, and seeds improved survival rates on dry land for

gymnosperms relative to seedless plants.


3. What is the evolutionary advantage of animal-mediated pollination?

Explain the significance of insect-flowering plant coevolution. What else

spurred speciation in Anthophyta?

Life Cycles:
1. Draw the moss life cycle and label the following structures.
thallus archegonium seta

gametophyte egg cell sporangium

antheridium embryo capsule

sperm cell sporophyte spore

rhizoid foot peristome
2. Draw the fern life cycle. Label and designate ploidy level for the following:
rhizome sporangium spores

sporophyll indusium sorus

annulus megaphyll
3. Diagram the life cycle of Selaginella, and point out:
sporophyte microsporangia egg cell

megasporangia mega & microspores embryo


Identify the ploidy level of all stages in the life cycle.

4. Create a diagram of the pine life cycle and label the following features:

microsporangiate cone micropyle

microsporophyll megasporangium (nucellus)

microsporangium megasporocyte

microspore megagametophyte

pollen grain archegonium

microgametophyte egg cell

ovulate cone embryo

cone scale seed coat

ovule integument
Include in your pine life cycle diagram a pine microsporophyll with attached microsporangia, including mature pollen. Also remember to identify the ploidy of the different generations.
5. Diagram the life cycle of a flowering plant. Sketch and label the steps in the

formation of a megagametophyte (AKA embryo sac) and the microgametophyte.






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