Basic Botany Final Exam Study Guide
Be able to answer all the questions on our four quizzes correctly. In addition, be prepared for the following:
Review your lecture notes, the handout “Trends in Plant Evolution” and Raven et al.. Make a cladogram showing the phylogenetic relationships between Coleochaete, liverworts, mosses, seedless vascular plants, pines, and flowering plants based on the presence of at least ten characters.
Short Answer and Fill in the Blank:
Given a diploid cell with clearly illustrated chromosomes, be able to illustrate all the combinations possible for haploid cells derived from said diploid cell.
Be able to explain the difference between a haploid and diploid cell.
Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis.
4. List diagnostic characters of the following phyla: Bryophyta (mosses),
Pterophyta (ferns), Lycophyta (club mosses), Sphenophyta (horsetails),
Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (ginkgo),
Coniferophyta (conifers), Gnetophyta and Anthophyta (flowering plants).
5. Given a flower specimen or sketch, be able to identify the following parts:
bract stamen carpel stigma
sepal filament ovary style
petal anther ovule
receptacle pollen grain
6. In double fertilization, what is fertilized? What is endosperm and what is its function?
7. What is a fruit? Are fruits unique to angiosperms? Why? Explain the
evolutionary significance of fruits.
1. Discuss bryophyte features that are adaptations to a land environment and features that reveal an aquatic ancestry. Briefly explain the evolutionary
relationship between bryophytes and vascular plants.
2. When did seed plants first arise? When did they become dominant? What
environmental change led to their radiation? Explain why the presence of
ovules, pollen grains, and seeds improved survival rates on dry land for
gymnosperms relative to seedless plants.
3. What is the evolutionary advantage of animal-mediated pollination?
Explain the significance of insect-flowering plant coevolution. What else
spurred speciation in Anthophyta?
1. Draw the moss life cycle and label the following structures.
thallus archegonium seta
gametophyte egg cell sporangium
antheridium embryo capsule
sperm cell sporophyte spore
rhizoid foot peristome
2. Draw the fern life cycle. Label and designate ploidy level for the following:
rhizome sporangium spores
sporophyll indusium sorus
3. Diagram the life cycle of Selaginella, and point out:
sporophyte microsporangia egg cell
megasporangia mega & microspores embryo
Identify the ploidy level of all stages in the life cycle.
4. Create a diagram of the pine life cycle and label the following features:
microsporangiate cone micropyle
microsporophyll megasporangium (nucellus)
pollen grain archegonium
microgametophyte egg cell
ovulate cone embryo
cone scale seed coat
Include in your pine life cycle diagram a pine microsporophyll with attached microsporangia, including mature pollen. Also remember to identify the ploidy of the different generations.
5. Diagram the life cycle of a flowering plant. Sketch and label the steps in the
formation of a megagametophyte (AKA embryo sac) and the microgametophyte.