Ashes in Europe are in danger: the invasive range of Agrilus planipennis in European Russia is expanding




Дата канвертавання19.04.2016
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Ashes in Europe are in danger: the invasive range of Agrilus planipennis in European Russia is expanding
Marina J. Orlova-Bienkowskaja

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences,

33 Leninskiy Prospect, Moscow, 119071, Russia

e-mail: marinaorlben@yandex.ru


Abstract. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), is a pest of ash native to Asia. This major stem borer has killed millions of ash trees in North America. It was first found in Europe in 2003 in the city of Moscow. Now it is rapidly spreading in European Russia. In 2012 A. planipennis was found in the Tula, Kaluga, and Smolensk regions. A survey of green plantations in 22 localities in 2013 has revealed that A. planipennis occurs also in the Tver, Orel, Voronezh, Tambov, and Yaroslavl regions. It occurs 230 km northeast, 350 km southeast, and 460 km south from Moscow. Most ashes in the Moscow region, both alien American Fraxinus pennsylvanica and the indiginous European ash Fraxinus excelsior, are dying or already dead. Thousands of trees in other regions are seriously damaged. The pest will cross the western border of Russia soon. It represents a serious threat for ashes in other European countries.
Keywords Agrilus planipennis; pest; emerald ash borer; European Russia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Fraxinus excelsior.
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, is a serious invasive pest of ashes. This beetle, native to East Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in North America (Poland 2007; Knight et al. 2013). In Europe EAB has the highest quurantine status (EPPO 2013). It was first found in Europe in 2003 in Moscow (Shankhiza 2007). Now almost all ash trees in the Russian capital and its vicinity, both introduced American ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica and the indiginous European ash Fraxinus excelsior, are killed or greatly damaged (Majorov et al. 2012). Several years after the first record the beetles were found only in Moscow and its vicinity (Baranchikov et al. 2010). But in 2012 A. planipennis was discovered in the Smolensk region (Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012). In addition, communications about findings of the pest in Obninsk (Kaluga region) and the Tula region appeared in the media (Communication of the information agency "Regnum" 2012; Gninenko 2012). This paper provides data on the current range of A. planipennis in Russia.

In spring and summer of 2013 ash trees in 22 localities of European Russia were examined for damage caused by A. planipennis. Characteristic D-shaped emergence holes are reliable evidence of the presence of A. planipennis (Poland 2007). 2719 trees of Fraxinus pennsylvanica and 115 trees of Fraxinus excelsior were examined. Damaged trees with emergence holes have been found not only in the Moscow region, but also in Konakovo (Tver region), Michurinsk (Tambov region), Tula, Kaluga, Orel, Yaroslavl, and Voronezh (Table 1). Some of these records have been described in detail (Orlova-Bienkowskaja 2013).


Table 1 Results of examinations of ash trees in European Russia in 2013

Locality

Distance from Moscow (km)

Coordinates

Date of survey

Evidence of EAB

Number of examined trees

Percentage of trees with emergence holes (%)

F. pennsylvanica

F. excelsior

F. pennsylvanica

F. excelsior

Kaluga

145

54.52 N, 36.26 E

Junе 3

Emergence holes

128

0

15.6

0

Klin

70

56.33 N, 36.73 E

May 25

Emergence holes

88

0

98.9

0

Konakovo

100

56.71 N, 36.77 E

May 20

Emergence holes

128

0

88.3

0

Michurinsk

350

52.90 N, 40.50 E

June 28

Emergence holes

11

4

54.5

0

Uzunovo

135

54.55 N, 38.62 E

June 29

Emergence holes

53

0

100

0

Monino

20

55.84 N, 38.20 E

June 21

Emergence holes, 1 adult

112

0

98.2

0

Orel

310

52.97 N, 36.07 E

June 4

Emergence holes, 1 adult

193

14

48.2

57.1

Tula

150

54.20 N, 37.62 E

June 5

Emergence holes, 1 adult

124

3

10.5

100

Voronezh

460

51.68 N, 39.18 E

June 12

Emergence holes, 1 adult

110

1

52.7

100

Yaroslavl

230

57.63 N, 39.87 E

June 30

Emergence holes, 1 adult

219

0

21.9

0

Zelenograd

20

55.99 N, 37.20 E

May–July

Emergence holes, 26 adults captured from June 8 to July 5, 20 larvae captured August 20 and 22

161

0

95.6

0

Staraya Kupavna

20

55.81 N, 38.18 E

June 21

Emergence holes, 5 adults

109

0

94.5

0

Bryansk

330

53.25 N, 34.40 E

June 3

No

159

0

0

0

Gryazi

380

52.49 N, 39.93 E

June 27

No

40

0

0

0

Kostroma

285

57.77 N, 40.94 E

July 16

No

140

0

0

0

Lipetsk

350

52.60 N, 39.59 E

June 27

No

195

1

0

0

Nizhniy Novgorod

375

56.32 N, 44.00 E

August 14

No

99

4

0

0

Rostov-on-Don

950

47.23 N, 39.72 E

June 14

No

83

84

0

0

Ryazan

165

54.62 N, 39.74 E

June 29

No

128

0

0

0

Tambov

400

52.72 N, 41.45 E

June 28

No

175

3

0

0

Tver

145

56.86 N, 35.91 E

May 25

No

144

0

0

0

Vladimir

160

56.14 N, 40.41 E

August 15

No

120

1

0

0

In 2013, adults of A. planipennis were captured from June 8 to July 5. At the end of August larvae of the second instar and prepupae were found under the bark (identified after Chamorro et al. 2012). It may indicate that the beetle completes its life cycle in more than one year. In China and North America, the beetle completes its life cycle in one or two years depending on the climate (Wei et al. 2007; Mastro et al. 2007). A. planipennis has often been found infesting ash trees along with the bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini (Panzer 1779). (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Izhevskiy 2007), Agrilus convexicollis Redtenbacher, 1849 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and Tetrops starkii Chevrolat, 1859 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) (original data).



In all examined localities of the Moscow region, as well as in the city of Konakovo (Tver region), most of the ash trees have already been killed by the EAB. Most ash trees in Kaluga, Orel, Tula, Yaroslavl, Michurinsk, and Voronezh appear healthy, but groups of damaged and dying trees with characteristic emergence holes are present. No signs of A. planipennis were found in other 10 localities. Data on the distribution of A. planipennis are summarized in the map (Fig. 1) and in Table 2.



Fig. 1 The invasive range of A. planipennis in European Russia. Black dots indicate localities where A. planipennis has been found. White dots with a point are localities where examinations were performed but A. planipennis was not found. Sources of information are listed in Table 2.
Table 2 Localities where A. planipennis has been found in European Russia


Region

The year of first record

Source of information

MOSCOW REGION

 

 

Moscow

2003

(Shankhiza 2007)

Istra District: Manikhino

2006

(Volkovich 2007)

Mozhaisk District

2009

(Baranchikov et al. 2010)

Serpukhov

2009

(Baranchikov et al. 2010)

Mytistchi

2009

(Baranchikov et al. 2010)

Pushkino

2009

(Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012)

Zelenograd

2011

Original data

Sergiev Posad

2012

(Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012)

Klin

2013

Original data

Kolomna

2012

(Lifant'eva 2012)

Noginsk District: Staraya Kupavna

2013

Original data

Shchelkovo District: Monino

2013

Original data

Serebryanye Prudy District: Uzunovo

2013

Original data

SMOLENSK REGION







Gagarin District

2012

(Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012)

Vyazma District

2012

(Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012)

TVER REGION







Konakovo

2013

Original data

KALUGA REGION







Obninsk

2012

(Communication of the information agency "Regnum" 2012)

Kaluga

2013

Original data

OREL REGION







Orel

2013

Original data

TULA REGION







Tula

2013

Original data

VORONEZH REGION







Voronezh

2013

Original data

YAROSLAVL REGION







Yaroslavl

2013

Original data

TAMBOV REGION







Michurinsk

2013

Original data

Currently, the westernmost known locality of the species is 250 km from Moscow (Baranchikov and Kurteev 2012). According to our data, the most northern locality of the species is Yaroslavl (230 km northeast from Moscow), the most eastern is Michurinsk (350 km southeast from Moscow), and the most southern is Voronezh (460 km south from Moscow). Adults of A. planipennis fly well, but can spread only 610 km per year by themselves (Mercader et al. 2009). How could the beetles spread over 460 km within only 10 years after the first record in Moscow? First, the beetle could have appeared in European Russia earlier. Second, long-distance human-assisted spread is quite possible. In America, natural spread is of minor importance compared to human-assisted movement (Poland 2007). It is interesting that A. planipennis was found in Michurinsk near the union railway station, while it was not found in the four nearest cities. This may indicate that the beetle was spread by transport.

The invasive range of A. planipennis is expanding rapidly. Within ten years after the first record in Moscow this pest has spread to at least nine regions of the Russian Federation. The area of its invasive range is at least 150 000 km2 (i.e., it exceeds the area of England). Agrilus planipennis has been found as far as 460 km from Moscow, while the distance between the most western point of known range and the western border of the Russian Federation is about 180 km. Considering that ash species occur all over Europe, there is no reason to doubt that A. planipennis will eventually spread to other European regions. Baranchikov and Kurteev (2012) suggested that it would cross the western border of Russia and appear in adjacent countries before 2020. The present data strongly confirm this suggestion.

The first recorded infestations of A. planipennis in European Russia were observed on F. pennsylvanica (Volkovich 2007; Mozolevskaya et al. 2008) because this ash species introduced from America largely dominates in Russian cities, with European ash F. excelsior being occasionally planted. It was initially unclear whether F. excelsior was susceptible to the pest (Baranchikov et al. 2008). Now it is understood that F. excelsior is indeed susceptible: almost all Fraxinus excelsior in Moscow and its vicinity have been killed or greatly damaged (Majorov et al. 2012), and the present survey revealed that A. planipennis also damages F. excelsior in other regions, including Orel, Voronezh, and Tula.

The current situation with A. planipennis in European Russia is quite similar to the situation in North America. Obviously, A. planipennis will cross the western border of Russia and appear in other countries soon. As the pest kills both F. pennsylvanica and F. excelsior, it represents a serious threat for ashes in Europe and, indirectly, to the European economy and environment.

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to M.G. Volkovich (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) for the confirmation of the beetle identification. The research is supported by the Program of Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences "Wildlife" – "Invasions".


References

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