Appendix Number of invertebrates in food samples of




Дата канвертавання26.04.2016
Памер60 Kb.
Appendix 1.

Number of invertebrates in food samples of F. hypoleuca and P. ater collected in two zones near the Middle-Ural copper smelter in the year 2000.



Taxon, developmental stage

Ficedula hypoleuca

Parus ater

Zone

background

impact

background

impact

Lepidoptera

45

30

97

104

imagoes

4

3

1

2

larvae

41

27

96

102

Diptera

69

6

24

1

imagoes

69

6

23

1

larvae

0

0

1

0

Hymenoptera

16

7

0

2

Symphyta imagoes

6

1

0

1

Symphyta larvae

5

3

0

1

Formicidae imagoes

5

3

0

0

Araneae

33

24

99

57

Coleoptera

23

5

5

2

imagoes

21

5

3

0

larvae

2

0

2

2

Homoptera

32

1

13

5

Aphidinea

1

0

13

1

Cicadinea

31

1

0

4

Hemiptera

16

2

0

0

Opiliones

4

0

0

0

Megaloptera

3

1

0

0

Mollusca

3

0

0

1

Raphidioptera

1

0

0

0

Trichoptera

0

1

0

2

Not determined

2

1

0

0

Sum total

247

78

238

174

Appendix 2.

Dry-to-wet mass ratio and assimilable energy density of different invertebrate taxa from the bird diet.



Taxon, developmental stage

Dry mass in % of wet mass ± SE (n) *

Assimilable energy density, kJ/g dry mass **

Lepidoptera, i ***

36.0±1.9 (11)

15.78

Lepidoptera, l ***

22.5±1.5 (19)

17.21

Diptera, i

38.2±3.8 (6)

15.78

Hymenoptera: Symphyta, i

37.1±1.2 (8)

15.78

Symphyta, l

20.6±1.4 (4)

17.21

Formicidae, i

37.0±4.3 (6)

15.78

Araneae

33.1±1.3 (14)

12.56

Coleoptera, i

38.6±1.1 (27)

15.78

Coleoptera, l

23.0±2.7 (3)

17.21

Homoptera Cicadinea, i

38.6±3.0 (5)

15.78

Homoptera Aphidinea, i

27.9±0.6 (10)

15.78

Hemiptera, i

46.5±1.8 (12)

15.78

Mollusca

26.8±0.8 (22)

no data

* own data.

** from: Dolnik and Postnikov, 1990.

*** i – imagoes, l – larvae;
Appendix 3

Contaminant exposure of nestlings before leaving the nest was calculated as daily metal intake per unit of body mass as follows.



Ti = Ai * F / m ,

where Ti exposure to i-metal, Ai – average weighted dietary concentration of i-metal, F – daily food intake of one nestling (dry mass), m – nestling body mass.

Average weighted metal concentrations in food were calculated based on metal concentrations in different preys and proportions of different components in food dry mass) (Tables 1–3) using formula:

,

where – average weighted dietary concentration of i-metal, – concentration of i-metal in j-diet component, – mass of j-diet component in 1 g of dry food.

Daily food intake was calculated on the basis of daily energy of maintenance and energy content of food using formula:

,

where Fdaily food intake, DEM – daily energy of maintenance, pj – mass of j-diet component in 1 g of dry food, Ej – assimilable energy density of j-diet component (see Appendix 2) and is assimilable energy content of food.

Daily energy of maintenance for passerine fledglings reaching adult body mass is

DEMf = 6.12 * mf 0.688 kJ/day,

where mf is body mass (Dolnik and Dolnik, 1994).

Body mass (± SE) of the birds in the study area is 13.04±0.02 g (n=1840) for F. hypoleuca and 9.20±0.06 g (77) for P. ater. DEMf of nestlings F. hypoleuca is 35.81 kJ/day, P. ater 28.17 kJ/day.

Assimilable energy content of food in F. hypoleuca is 16.2 kJ/g dry mass in the background zone and 16.3 kJ/g in the impact one, and in P. ater 14.8 kJ/g and 16.1 kJ/g respectively.



Appendix 4

Contribution of different diet components to metal intake (on example of Cu) in F. hypoleuca in two zones near the Middle-Ural copper smelter.



Taxon, developmental stage

Background zone

Impact zone

mass in 1 g of food

Cu concentration, mkg/g

mass*concentration

contribution to metal intake, %

mass in 1g of food

Cu concentration, mkg/g

mass*concentration

contribution to metal intake, %

Lepidoptera, i *

0.030

15.9

0.5

2.6

0.041

26.8

1.1

2.9

Lepidoptera, l *

0.348

7.5

2.6

14.0

0.665

14.8

9.8

26.7

Diptera, i

0.196

18.6

3.6

19.5

0.057

31.5

1.8

4.9

Hymenoptera, Symphyta, i

0.044

20.5

0.9

4.8

0.012

59.1

0.7

1.6

Hymenoptera, Symphyta, l

0.077

9.6

0.7

3.9

0.023

18.6

0.4

1.1

Hymenoptera, Formicidae, i

0.018

14.9

0.3

1.4

0.007

42.9

0.3

0.8

Araneae

0.074

73.4

5.4

29.0

0.151

139.6

21.1

57.1

Coleoptera, i

0.062

15.1

0.9

5.0

0.022

41.8

0.9

2.5

Coleoptera, l

0.003

n.a. **

n.a.

n.a.

0.000

n.a.

0

0

Homoptera, i

0.061

28.9

1.8

9.4

0.003

109.4

0.3

0.9

Hemiptera, i

0.061

29.6

1.8

9.6

0.010

55.0

0.5

1.5

Opiliones

0.016

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.000

n.a.

0

0

Megaloptera, i

0.006

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.003

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Mollusca

0.003

45.1

0.1

0.7

0.000

233.1

0

0

Raphidioptera, i

0.001

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

0.000

n.a.

0

0

Trichoptera, i

0.000

n.a.

0

0

0.007

n.a.

0

0

Sum

1.000



18.7

100

1.000



37.0

100

* i – imagoes, l – larvae; ** n.a. − not analysed


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка