Appendix 3 Quarantine pests on decrowned pineapple fruit




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Appendix 3 - Quarantine pests on decrowned pineapple fruit


Scientific name

Common name

Potential for establishment and spread

Potential for economic consequences

Reference

Quarantine pest status

Arthropoda
















Augosoma centaurus Fabricius, 1775

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



African rhinoceros beetle

Feasible

Not significant

One record on pineapple.

No

Baris sp.

[Coleoptera: Curculionidae]



Weevil

Feasible

Significant


Yes

Barybus sp.

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Weevil

Not feasible

(Bachli & Redmond, 1997)



Not significant

Bachli & Redmond, 1997

No

Cholus spinipes (Fabricius, 1781)

Weevil

Feasible

Significant



Yes

Cholus vaurieae O’Brien, 1994

[Coleoptera: Curculionidae]



Weevil

Feasible

Significant



Yes

Cholus zonatus (Swederus)

[Coleoptera: Curculionidae]



Weevil

Feasible

Significant



Yes

Colaspis sp.

[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae]



Beetle

Feasible

Not significant

One reference and restricted occurrence.

No

Cotinis mutablis (Gory & Percheron)

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Beetle

Feasible

Significant

Stone, 1982
Yes

Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick)

[Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]



False codling moth; bollworm

Feasible

Significant

Blomefield, 1989; Reed, 1974; Van der Geest et al., 1991; Wysoki, 1986

Yes

Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi, 1913)

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



Mealybug

Feasible

Significant

Moderate distribution and host range.

Yes

Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley, 1959

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



Pineapple mealybug; annona mealybug

Feasible

Significant

Principal vector of pineapple wilt disease [virus] (Beardsley, 1965; McEwen et al., 1979; Rohrbach et al., 1988
Yes

Forcipomyia (Phytohelea) brevis (Johannsen)

[Diptera: Ceratopogonidae]



Pineapple midge

Feasible

Not significant

Pollinator.

No

Glycyphana sinuata Wallace

[Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae]



Beetle

Feasible

Not significant

One reference. Minor pest of pineapple and restricted occurrence.

No

Gymnonerius fuscus (Wiedemann, 1824)

[Diptera: Micropezidae]



Stilt fly

Not feasible

This species was only listed by Yunus & Ho (1980) of being associated with pineapple fruit in Malaysia. There is no published report on its biology on pineapple or other crops. Limited host range.



Not significant

Restricted occurrence.

No

Haptoncus luteolus (Erichson, 1843)

[Coleoptera: Nitidulidae]



Pineapple sap beetle; dried fruit beetle; souring beetle

Feasible

Not significant

Dried fruit, rotting fruit and stored product pest.

No

Haptoncus mellitula Reitter, 1873

[Coleoptera: Nitidulidae]



Pineapple sap beetle; dried fruit beetle; souring beetle

Feasible

Not significant

Dried fruit, rotting fruit and stored product pest.

No

Haptoncus ocularis (Fairmaire, 1849)

[Coleoptera: Nitidulidae]



Pineapple sap beetle; dried fruit beetle; souring beetle

Feasible

Not significant

Not associated with fresh fruit in general.

No

Holopothrips ananasi Da Costa Lima

[Thysanoptera: Thripidae]



Ananas thrips

Feasible

Not significant

Nothing has been published on the biology of this thrips species reported on pineapple.

No

Lybindus dichrous Stål

[Hemiptera: Coreidae]



Bug

Feasible

Not significant

Mitchell, 2000

No

Melanaspis bromeliae (Leonardi, 1899)

[Hemiptera: Diaspididae]



Brown pineapple scale; armoured scale

Feasible

Significant

Scales cause cosmetic damage on fresh fruit (Sipes, 2000). Scales are only a problem in some fields during some growing years, though seldom a serious pest in pineapple (Sipes, 2000).
Yes

Melanoloma canopilosum Hendel

[Diptera: Richardiidae]



Pineapple fruit fly

Feasible

Significant

Bello Amez et al., 1997

Yes

Melanoloma viatrix Hendel

[Diptera: Richardiidae]



Fly

Feasible

Significant

Arévalo Penarañda & Osorio Ospina, 1995

Yes

Metamasius ritchiei Marshall

[Coleoptera: Curculionidae]



West Indian cane weevil

Feasible

Not significant

Minor pest of pineapple grown under shaded conditions in Jamaica (Frank & Thomas, 2001).

No

Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891

[Hemiptera: Ortheziidae]



Croton bug; horned lamellated scale

Feasible

Not significant

One record on pineapple.

No

Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



Papaya mealybug

Feasible

Significant

Causes significant damage to cassava in Central America, and has the capacity to cause serious damage to papaya, other tropical fruit and ornamentals such as Annona and Hibiscus spp. (Anon., 2000; Miller et al., 2001).
Yes

Phenacoccus hargreavesi Laing, 1925

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



Mealybug

Feasible

Significant

Moderate distribution and host range.

Yes

Planococcoides njalensis (Laing, 1929)

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



West African cocoa mealybug

Feasible

Significant

Major pest of cocoa. Major vector of swollen shoot virus disease (CSSV) in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria (CAB International, 2001). Also a vector of cocoa mottle leaf disease virus in Ghana (Legg & Bonney, 1968).

Annual crop losses attributed jointly to CSSV and capsid damage in Ghana is estimated at 25–30% (CAB International, 2001).



Yes

Phyllocoptruta sakimurae Kiefer, 1966

[Acarina: Eriophyidae]



Blister mite

Feasible

Not significant

One record and restricted occurrence.

No

Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller, 1996

[Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]



Jack Beardsley mealybug

Feasible

Large host range as occurs on a variety of fruit, vegetable and ornamental hosts (CAB International, 2001).



Significant

Although this species has never been reported as a serious pest, its wide range of economic hosts and its ability to expand its geographic range make it an ideal candidate as a pest of the future (CAB International, 2001).

There are no records of actual damage but the species is polyphagous and, in the absence of suitable natural enemies, it could be injurious (Williams & Watson, 1988).


Yes

Stephanoderes sp.

[Coleoptera: Scolytidae]



Fruit borer

Feasible

Not significant

One record.

No

Strymon megarus (Godart, 1824)

Syn. = Polyommatus megarus Godart, 1824; Tmolus basilides Geyer, 1837; Strymon basilides (Geyer, 1837); Thecla basilides (Geyer, 1837); Thecla thulia Hewitson, 1868; Thecla ziba Hewitson, 1868. Various misspellings include Thecla basilides (Geyer) and Thecla basiliodes (Geyer); misidentified as Tmolus echion Linnaeus; Tmolus echion (Linnaeus, 1767); Papilio echion Linnaeus, 1767; Ministrymon echion (Linnaeus); Thecla echion (Linnaeus).

[Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae]


Pineapple caterpillar; fruit boring caterpillar

Feasible

Significant

Martínez, 1976; Nakasone & Paull, 1998
Yes

Thlastocoris laetus Mayr, 1866

[Hemiptera: Coreidae]



Bug

Feasible

Not significant

Regarded as a pest of minor economic importance (Mitchell, 2000).

No

Fungi
















Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenweb. & Reinking) P.E. Nelson, T.A. Tousson & Marasas

Syn. = Fusarium guttiforme Nirenberg & O’Donnell



[Mitosporic fungi]

Pineapple eye rot; fruitlet core rot; fusariosis; gummosis

Feasible

Significant



Yes







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