Ap human Geography: Folk and Popular Culture crq 2: Comparing Folk and Popular Culture




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AP Human Geography: Folk and Popular Culture

CRQ 2: Comparing Folk and Popular Culture (30 pts.)(RUBRIC)


1. Define and explain the main differences between folk and popular culture by completing the following table. Be sure to provide examples as required.





Folk/Local Culture

Popular Culture

1. Define and describe the key characteristics of folk and popular culture.

(6 pts.)


  • A culture traditionally practiced by a small, rural homogeneous populations.



  • Folk culture varies greatly from place to place but changes slowly.




  • Not commodified.

  • The culture traits found in large, urban populations that are heterogeneous (different from each other) but who nonetheless share the popular culture traits.



  • Popular culture varies little from place to place but changes quickly.




  • Commodified on global scale.

2. Describe the hearths of folk and popular culture.

(4 pts)


  • Folk customs are so deeply embedded in a local culture that the time, hearth and innovator of folk culture traits are usually unknown.




  • Folk culture arises out of the everyday activities of rural life.

  • The time, place, and innovator of a given popular culture innovation is usually well known: generally big cities in North America, Europe, and Japan.




  • Popular culture arises from a combination of advances in industrial technology and increased leisure time.

3. Describe the typical patterns of diffusion for folk and for popular culture.

(4 pts.)


  • The spread of folk culture typically follows a process of relocation diffusion (migration of people bringing a cultural trait or cultural complex with them).




  • Folk culture is transmitted more slowly and on a smaller scale than popular culture.




  • The spread of popular culture follows the process of hierarchical diffusion from hearths or nodes of innovation.




  • Popular culture diffuses rapidly and extensively through the use of modern communications and transportation systems.

4. Describe the current distribution or folk and popular culture.

(4 pts)


  • Folk cultures survive in a dwindling number of isolated areas in LDCs in rural areas of MDCs where culture groups can achieve some level of isolation from the dominant popular culture.




  • Folk culture can also be found in ethnic enclaves in urban areas.

  • Popular culture has a widespread, global, distribution.




  • Popular culture is most prominent in urban centers.




5. Explain the typical cultural landscape (the visible imprint of a culture on the natural landscape) for folk and for popular culture.
Include in each of your explanations one example from each of the following areas: food/agriculture, clothing, and the built environment. (total of six examples) (8 pts)

  • Folk cultures—including their food, clothing, and built environments--are likely to reflect the local environment and use local materials because they are derived from the local landscape. Folk cultures also are less likely to harm or modify the natural environment than popular culture because they are small scale and use limited technology.

Sample examples for above explanation (there are many others):


Food and Agricultural:

  • Quick-frying food in Italy resulted in part from fuel shortages in southern Europe while in northern Europe, an abundant wood supply encouraged slow stewing and roasting of food over fire.

  • Rice is grown in mild, moist climates whereas wheat is grown in colder, drier climates.

  • The wine is local regions (its terroir) picks up the flavor of local soils.

  • The prohibition against eating port in the Middle East where pigs would compete for scarce water and grain.

  • In similar fashion, the Hindu taboo against eating beef preserves bovine stock for plowing.

Clothing



  • Residents of arctic climates may wear fur-lined boots, which protect against cold whereas people living in warm and humid climate may not need any footwear if heavy rainfall and time spent in water discourage such use.

  • Dutch traditionally wore wooden shoes to mitigate effects of wet climate on their feet.

  • An Amish farmer, an Inuit hunter, and a African tribesman would each likely construct clothing from local materials.

Built environment:



  • Adobe brick housing in SW U.S. and Mexico

  • Native American tepees (animal skins over wooden frame)

  • With an abundant supply of lumber, early U.S. settlers moving west simply copied whatever upscale folk housing style was prevalent in the area they migrated from (New England, Mid Atlantic or Lower Chesapeake).

  • African mud brick and thatch roof housing,

  • Mongolian Yurts easily moved to fit nomadic lifestyle,

  • Stone and timber houses in Germany and UK

  • Houses on stilts in Cambodia, Bangladesh and other low lying countries susceptible to flooding.

OR


  • The built environment of folk societies may reflect religious or other social values of the local culture.

Sample examples for above explanation (there are many others):


Food and agriculture:


  • Although wine could be grown in the Middle East and Northern Africa, it is not grown there due to the Muslim taboo against drinking alcohol.

  • Food taboos, such as Jewish kosher laws, often reflect religious values which set the particular folk group apart from surrounding populations.

  • Bostan vegetable gardens in Istanbul reflect a centuries old tradition of highly efficient, sustainable urban agriculture which reflect long tradition of respecting the land.

Clothing:




  • Amish clothing has no pockets, reflecting their emphasis on simplicity (not carrying around of possessions).

  • In many folk cultures, women’s clothing styles reflect gender roles in the local culture, especially the values of modesty and monogamy.

Built environment:




  • Amish and Mormon settlements cluster farm houses in villages to facilitate religious meetings.

  • Houses in Indonesia, Madagascar, and elsewhere are oriented to various compass directions based on religions beliefs.

  • House decorations in the folk cultures throughout the Himalayas reflect religious beliefs despite a shared physical landscape.

  • Popular culture is not likely to reflect the local environment and is more likely to modify it or damage it because popular culture is not derived from the local landscape but rather is mass produced and imported into the local landscape. Instead, popular culture has led to a uniform landscape (aka “placelessness”) so that the food, clothing, and building preferences are very much the same in all places.

Sample examples for above explanation (there are many others):


Food and agriculture:


  • Supermarkets everywhere in MDCs and in wealthy enclaves in LDCs offer almost the same selection of foods.

  • Fast food chains offer similar menus all over the world.

  • Industrial farming techniques based on hybrid seeds, high levels of chemical use, and mechanization have spread worldwide.

  • Mass marketing of highly processed food in leading to a cultural convergence of dietary habits worldwide along with associated health problems such as obesity, type II diabetes, and heart disease.

Clothing:




  • Popular clothing styles vary less on the local environment or cultural customs and more a occupation. For example, businessmen as well as manual laborers in NY, London, and Tokyo are likely to dress in similar business suits and work clothes despite the different local environments.

  • Jeans have become a world wide symbol of Western culture even in regions where the are unsuited for the local climate.

Built environment:




  • Skyscrapers are built on a standard blueprint (steel infrastructure with concrete walls) do not reflect local styles or materials.

  • Popular culture residential housing is mass produced using cut lumber to reflect whatever popular culture housing style is popular at the time. Therefore unlike folk housing, popular housing trends reflect current trends more than local styles or available materials.

  • Suburbs throughout the United States reflect a uniform landscape of restaurant chains, big box stores, and shopping malls with large parking areas or garages.

  • Urban planning is similar in big cities in MDCs around the world despite very different physical environments.




6. Identify one example of a folk culture and one example of a popular culture trait.
For the folk culture, describe its current distribution.
For the pop culture trait, describe its diffusion.

(4 pts)


Possible examples (there are many others):
Amish

The core of Amish is in Pennsylvania, but more generally, they are located throughout other areas of the Northeast and Midwest. the Amish have begun to move to the south drawn by cheaper land for farms needed for their sons.


Mormons

Mormon folk culture is distributed through the intermountain West, centered on Utah.


Native Americans

Native American folk culture in the United States is widely distributed on reservations with concentrations in Oklahoma, northern New Mexico and northern Arizona, and less clustered throughout the Midwest, Northwest, and West coast.


Himalayan Folk Cultures

Tibetan Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Animist are examples of isolated folk cultures all distributed throughout the Himalayan region.


Any Amazonian or African Folk Culture

Tribal cultures in Africa or in the Amazon or any other example of culture regions that have maintained their distinct culture and homogeneous population because of their isolation. Be sure to include the distribution of that culture.




Possible examples (there are many others):
Pop Music

Pop music originated in vaudeville around 1900 in the US and Western Europe. Tin Pan Alley in Manhattan first sold song sheets , then recordings. Pop music went worldwide after WWII as pop music was broadcast over radio to soldiers fighting all over the world.


Hip Hop

Hip Hop music originated in the 1970's in south Bronx, then spread first by contagious diffusion to other areas of NY (Queens, Brooklyn, Harlem), then by hierarchical diffusion in the 1980's to Oakland and Atlanta, to other large cities in South, West, and Midwest, and then globally.


Jeans

Jeans were originally associated with low status manual labors and farmers in the U.S. but became a symbol of American youth culture in the 1960s and thereafter diffused around the world by the mobile elite as a symbol of Western culture.


Kate Middleton's Wedding Dress (or any other pop culture clothing style)

Kate Middleton's wedding dress was copied and redesigned in a cheaper version within hours of her wedding, quickly mass produced in Asian factories, and available on the internet (contagious diffusion) the day after the wedding. Popular clothing styles generally diffuse rapidly by hierarchical diffusion. Fashions originate in the fashion hearths of Paris, Milan, New York, and London, are rapidly mass produced in factories in Asia and then diffuse to big cities in MDCs


Soccer

Soccer began as a folk custom with obscure origins. It was played in villages in England during the late Middle Ages. It became part of global popular culture in the 1800's as an organized sport for British factory workers and spread by the typical relocation/contagious diffusion pattern first to continental Europe by English students and workers and then throughout the worldwide British Empire by colonial officials and soldiers.


Skateboarding

Skateboarding, first known as sidewalk surfing, diffused from its hearth in southern California to become a part of popular culture through ESPN X games television series and through video games. Tony Hawk was a big part of the diffusion of skateboarding to popular culture.


Ultimate Fighting

Ultimate Fighting originally diffused from the long tradition of mixed martial arts fighting in Brazil and was brought into popular culture worldwide by sports promoters in the U.S. who first introduced to the American audience via pay per view cable television. It has now diffused to over 100 countries around the world.




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