|76.10 Andromeda L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 393.
The Andromeda polifolia aggregate (A. glaucophylla, A. polifolia)
(1) This aggregate is probably needed if the two species are upkept. See comments below. (Elven)
76.10.1 Andromeda polifolia L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 393.
(1) The demarcation between the both subspecies in Canada is tentative and needs specificaton based on studies of large herbarium collections. In 'Arctic Flora of the USSR' (Vinogradova 1980), subsp. pumila is not recorded from arctic Canada and Greenland, which sharply contrasts with the situation in arctic Asia and the Alaska-Yukon sector. So, we should show on table in part A also the distribution of the whole species A. polifolia (including subsp. pumila, but not A. glaucophylla). (Yurtsev)
(2) In the geographic part this will be done in all cases where there are two or more subspecific entities, and probably also for all species aggregates. (Elven)
As in many other cases, there are evident differences between southern and northern plants. A sufficient documentation of discontinuity in the morphological and genetic variation pattern is, however, absent. There is an evolutionary problem with two (or more) nearly circumpolar zonal subspecies (or in other cases species). Such a model implies that the differentiation into two entities took place before the migrations resulting in two circumpolar patterns. The other and much more plausible hypothesis is that the differentiation of a northern boreal / southern arctic race has taken place after the species became circumpolar and then obviously as some kind of ecotypical adaptation to the colder zones. The northern entity would then be highly polyphyletic, ecotypical, and as most worthy of varietal rank. I am therefore very reluctant to accept subsp. pumila as a subspecies; at most I could accept a variety and even that with problems. (Elven)
WARNING! Subspecies might be omitted if not well justified.
188.8.131.52 Andromeda polifolia L. subsp. polifolia
2n= 48 (4x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list six counts, one (Alaskan) as arctic.
G NOR RUS SIB ALA CAN
184.108.40.206 Andromeda polifolia L. subsp. pumila V. Vinogr. in Tolm. (1980), Fl. Arct. URSS 8: 134.
S A. polifolia L. var. pusilla Pallas (1788), Fl. Ross. 1, 2: 53; A. polifolia L. var. acerosa Hartm. ***
T Russian Far East: Terra Tschuktschorum, pars septentrionalis planitiei elati Anadyrensis, fl. Komarinaja (affluentia sinistra fl. Jurumkuveem), 01.07.1968, leg. A. Katenin & V. Petrovsky (LE) holotype.
2n= 48 (4x).
G NOR RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN? GRL?
76.10.2 Andromeda glaucophylla Link (1821), Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 394.
S A. polifolia L. subsp. glaucophylla (Link) Hultén (1948), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 44, 1: 1242.
2n= 48 (4x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list two non-arctic counts.
G CAN GRL
(1) The differences between A. glaucophylla and A. polifolia seem to me to be too small for status as species, and mainly quantitative. Geographically, the former appear as a northeastern American and Greenlandic race of the latter. I propose that we follow Hultén and treat the 'glaucophylla' entity as a subspecies. (Elven)
(2) The subspecific combination of Hultén (1948) is insufficient as year and place of publication of the basionym is lacking. (Elven)
(3) Possibly as a subspecies. (Yurtsev & Elven)
WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of A. polifolia.
76.11 Chamaedaphne Moench (1794), Meth. 457.
76.11.1 Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench (1794), Meth. 457.
B Andromeda calyculata L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 394.
S C. calyculata (L.) Moench subsp. nana (Lodd.) Khokhr. (1991), Sosud. Rast. Sovet. Dal'nego Vostoka 5: 144.
2n= 22 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list two non-arctic counts.
G RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN
(1) In the Arctic, mostly or exclusively subsp. nana (Khokhryakov & Mazurenko 1991). (Yurtsev)
(2) The record of Arcterica nana (Maxim.) Makino for the arctic Yakutia (delta of Lena River) is an evident mistake, based on the mixture of herbarium labels (in MW). (Yurtsev)
(3) If we accept a subsp. nana, it should be treated fully with a formal entry. However, I suspect it is another case of a northern zonal subspecies and we should probably only include it in synonymy, with a comment that justifies our formal exclusion of it. (Elven)
76.12 Arctostaphylos Adans. (1763), Fam. Pl. 2: 165.
76.12.1 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (1825), Syst. Veg. 2: 287.
B Arbutus uva ursi L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 395.
S A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. subsp. uva-ursi; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. adenotricha Fern. & Macbr. (1914), Rhodora 16: 213; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. subsp. adenotricha (Fern. & Macbr.) Calder & Taylor (1965), Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1397; A. adenotricha (Fern. & Macbr.) Á. Löve, D. Löve & Kapoor (1972), Arct. Alp. Res. 3: 154; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. f. adenotricha (Fern. & Macbr.) Wells (1989), Madroño 35: 339; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. coactilis Fern. & Macbr. (1914), Rhodora 16: 212; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. subsp. coactilis (Fern. & Macbr.) Á. Löve, D. Löve & Kapoor (1972), Arct. Alp. Res. 3: 154-155; A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. f. coactilis (Fern. & Macbr.) Wells (1989), Madroño 35: 339.
2n= (1) 26 (2x). (2) 52 (4x).
2nD (1) Packer & Denford (1974 Can 'adenotricha'); Löve et al. (1972 W-N Am 'adenotricha'); Wells (1989 N Am 'coactilis'). (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list four non-arctic counts for their subsp. uva-ursi, five counts (one as arctic) for their subsp. coactilis.
G NOR RUS SIB ALA CAN GRL
(1) Löve & Löve (1975) record subsp. coactilis (Fern. & Macbr.) Á. Löve, D. Löve & Kapoor for the American Arctic as vicarious to the European-Siberian subsp. uva-ursi. The status of the former and its distribution needs specification. (Yurtsev)
(2) The only formal differential character given by Hultén (1968) separating subsp. uva-ursi and subsp. adenotricha is indumentum (glandular in the latter, not in the former). Two other subspecies are also given (for the Yukon Territory) by Packer & Denford (1974): subsp. stipitata and subsp. longipilosa, these too based only on indumentum differences. A last entity based on the same type of criteria is subsp. coactilis, given as arctic by, e.g., Löve & Löve (1975). As subsp. adenotricha (and also subsp. coactilis) is fully sympatric with subsp. uva-ursi, I am very sceptical to accepting them. Wells (1989, Madroño 35) found the indumentum variation to be mainly intrapopulational and neither could he confirm the ploidal difference indicated by Löve & Löve. His renaming of these entities as formae seems well founded. Until there is a good genetic documentation, and a morphological analysis also outside North America, my opinion is that we should just accept the species and reduce all other names to synonymy. (Elven)
76.13 Arctous (A. Gray) Niedenzu (1889), Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 11: 80.
(1) Justification of this genus as separate from Arctostaphylos is needed. I tend to agree with it from a northern viewpoint but I don't know the global variation. (Elven)
WARNING! This genus might be merged with Arctostaphylos.
76.13.1 Arctous alpina (L.) Niedenzu (1889), Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 11: 144.
B Arbutus alpina L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 395.
S Arctostaphylos alpinus (L.) Spreng. (1825), Syst. Veg. 2: 287.
2n= 26 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, most as arctic.
G NOR RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN GRL
76.13.2 Arctous rubra (Rehd. & Wilson) Nakai & Koidz. (1922), Trees & Shrubs Jap. Proper, ed. 1, 156.
B A. alpinus (L.) Niedenzu var. ruber Rehd. & Wilson (1913), Pl. Wils. 3: 556.
S Arctostaphylos rubra (Rehd. & Wilson) Fern. (1914), Rhodora 16: 32; Arctostaphylos alpina (L.) Spreng. subsp. rubra (Rehd. & Wilson) Hultén (1948), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 44, 1: 1245; A. erythrocarpa Small (1914), N. Amer. Fl. 29, 1: 102.
2n= 26 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list five counts, three as arctic.
G SIB RFE ALA CAN
(1) The real Arctous rubra (Rend. & Wilson) Nakai grows in Southwest China and Korea. (Yurtsev)
(2) This does not prevent it reaching into the Arctic and other northern areas. We need a documentation for consistent differences betwen A. rubra and A. erythrocarpa before we reject the former name from the Arctic. I have therefore preliminarily included the 'rubra' name as valid here. (Elven)
WARNING! Valid name of the arctic species (or subspecies?) might be changed.
76.14 Vaccinium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 349.
S Rhodococcum (Rupr.) Avrorin, Bot. Zhurn. 43: 1723 (incl.).
76.14.1 Vaccinium myrtillus L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 349.
T Sweden: 497.1 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 133).
2n= 24 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, one Icelandic.
G NOR RUS SIB GRL
76.14.2 Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm. in Rees (1817), Cycl. 36: Vaccinium # 2.
T West Coast of North America, 1787-1788, leg. Menzies 78 in 1787-1788 (BM) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 133).
76.14.3 Vaccinium cespitosum Michx. (1803), Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 234.
T Canada: Quebec, Lac Mistassini, leg. Michaux (P) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 133).
2n= 24 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1966b NE Am).
76.14.4 Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. (1803), Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 234.
T Canada: Quebec, Lac Mistassini, leg. Michaux (P) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 130).
76.14.5 Vaccinium uliginosum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 350.
T Sweden: 497.3 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 131).
(1) The variation in this species is large. It may, however, be difficult at this stage to construct a consistent 'taxonomy' that can be applied throughout the arctic and boreal zones. Three ploidy levels are present, but their connections to the named races are not sufficiently documented. Subsp. microphyllum has repeatedly been counted as diploid (2n=24) and this number is proved from the Arctic as well as much more southern mountains (e.g., in SE Europe). Plants morphologically similar to 'microphyllum' replace subsp. uliginosum in the Fennoscandian mountains but these have been counted as tetraploid (2n=48, Borgen & Elven 1983, Nord. J. Bot. 3: 301-306). They probably represent the plants described as subsp. alpinum (Bigelow) Hultén and mapped as such in the Fennoscandian mountains by Hultén (1968). Inclusion of this 'race' in subsp. microphyllum, as done by Yurtsev in this draft, makes that subspecies di and tetraploid. To keep them apart as taxa is, however, difficult from morphological reasons. If the plants described as subsp. pedris really are consistently hexaploid (2n=72), this is a supporting argument for that entity as a separate race, but the number of supporting counts seem to be low. The subsp. vulcanorum proposed by Yurtsev in this draft is unknown to me and I have no opinion, except that it needs some more justification than that given in the draft before we can accept it. (Elven)
WARNING! All subspecies might have to be omitted until much better investigated.
220.127.116.11 Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. uliginosum
2n= (1) 24? (2x). (2) 48 (4x).
2nD (1) ?? (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, some as arctic.
G ICE? NOR RUS SIB
(1) Diploid counts may refer to some other of the races. The doubts about Iceland concern which race; the species is certainly there. (Elven)
18.104.22.168 Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. pedris (Harshb.) Young (1970), Rhodora 72: 450.
B V. uliginosum L. var. pedris Harshb. (1928), Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 67: 232.
S V. salicinum Cham. & Schltdl. (1826), Linnaea 1: 525.
T [Described from Alaska: Pedro Dome near Fairbanks.]
2n= 72 (6x).
2nD Hara (1953 Jap); Young (1970).
G RFE ALA
(1) A robust race closest to subsp. uliginosum, but with shorter leaves and tasteful berris. (Yurtsev)
22.214.171.124 Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. microphyllum (Lange) Tolm. (1936), Obz. Fl. N. Z. 154.
B V. uliginosum L. taxon (*) microphyllum Lange (1880), Medd. Grønl. 3: 91.
S V. gaultherioides Bigel. (1816), New Engl. J. Medic. Surg. 5: 335; ?V. uliginosum L. subsp. alpinum (Bigel.) Hultén (1967), Ark. Bot.. ser. 2, 7, 1: 100 [basionym: V. uliginosum L. var. alpinum Bigel. (1824), Fl. Boston., ed. 2, 153].
2n= (1) 24 (2x). (2) 48? (4x).
2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, many as arctic. (2) ??
G ICE? NOR RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN GRL
(1) Some authors (e.g. Hultén 1968) consider subsp. microphyllum and subsp. alpinum to be vicarious one to another, the latter replacing the former mostly in the forest tundra and northern taiga as well as in sheltered habitats of the tundra zone. (Yurtsev)
(2) Tetraploid counts probably originate from the inclusion of subsp. alpinum into subsp. microphyllum. The doubts about Iceland concern which race. (Elven)
126.96.36.199 Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. vulcanorum (Kom.) Jurtz. comb. nov. proposed
B V. vulcanorum Kom. (1914), Feddes Repert. 13: 236.
S V. uliginosum L. subsp. microphyllum (Lange) Tolm. var. vulcanorum (Kom.) Jurtz. (1980), Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol. 85, 6: 105.
G RFE ALA
(1) A prostrate-pulvinate dwarf shrub with imbricate, rotundate small laves, persistent in winter, and globose berries. (Yurtsev)
(2) Is it really worth status above variety? Much better justification needed. (Elven)
76.14.6 Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 351.
T Sweden: 497.17 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 131).
(1) Here the two races are clear, as opposed to those in V. uliginosum. (Elven)
188.8.131.52 Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. subsp. vitis-idaea.
S Rhodococcum vitis-idaea (L.) Avrorin (1958), Bot. Zhurn. 43: 1723.
2n= 24 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, some as arctic.
G NOR RUS SIB
184.108.40.206 Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. subsp. minus (Lodd.) Hultén (1937), Fl. Aleut. Isl. 268.
B V. vitis-idaea L. var. minus Lodd. (1815), Bot. Cab. 11: 1023.
S Rhodococcum minus (Lodd.) Avrorin (1958), Bot. Zhurn. 43: 1722.
2n= 24 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, many as arctic.
G NOR? RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN GRL
(1) The doubts about Norway concerns some plants in northeasternmost (arctic) mainland Norway; elsewhere in this area subsp. vitis-idaea is present and common. (Elven)
76.15 Oxycoccus Hill (1756), Brit. Herb. 324.
(1) The status of this genus, as separate from Vaccinium, must be discussed. I tend to agree with it as a separate genus. (Elven)
WARNING! This genus might be merged with Vaccinium.
The Oxycoccus palustris aggregate (O. microcarpus, O. palustris)
(1) Aggregate and comments needed if the two species are retained. See also Vander Kloet (1983, Rhodora 85: 1-43).
The differences between O. palustris and O. microcarpus are small, but not only quantitative. They are, however, very different to keep consistently apart in Fennoscandia. Intermediate chromosome numbers are also known and gene exchange via the triploid level is possible. In Fennoscandia they behave like two races: a southern one ('palustris') that mainly is absent from the North Boreal and further north, and a northern one ('microcarpus') that reaches south to the Mid Boreal but is rare in the South Boreal. The plant described as O. palustris subsp. microphyllus seems, from the description, to have the main morphology of O. microcarpus but the chromosome number of O. palustris. It might be a case of introgression from O. microcarpus into O. palustris in a separate area, northeastern North America and Greenland. Its status should be discussed before acceptance. Note that Lange (1887) described it without reference to, and perhaps without knowledge of, O. microcarpus. (Elven)
76.15.1 Oxycoccus palustris Pers. (1805), Syn. Pl. 1: 419.
S Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 351; Oxycoccus oxycoccos (L.) Adolphi (1987), Taxon 36: 127.
T Sweden: 497.18 (LINN) lectotype (of Vaccinium oxycoccos L.), selected by Vander Kloet (1989, Taxon 38: 131).
220.127.116.11 Oxycoccus palustris Pers. subsp. palustris
S O. quadripetalus Gilib. (1781), nom. illegit., Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 5.
2n= (1) 48 (4x). (2) c. 50.
2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list three non-arctic counts. (2) Sorsa (1963c).
G RUS CAN
18.104.22.168 Oxycoccus palustris Pers. subsp. microphyllus (Lange) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1965), Univ. Colorado Stud., Ser. Biol. 17: 28.
B O. palustris Pers. f. microphylla Lange (1887), Medd. Grønl. 3 [Consp. Fl. Groenl.]: 267.
T [Described from W Greenland.]
2n= 48 (4x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list four counts, one Greenlandic.
(1) The rest of the range of this race occupies the Atlantic coast of Canada (Gaspé - Newfoundland area). (Yurtsev)
WARNING! This race needs additional justification.
76.15.2 Oxycoccus microcarpus Turcz. ex Rupr. (1845), Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches 4: 56.
S Vaccinium microcarpum (Turcz. ex Rupr.) Schmalh. (1870), Trudy Imp. S. Petersburgsk. Obsc. Estestvoisp., Vyp.2, Otd. Bot. 2: 149; Vaccinium oxycoccos L. subsp. microcarpum (Turcz. ex Rupr.) A. Blytt (1905), Haandb. Norges Fl. 561.
2n= 24 (2x).
2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list six counts, one Icelandic and one Greenlandic.
G ICE NOR RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN
WARNING! Might be merged with O. palustris as a subspecies.