Air pollution source (number of evaluated samples), country Exposure; exposure/recovery time (hr)




Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
Памер59.92 Kb.
Table IV. Results of newer investigations with aira

Air pollution source (number of evaluated samples), country

Exposure; exposure/recovery

time (hr)

Resultsb

Methods, remarks

Ref.

Clone #4430

Incinerator, landfill site (80), US

SE, FE,

5-7/24


↑Trad-MN,

↑Trad-SH



↑Responses were associated with weather conditions (low wind velocity, high temperature and relative humidity) and with the distance from the chimney of the incinerator

(1)

Municipal waste incinerator (36), Germany

SE, FE,

6-24/ (exposure + recovery=30)



↑Trad-MN

Cuttings exposed in a fumigation chamber with the smoke condensates; correlations with the distance from the incinerator and with the direction of the wind

(2)

Gas stove emissions (6), Italy

SE,

3 or 6/24



↑Trad-MN,

↔S.t. (in situ), ↑S.t. (DCM ex.)



Emissions collected with a pump located over the stoves and were passed to desiccators with cuttings. An old gas stove induced higher MN levels, correlations between MN-frequency and exposure time (probable reason: poor combustion in the old stove which emitted, more CO and NO2)

(3)

Rubber industry (4), Italy

SE, FE,

8/24


↑Trad-MN,

↑S.t., ↑comet



Cuttings exposed to air contaminated with nitrosamines, PAH; Trad-MN more sensitive to volatile genotoxins; comet assay were performed with human leucocytes

(4)

Polyvinylchloride factory (9), South Korea

SE, FE,

2, 6, 9/ 24



↑Trad-MN


Cuttings were exposed at a height of 1.4 m at the workplace; the MN frequencies increased with exposure time; correlations between MN frequencies and toluene levels in air

(5)

Field sprayed by pesticides (cyazine-metolachlor; cyazine-metolachlor and chlorpyrifos) (5), Brazil

SE, FE,

14/24


↑Trad-MN

The fields were sprayed with a pesticides mix 24 h before the experiments

(6)

Table IV. continued

Air pollution source (number of evaluated samples), country

Exposure; exposure/recovery

time (hr)

Results

Methods, remarks

Ref.

Clone #4430













Urban air, traffic, car tunnels (8), Italy

SE, FE/LAB

24/0, (tunnels 1-5 or 24 exposure)



↑Trad-MN

Cuttings were exposed to airborne particular matter extracts (PM10) in the laboratory, under in situ conditions, plants responded only to high pollution levels.

(7)

Urban air (31), Italy

SE, FE

24/0


↑Trad-MN,

↑mutatox


Cuttings were exposed 2 m above ground; genotoxicity depended on the season, a stronger effects in winter; semi-permeable membrane devices used for microtox and mutatox tests and chemical analyses

(8)

Urban air, traffic emissions in European cities (112), EU

SE, FE

30/0


↑Trad-MN (KWH)b

Cuttings were exposed to air in ten EU cities; highest MN rates at sites close to streets with heavy traffic

(9)

Urban air (16), Italy

SE, FE

24/0


↑Trad-MN,

↑comet


Comet results correlated with pollutants (NOx, NO, PM10), positive results in Trad-MN are partly due to presence of unknown genotoxic agents;

comet assays were performed with Nicotiana tabacum



(10)

Urban air - subway station (12), South Korea

SE, LAB

24/24


↑Trad-MN

Water extracts of particulate matter (PM10) filters from subways;

significant correlation between extent of pollution and MN frequencies



(11)

Clone #03

Urban air – traffic, industry (34), Slovakia

PE, FE,

2-12 weeks/0



↑Trad-MN,

↑pollen assay



Highest MN frequency found in the vicinity of an agrochemical factory

(12)

Paper industry, landfill site (33), Slovakia

PE, FE,

4-6weeks/0



↑Trad-MN,

↑pollen assay



Highest MN frequency at a site near a chemical factory and in the vicinity of a paper mill

(13)

City incinerator, petrochemical plant (21), Slovakia

PE, FE,

10 days up to 3 months



↑Trad-MN,

↑pollen assay



Decrease of MN frequency after improvement of the production technologies

(14)

Table IV. continued

Air pollution source (number of evaluated samples), country

Exposure; exposure/recovery

time (hr)

Results

Methods, remarks

Ref.

T. pallida

Urban air (PM10) (3), Brazil

SE, FE,

NS


↑Trad-MN (T)

Extracts from particulate matter (PM10) filters

(15)

Urban air, city traffic (6), Brazil

PE, FE,

NS (>week)



↑Trad-MN (KW)b

Wildlife plants of T. pallida and sentinels of the same plants species in pots were tested, more pronounced effect with plants in pot; correlation with levels of pollutants measured in chemical analyses

(16)

Urban air - diesel emission (4), Brazil

SE, LAB,

8/24


↑Trad-MN

Filter extracts from particulate matter (PM2.5); during bus driver strike (0 buses/h) and non-strike period (913 buses/h); strike ↓mutagenicity of air

(17)

Urban air (3), Argentina

PE, FE,

1, 4 and 6 months/0



↑Trad-MN (SNK)b

Plants were exposed in pots 3 m aboves ground; significant differences between different sites

(18)

Urban air (3), India

PE, FE,

up to 6 months/0



↑Trad-MN


Authors indicate not clearly which sites are significantly different from the control site; only overall results of ANOVA are presented

(19)

Urban air – traffic, petrochemical plant (NS), Brazil

PE, FE,

7 months>



↑Trad-MN

Plants were exposed in pots; correlation between MN and ↑cardiovascular diseases, ↑neoplasia, ↔ chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

(20)

Urban air – traffic (132), Brazil

PE, FE,

7 months>



↑Trad-MN (KW)b

Wildlife plants of T. pallida and sentinels of the same plant species were tested plants; in pots were more sensitive

(21)

Urban air (65), Brazil

PE, FE,

1 year>


↑Trad-MN (D)b

Low temperature increased MN rates

(22)

a – abbreviations: ↑ - statistically significant increase; ↔ - statistical not significant; comet – comet assay; DCM ex. – dichlormethane extract; ; D - Dunn test; FE - field experiments; KW- Kruskall Wallis ANOVA; KWH - Kruskal - Wallis H-test Tukey-Kramer test; LAB – laboratory experiments; NS – not specified; PE - exposed plants in pots; pollen assay - pollen abortion assay; RE – root exposure; S.t. - Salmonella/ microsome assay; SE – stem exposure; SNK - Student-Neuman-Keuls test; T - Tukey test; Trad-MN – Tradescantia micronucleus assay; Trad-SH – Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay;

b – statistical method other than that recommended by Ma et al. (23).

References

1. Ma, T.H., Xu, C., Liao, S., McConnell, H., Jeong, B.S., and Won, C.D. (1996) In situ monitoring with the Tradescantia bioassays on the genotoxicity of gaseous emissions from a closed landfill site and an incinerator. Mutat Res, 359, 39-52.

2. Fomin, A., and Hafner, C. (1998) Evaluation of genotoxicity of emissions from municipal waste incinerators with Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN). Mutat Res, 414, 139-148.

3. Monarca, S., Zanardini, A., Feretti, D., Falistocco, E., Antonelli, P., Resola, S., Moretti, M., Villarini, M., and Nardi, G. (1998) Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of gas stove emissions in bacterial and plant tests. Environ Mol Mutagen, 31, 402-408.

4. Monarca, S., Feretti, D., Zanardini, A., Moretti, M., Villarini, M., Spiegelhalder, B., Zerbini, I., Gelatti, U., and Lebbolo, E. (2001) Monitoring airborne genotoxicants in the rubber industry using genotoxicity tests and chemical analyses. Mutat Res, 490, 159-169.

5. Kim, J.K., Shin, H.S., Lee, J.H., and Lee, J.J. (2003) Genotoxic effects of volatile organic compounds in a chemical factory as evaluated by the Tradescantia micronucleus assay and by chemical analysis. Mutat Res, 541, 55-61.

6. Rodrigues, G.S., Pimentel, D., and Weinstein, L.H. (1998) In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program I - Tradescantia micronucleus assay. Mutat Res, 412, 235-244.

7. Monarca, S., Feretti, D., Zanardini, A., Falistocco, E., and Nardi, G. (1999) Monitoring of mutagens in urban air samples. Mutat Res, 426, 189-192.

8. Isidori, M., Ferrara, M., Lavorgna, M., Nardelli, A., and Parrella, A. (2003) In situ monitoring of urban air in Southern Italy with the tradescantia micronucleus bioassay and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Chemosphere, 52, 121-126.

9. Klumpp, A., Ansel, W., Klumpp, G., Calatayud, V., Garrec, J.P., He, S., Penuelas, J., Ribas, A., Ro-Poulsen, H., Rasmussen, S., Sanz, M.J., and Vergne, P. (2006) Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities. Environ Pollut, 139, 515-522.

10. Villarini, M., Fatigoni, C., Dominici, L., Maestri, S., Ederli, L., Pasqualini, S., Monarca, S., and Moretti, M. (2009) Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays. Environ Pollut, 157, 3354-3356.

11. Kim, J.K., Shin, H.S., Lee, Y.Y., and Lee, J.H. (2009) Genotoxicity evaluation of atmospheric environments of subway stations in Seoul using Tradescantia micronucleus assay. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 39, 279-285.

12. Misik, M., Solenska, M., Micieta, K., Misikova, K., and Knasmuller, S. (2006) In situ monitoring of clastogenicity of ambient air in Bratislava, Slovakia using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay and pollen abortion assays. Mutat Res, 605, 1-6.

13. Solenska, M., Micieta, K., and Misik, M. (2006) Plant bioassays for an in situ monitoring of air near an industrial area and a municipal solid waste - Zilina (Slovakia). Environ Monit Assess, 115, 499-508.

14. Misik, M., Micieta, K., Solenska, M., Misikova, K., Pisarcikova, H., and Knasmuller, S. (2007) In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life plants: demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern European city. Environ Pollut, 145, 459-466.

15. Batalha, J.R.F., Guimaraes, E.T., Lobo, D.J.A., Lichtenfels, A., Deur, T., Carvalho, H.A., Alves, E.S., Domingos, M., Rodrigues, G.S., and Saldiva, P.H.N. (1999) Exploring the clastogenic effects of air pollutants in Sao Paulo (Brazil) using the Tradescantia micronuclei assay. Mutat Res, 426, 229-232.

16. Guimaraes, E.T., Domingos, M., Alves, E.S., Caldini, N., Lobo, D.J.A., Lichtenfels, A., and Saldiva, P.H.N. (2000) Detection of the genotoxicity of air pollutants in and around the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay. Environ Exp Bot, 44, 1-8.

17. Carvalho-Oliveira, R., Pozo, R.M.K., Lobo, D.J.A., Lichtenfels, A., Martins-Junior, H.A., Bustilho, J., Salki, M., Sato, I.M., and Saldiva, P.H.N. (2005) Diesel emissions significantly influence composition and mutagenicity of ambient particles: a case study in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Environ Res, 98, 1-7.

18. Carreras, H.A., Pignata, M.L., and Saldiva, P.H.N. (2006) In situ monitoring of urban air in Cordoba, Argentina using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Atmos Environ, 40, 7824-7830.

19. Prajapati, S.K., and Tripathi, B.D. (2008) Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants in Varanasi City using Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Environ Int, 34, 1092-1096.

20. Mariani, R.L., Jorge, M.P., Pereira, S.S., Melione, L.P., Carvalho-Oliveira, R., Ma, T.H., and Saldiva, P.H. (2009) Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: a preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Environ Pollut, 157, 1767-1770.

21. Meireles, J., Rocha, R., Costa, A., and Cerqueira, E. (2009) Genotoxic effects of vehicle traffic pollution as evaluated by micronuclei test in tradescantia (Trad-MCN). Mutat Res, 675, 46-50.

22. Savoia, E.J.L., Domingos, M., Guimaraes, E.T., Brumati, F., and Saldiva, P.H.N. (2009) Biomonitoring genotoxic risks under the urban weather conditions and polluted atmosphere in Santo Andre, SP, Brazil, through Trad-MCN bioassay. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 72, 255-260.

23. Ma, T.H., Cabrera, G.L., Chen, R., Gill, B.S., Sandhu, S.S., Vandenberg, A.L., and Salamone, M.F. (1994) Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay. Mutat Res, 310, 221-230.






База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка