Agricultural insect pests in Orthoptera




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Agricultural insect pests in Orthoptera

(Grass hopper, Locust, Crickets)

Usually median or large sized insects, Head hypognathous types, winged, brachypterous, or apterous. Antennae almost filiform, chewing mouthpart , Hind leg usually enlarged and modified for jumping, coxae small and some what separated, . Tarsi 3 or 4 segments rarely with or fewer than 3 segments. Forewings tegmina, narrow and straight, cerci usually short and almost unregimented. Specialized auditory and stimulatory organ developed. Prothorax enlarged metamorphosis gradual.









Key to the suborder

1--Antennae about as long as longer than body, many segmented, tympanal organs when present, on fore tibiae ------------------------------S. O.Ensifera

--- Antennae shorter, with than 30 segments, Tympanal organs when present at base of abdomen ----------------------------------------------------S. O. Caelifera

Sub-order:--Ensifera.

(Long Horned Insects)

Key to the super families.

1-- Tarsi 4--jointed, at least on middle and hind legs--Tittigonoidea

----Tarsi 3-jointed ------------------------------------------------Grylloidea



Superfamily: -- Grylloidea

Key to the families

--- Fore legs adapted for digging, ovipositor vestigial ---Gryllotapidae

--- Fore legs normal, ovipositor elongate --------------------Gryllidae



Fam. Gryllotalipidae.

Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa


www.alkherat.com






Fam. Gryllidae




Liogryllus bimaculatus

Gryllus bimaculatus


species.wikimedia.org






Gryllus domesticus

www.apus.ru






Sub Order . Caelifera

(Short horned)

Represented in S .A. by one superfamil named acridoidea in which tarsi usually 3--jointed.

Key to the families

1-- With median dorsal elvated line on thepronotum,3 transsverse groove on the Pronotum ,fore wing narrow and margins straight ----------------. Acrididae.

---With out dorsal elvated line on the pronotum, 2 transverse grooves on the pronotum, fore wings with apical margin curved. ------ ---------Pyrgomorphidae .




Fam. Pyrgomorphidae.




Poekilocerus vittatus

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Fam. Acrididae




Schistocerca gregaria



www.le.ac.uk




Anacridium aegyptium

www.afblum.be






Euprepocnemis plorans

species.wikimedia.org






Heteracris littoralis


www.biologie.uni-osnabrueck.de




Aiolopus thalassinus

commons.wikimedia.org






Acrotylus insubricus


www.biologie.uni-osnabrueck.de




Sphingonotus savignyi



www.biologie.uni-osnabrueck.de




References

Daly, H.V., J.T. Doyen, P.Q. Ehrlich. (1978) Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity. McGraw-Hill. New York.

Borror, D.J., D.M. DeLong, and C.A.Triplehorn, (1981) An Introduction to The Study of Insects. 5th ed. Saunders. Philadelphia

Pfadt, R.E., (1985) Fundamentals of Applied Entomology. 4th Ed. McMillan Publishing Company. New York.




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