Additional File Anomura morphological characters and states




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Additional File 3.

Anomura morphological characters and states

1. Rostrum: distinct (0); absent or minute (1) (Dixon et al. 2003).

2. Rostral form: simple, elongate (0); triangular or subtriangular (2); broadly rounded, broadly and weakly subacute or lobate (3).

3. Median dorsal rostral process: absent (0); present (1). The median dorsal rostral process is a feature of Lithodes, and for convenience, is often referred to as the rostrum in taxonomic literature. The true rostrum in Lithodes is a simple spine often termed the ‘ventral rostral spine’ for taxonomic purposes (Ahyong 2010)

4. Carapace margins: indistinct (0); distinctly defined (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

5. Carapace regions (hepatic, gastric, cardiac, branchial): undefined (0); weakly well defined (1); distinctly delineated (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

6. Cervical groove: present (0); obsolete or absent (1).

7. Carapace surface spination: unarmed or with few scattered spines (0); densely spinose (1).

8. Carapace proportions: elongate (0); as long as wide to wider than long (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

9. Anterior portion of carapace: well calcified throughout (0); moderately or partially calcified (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

10. Posterior portion of carapace: well-calcified (0); soft or poorly calcified (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

11. Carapace dorsoventral shape: subcylindrical (0); depressed (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

12. Carapace dorsal outline: subquadrate (0); ovate (2); subtriangular (3).

13. Branchiostegites: fully calcified (0); partially calcified (1); membranous (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

14. Carapace anterolateral spine: absent (0); present (1) (McLaughlin et al., 2007).

15. Carapace supraorbital projections: absent (0); short tooth (1); long spine (2) (McLaughlin et al., 2007).

16. Second supraorbital spine: absent (0); present (1). The galatheid Sadayoshia, and eumunidid Eumunida have a second pair of supraorbital spines.

17. Carapace antennal spine: absent (0); present (1).

18. Carapace outer orbital spines: absent (0); present (1).

19. Carapace pterygostomian spine: absent (0); present (1).

20. Carapace linea anomurica/thalassinica: absent (0); present (1). The lineae anomurica and thalassinica are considered homologous (Ahyong & O’Meally 2004; McLaughlin et al. 2007)

21. Sternite-coxa articulation: regular (0); inverted (1) (Scholtz and Richter, 1995).

22. Thoracic sternal plastron: narrow (0); widening posteriorly (1) (Dixon et al. 2003).

23. Thoracic sternite 4 median fissure: absent (0); present (1). The median fissure of thoracic sternite 4 is a feature of several lithodid genera (Ahyong 2010).

24. Thoracic sternite 3: narrow, with bases of corresponding maxilliped 3 contacting or nearly so (0); broad, with bases of corresponding appendages distinctly separated (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

25. Thoracic sternite 3 anterior margin: rounded to angular (0); produced to prominent median projection (1); with small anterior point (2); transverse (3).

26. Thoracic sternite 3 with anterior ‘cliff’: absent (0); present (1) (Baba 2005).

27. Thoracic sternite 3 anterior margin of overhang: more or less straight, unbroken (0); with V-shaped emargination (Baba 2005).

28. Thoracic sternite 3 anterior margin spine row: absent (0); present (1) (Baba 2005).

29. Thoracic sternite 4 anterolateral spine or point: absent (0); present (1).

30. Thoracic sternite 6 anterior median lobe: obsolete (0); rounded (1); rectangular (2).

31. Fusion of thoracic sternite 6 (3rd pereopods) with sternite 5: completely fused (0); incompletely or indistinctly fused (1); not fused (2) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

32. Thoracic sternite 8 (5th pereopods): well developed (0); reduced (1); absent (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

33. Thoracic sternite 7/8: fused (0); articulated (1).

34.Thoracic sternite 8 and abdominal somite 1: separate (0); fused (1) (Dixon et al., 2003).

35. Female brood pouch: absent (0); present (1). The brood pouch is a feature of some diogenid hermit crabs.

36. Gill type: trichobranchiate (0); phyllobranchiate (1); dendrobranchiate (2).

37. Branchial condition: normal (0); reduced (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

38. Abdominal segmentation: somites distinct (0); somites ill-defined (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

39. Abdomen flexion (dorsovental): slightly or weakly flexed (0); strongly flexed and carried against the ventral thorax (at least in males) (1) (McLaughlin et al. 2007).

40. Abdomen condition: straight (0); twisted (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

41. Abdominal calcification: strong with complete sternites (0); strong with incomplete sternites (1); weak with incomplete sternites (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

42. Pleonic hinges: weak (0); strong (1).

43. Abdominal pleura: prominent (0); reduced (1); absent (Schnabel et al. 2011).

44. Abdominal somite 1 overlapping lobes: absent (0); present (1) (Dixon et al. 2003).

45. Abdominal tergite 1: well calcified (0); partially calcified (1); chitinous or membranous (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

46. Abdominal pleuron 2: not overlapping adjacent pleura (0); overlapping adjacent pleura (1). The expanded pleuron 2, overlapping adjacent pleura is a synapomorphy of Caridea.

47. Abdominal tergite 2 division: undivided (0); five plates (1); absent (2); three plates comprising marginal and fused median and submedian plates (3); three plates comprised of free median plate and fused median and submedian plates (4). The plate divisions reflect differences among lithodid genera (Ahyong 2010).

48. Abdominal somite 5 pleuron: well-developed (0); reduced (1); absent (2).

49. Telson proportions: distinctly longer than wide (0); as wide as long (1); wider than long (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

50. Telson shape: triangular or subtriangular (0); subquadrate to linguiform (1); subsemicircular (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

51. Telson sexual dimorphism: weak or absent (0); distinct (1).

52. Telson dorsal surface: undivided (0); divided into multiple small plates (1); divided by longitudinal suture into two plates (2); divided transversely (3) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

53. Telson terminal margin: entire (0); with median cleft or concavity (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

54. Telson stretch receptor: absent (0); present (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995; Paul 2003).

55. Uropods: present (0); absent (1).

56. Uropod rasp: absent (0); present (1).

57. Uropod shape: foliaceous, forming tail fan (0); styliform, not forming tail fan (1); short, bulbous (2) (Dixon et al. 2003; Ahyong & O’Meally 2004; McLaughlin et al. 2007).

58. Eyes: well-developed (0); absent or vestigial (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

59. Eye mobility: movable (0); immovable (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

60. Ocular scales spination: simple (0); multispinose (1); bifid (2).

61. Orbit: present (0); very slight or absent (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

62. Ocular peduncle setation: glabrous or sparsely setose (0); with ring of 'eye lashes' surrounding cornea (1); with dorsal field of dense setae (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

63. Ocular peduncle spines: absent (0); present (1).

64. Eyestalk length: squat (0); long, slender (1).

65. Ocular peduncle shape: cylindrical (0); dorsoventrally flattened (1); laterally compressed (2).

66. Ocular acicles: absent (0); present (1) (McLaughlin et al., 2007).

67. Mandibular cutting edge: chitinous (0); calcified (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

68. Mandibular dentition: smooth (0); strongly toothed (1); feebly toothed, tridentate (2).

69. Mandibular palp: three-segmented (0); two-segmented (1); absent (2).

70. Maxillule endopod segmentation: two (0); one (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

71. Maxillule endopod external lobe: vestigial or absent (0); prominent (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

72. Caridean lobe: absent (0); present (1).

73. Maxilliped 1 exopod flagellum: well-developed (0); absent or reduced (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

74. Maxilliped epipod 1: absent (0); present.

75. Maxilliped epipod 2: absent (0); present.

76. Maxilliped 3 form: pediform (0); broadly expanded or operculate (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

77. Maxilliped 3 crista dentata: well developed (0); weakly developed or absent (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

78. Maxilliped 3 merus form: elongate, cylindrical (0); elongate, rectilinear compressed (1); with wide flange (2); elongate, triangular, compressed (3).

79. Maxilliped 3 carpal distal projection: short or absent (0); long, prominent (Boyko 2002)

80. Maxilliped 3 exopod flagellum: present (0); absent (1).

81. Maxilliped 3 crista dentata accessory tooth: absent (0); present (1) (Dixon et al. 2003).

82. Maxilliped 3 epipod: present (0); absent (1).

83. Antennular basal article: simple, not notably expanded or enlarged (0); notably expanded or enlarged (1).

84. Antennular flagella: straight (0); strongly curved (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

85. Antennular flagella annulus proportions: annuli subequal (0); annuli wider than long (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995; Dixon et al. 2003).

86. Antennular flagella length: longer than antennular peduncle (0); similar to antennular peduncle (1); shorter than peduncle (2) (Dixon et al. 2003).

87. Antennular peduncle shape: Z-shaped (0); straight (1) (Dixon et al., 2003).

88. Antennular outer flagellum: basal segments free (0); some basal segments fused (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

89. Antennular upper flagellum termination: tapering (0); blunt, stick-like (1).

90. Antenna article 1 spine ventral to dorsodistal angle: absent (0); present (1) (Boyko & Harvey 2009).

91. Antenna position: not excluded from orbit (0); excluded from orbit (1).

92. Antennal basal article position: not in notch (0); in carapace notch (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

93. Antennal peduncle segmentation: articles 2 and 3 indistinctly fused (0); articles 2 and 3 free (1); 2 and 3 indistinguishably fused (2) The antennal articles are free in most anomurans, but galatheoids have articles 2 and 3 indistinguishably fused, and in aeglids, articles 2 and 3 are immovably fused, but with the demarcation evident.

94. Basal antennal article: movable, not fused to carapace or epistome (0), immovable, fused to carapace or epistome (1).

95. Antennal gland position: ventral (0); lateral (1).

96. Scaphocerite: absent (0); well-developed (1); minute (2).

97. Scaphocerite mobility: articulated (0); fused to peduncle (1). In most taxa having a scaphocerite, the articulation is free. However, in aeglids and kiwaids, the scaphocerite appears to be present but immovably fused to the antennal peduncle.

98. Pereopod 1 condition: chelate (0); subchelate (1); simple (2).

99. Pereopod 1 symmetry: equal or subequal (0); left distinctly larger (1); right distinctly larger (2).

100. Pereopod 1 chela: swollen, cross-section subcylindrical to ovate (0); compressed, flattened (1).

101. Pereopod 1 terminus of dactylus and pollex: both corneous (0); both calcified (1); one cheliped with corneous and one with calcified terminus (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

102. P1 dactylus apex: pointed (0); rounded (1).

103. Pereopod 2 condition: semichelate (0); simple (1); chelate (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

104. Pereopod 2 merus setal row: absent (0); present (1) (Dixon et al. 2003).

105. Pereopod 2–3 dactyli: sub-conical with subcircular cross-section (0); laterally compressed and dorsoventrally expanded (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

106. Pereopod 2–4 dactyl corneous apical claws: present (0); absent (1).

107. Pereopod 3 condition: chelate (0); simple (1).

108. Pereopod 4 condition: simple (0); subchelate (1); chelate (2).

109. Pereopod 4 size: normal, similar to preceding limb (0); strongly reduced (1).

110. Pereopod 4 preungal process: absent (0); small, inconspicuous (1); prominent (2).

111. Pereopod 4 merus lateral surface: calcified (0); decalcified (1).

112. Pereopod 4–5 rasp: absent (0); present (1).

113. Pereopod 5 termination: simple or subchelate (0); chelate (1).

114. Pereopod 5 dactyl scale-like teeth: absent (0); present (1).

115. Male pleopod pairing: paired (0); unpaired (1).

116. Male pleopod 1: present (0); absent (1).

117. Male pleopod 1 rami: biramous (0); uniramous (1).

118. Male pleopod 2: present (0); vestigial or absent (1) (McLaughlin et al. 2007).

119. Male pleopods 3–4: present (0); vestigial or absent (1).

120. Male sexual tube: absent (0); present (1).

121. Female paired pleopods 1: absent (0); present (1).

122. Female pleopods 2: present (0); absent (1) (McLaughlin et al. 2007).

123. Female pleopods 2 pairing: symmetrical paired (0); asymmetrically paired (1); unpaired (2).

124. Female pleopods 3–4 development: biramous (0); uniramous (1).

125. Female pleopods 3: paired (0); unpaired (1); absent (2).

126. Female pleopods 4: paired (0); unpaired (1); absent (2).

127. Female pleopod 5: paired (0); unpaired (1); vestigial or absent (2).

128. Development: indirect (0); direct (1) (Scholtz & Richter 1995).

129. Spawning: broadcast (0); incubated (1).

130. Sperm acrosome shape: spherical to ovoid (0); elongated (1); depressed (2) (Jamieson and Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

131. Acrosome position relative to cytoplasm: acrosome vesicle not embedded in cytoplasm (0); acrosome vesicle embedded in cytoplasm (1) (Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

132. Acrosome ray zone: absent (0); present (1).

133. Microtubular arms: nuclear origin (0); cytoplasmic origin (1); absent (2) (Tudge 1997).

134. Spermatozoal number of external (microtubular) arms: 3 (0); 4 or more (1); 1 or 2 (2) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

135. Ornamentation of perforatorial chamber wall: walls smooth (0); with shallow corrugations or prominent longitudinal septa (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

136. Microvillar projections in base of acrosomal chamber: absent (0); present (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

137. Operculum perforation: imperforate (0); centrally perforate (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

138. Reticulated acrosome zones: absent (0); present (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

139. Inner acrosome zone: divided (0); entire (1); absent (2) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

140. Posterior perforatorial ring: absent (0); present (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

141. Tripartite spermatophore (ampulla, stalk and pedestal): absent (0); present (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

142. Spermatophore accessory ampullae: present (0); absent (1) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

143. Form of stalk in pedunculate spermatophore: spermatophore tubular or capsular (0); pedunculate with small pseudostalk (1); pedunculate with short, thick stalk (2); pedunculate with long, thin stalk (3) (Jamieson & Tudge 2000; Tudge et al. 2001; Tudge & Scheltinga 2002).

144. Zoea 1 carapace posterolateral spine: absent (0); present (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

145. Zoea 1 posterodorsal and posteroventral teeth: absent (0); present (1) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

146. Zoeal mandibles: similar (0); markedly asymmetrical (1).

147. Zoea 1 antennular peduncle: unsegmented (0); segmented (1). The antennule is segmented in the chirostylids, lomisids and some lithodids, probably due to their abbreviated development in which they hatch at an advanced stage (Cormie 1993; McLaughlin et al. 2003; Clark & Ng 2008).

148. Zoea 1 antennal scaphocerite: absent (0); present (1).

149. Zoea 1 antenna endopod: 0–1 terminal plumose seta (0); 2 terminal long plumose setae (1); 3 terminal plumose setae (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

150. Zoea 1 mandibular palp: absent or a small bud (0); distinct (1).

151. Zoea 1 maxillule basial endite stout cuspidate setae: absent (0); two (1); three or more (2) (Schnabel et al. 2011).

152. Zoea 1 maxillule endopod segmentation: unsegmented (0); two-segmented (1); three-segmented (2).

153. Anomuran hair (seta): absent (0); present (1).

154. Zoea 1 paired telson lateral spines: absent (0); one (1); two (2); three (3); more than 10 (4). Lateral spines on the telson are nearly always absent, with the exception of Lepidopa and Galathea, each of which have one pair of spines. Chirostylidae, however, have between 2 and 10 pairs of spines along the lateral margins.

155. Zoea 1 uropods: uniramous (0); biramous (1); absent (2).

156. Zoeal stages: abbreviated, 2 zoeal stages (0); 3 or 4 zoeal stages (1); 5 or more zoeal stages (2).

REFERENCES CITED IN CHARACTER LIST


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SOURCES OF LARVAL AND SPERMATOZOAL DATA


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